Astuto, J., & Allen, L. (2016). Improving school readiness for children living in urban poverty through home-based intervention: Study 2. Unpublished manuscript submitted to HomVEE in July 2016 and July 2017.

Citation Year
Used in Implementation Reports
Study Participants

Families were eligible to participate if their children were ages 18 to 30 months, the family was Spanish speaking, and the family was within 100 percent of the federal poverty level and eligible for government assistance programs (including WIC, Medicaid, and SNAP). Most families were referred to the study through a waitlist for a program at a community based organization that serves primarily low-income, immigrant, Spanish-speaking families and delivers the ParentChild+ model. All of the parents identified as Latino and were born outside of the United States. On average, children were 2.4 years old at the start of the study and 3.8 years old at the end of the study.


Large city in the northeastern United States

Home Visiting Services

At each home visit, home visitors brought a new book or toy for the family and used it to model reading and verbal interactions and teach parents about age-appropriate expectations and interactions. Families received home visits twice per week for 46 weeks over a two-year period, and home visits were delivered in the parents’ primary language. Families also received a $15 incentive for participating in each data collection interview.

Comparison Conditions

Participants in the comparison condition participated in data collection interviews and received a $25 incentive for each interview.

Staff Characteristics and Training

Home visitors were matched to families based on culture and language.

Author Affiliation

The study authors are not developers of this model.

Funding Sources

PEW Charitable Funds, Heising-Simons Foundation, Edith Glick Shoolman Foundation, and Edward & Ellen Roche Relief Foundation

Study Reg

Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: None found. Study registration was assessed by HomVEE beginning with the 2014 review.

Confounding Factors
Baseline Equivalence
Established on race/ethnicity and SES; not established on baseline measures of the outcomes in the analyzed sample
Screening Decision
Passes screens
Design Detail
Randomized controlled trial