Baker, A. J. L., & Piotrkowski, C. S. (1996). Parents and children through the school years: The effects of the home instruction program for preschool youngsters. New York: National Council of Jewish Women, Center for the Child.

Citation Year
Additional Source
Used in Implementation Reports
Study Participants

This study took place in two unnamed cities in Arkansas and New York. In Arkansas, families were recruited by word of mouth and with flyers. In New York, students were recruited through the city’s Public School Early Childhood Center. The participants in the two cities were quite different. In Arkansas, 93% of the participants were African American, 6% were white, 0% were Hispanic, 1% were another ethnicity, 42% received public assistance as their primary source of income, and 37% had not completed high school. In New York, 27% of the participants were African American, 24% were white, 30% were Hispanic, 19% were another ethnicity, 29% received public assistance as their primary source of income, and 26% had not completed high school.


The study was conducted in two unnamed cities, one in Arkansas and one in New York. The Arkansas city was relatively small and the school district served only 6,200 students, but the New York city has a population of 200,000 and is the fourth-largest in the state.

Home Visiting Services

The model was in line with the HIPPY model. Program recipients received services for two years. In each year, there were 30 weeks of scheduled activities that coincided with the school year. Families participated in two 30- to 60-minute home visits per month and two group meetings per month. The curriculum was available in both English and Spanish.

Comparison Conditions

Comparison families did not receive any of the HIPPY services. In the New York site, all study children were in preschool during the first study year and kindergarten during the second year. In the Arkansas site, the comparison children did not receive any preschool services. Most children at this site entered kindergarten in the second year of the study, but 8% were late kindergarten starters so were one year behind the other participants in formal schooling.

Staff Characteristics and Training

Program participants were visited by paraprofessionals from their communities. These paraprofessionals received weekly trainings and were supervised by a HIPPY program coordinator with professional training.

Author Affiliation

None of the study authors are developers of this model.

Funding Sources

The David and Lucile Packard Foundation

Confounding Factors
Baseline Equivalence
Established on race/ethnicity, SES, and outcomes (for all included samples).
Not applicable
Screening Decision
Passes screens
Design Detail
Randomized controlled trial (site B, Cohort II)