Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., Grant, H., & Ridder, E. M. (2005). Early start evaluation report. Christchurch, NZ: Early Start Project Ltd.

Citation Year
Additional Source
Used in Implementation Reports
Study Participants

Nurses screened all families in the Christchurch area who had new infants. Screening included an 11-point assessment of family stress and an evaluation of the client's need for Early Start services. A total of 588 families were determined to be eligible and 443 families agreed to participate. Those 443 families were then randomly assigned to either the treatment or comparison group. The analysis sample consisted of 184 families in the treatment group and 207 in the comparison group. Approximately one quarter of the analysis sample was Māori, and weekly income in both the Early Start and comparison groups averaged about $340 per week (according to information provided by the authors). Results are reported as of the 36-month follow-up (certain outcomes have fewer than 391 respondents at this follow-up).


The study was conducted in Christchurch, New Zealand.

Home Visiting Services

Trained family support workers engaged in home visits to encourage positive family change in the following areas: child health, maternal well-being, parenting skills, family economic functioning, and crisis management. The services were tailored to each family’s particular circumstances. Initially, families received two hours of contact with a home visitor per week. Some families in crisis received more contact. The intensity of services decreased as families made progress. Once families became self-reliant, they received a home visit every three months.

Comparison Conditions

Comparison participants were not offered any services beyond what is typically available to families in the Christchurch, NZ area.

Staff Characteristics and Training

Family support workers must have a relevant educational background, awareness of cultural issues, experience dealing with high-risk families, and evidence of good interpersonal skills and sound judgment. They participated in a four-week training program and received regular supervision and support.

Author Affiliation

David M. Fergusson, a study author, is a board member of Early Start. Hildegard Grant, another study author, is the general manager of the program.

Funding Sources

Major funders are The Department of Child, Youth, and Family, Ministry of Health, Canterbury District Health Board, Christchurch City Council, Trustbank Community Trust and Health Research Council of New Zealand. Hyman Marks Trust, Mayor’s Welfare Fund, McKenzie Trust, Telecom New Zealand and UMC Ltd. provided other financial and non-financial support.

Confounding Factors
Baseline Equivalence
Established on race/ethnicity, SES, and outcomes
Screening Decision
Passes screens
Design Detail
Randomized controlled trial
General Effects Notes
Results for Māori subgroup
General Outcome Notes
Outcomes for Māori subgroup