Jones Harden, B., Chazan-Cohen, R., Raikes, H., & Vogel, C. (2012). Early Head Start home visitation: The role of implementation in bolstering program benefits. Journal of Community Psychology, 40(4), 438-455.
Citation Year
Additional Source
Used in Implementation Reports
Study Participants

This study relies on data from a randomized controlled trial of 17 Early Head Start (EHS) programs that began in 1995. Seven of the programs served clients through a home-based option (though other clients in other EHS options also received home visits) and are the focus of this report (EHS-HBO). The study randomly assigned 1,385 families, who applied to those seven programs, either to receive EHS-HBO or a comparison condition. This study included outcomes reported for the 2-, 3-, and 5-year-old follow-up, but to avoid overlap with other studies included in this report, only the 5-year results are reported here. For this follow-up, 928 parents (479 in EHS-HBO and 449 in the comparison group)1 provided data for parent interviews. Among parent interview participants, 47 percent were white, 24 percent were black, and 27 percent were Hispanic. Fewer than one in four parents had education beyond high school, and one in 10 were in families living above the poverty line; one-third to one-half of families were receiving welfare (AFDC) or Food Stamps.

1 Analytic sample sizes and characteristics obtained through correspondence with the authors.


The study was conducted in 17 EHS programs throughout the United States, including seven programs with home-based options, which are the focus of this report. Four programs were located in urban areas, and three programs were located in rural areas. The seven programs represented a mix of implementation timing; one early implementer had all EHS-HBO elements in place by 1997, and three later implementers had all elements in place by 1999; three programs did not have all elements in place by 1999. The early-implementing program had fully implemented both child and family development services early and continued to have those services in place in 1999.

Home Visiting Services

EHS-HBO services are intended to be delivered to study families via weekly home visits. Seventy percent of families in these programs received weekly visits during at least one of the first two follow-up periods, and 26 percent received such services throughout both periods. Over the first two years, families in the home-based option received an average of 71 visits. Typical home visits are at least one hour long. Topics for home visits included child growth and development, child play activities, housing issues, and parent-child communication.

Comparison Conditions

Control group families could not receive EHS-HBO services, but could receive other services available in their community.

Staff Characteristics and Training

Not specified

Author Affiliation

None of the study authors are developers of this model.

Funding Sources

Funder(s) not listed.

Confounding Factors
Baseline Equivalence
Established on race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status; outcome not assessable at baseline.
Not applicable
Screening Decision
Passes screens
Design Detail
Randomized controlled trial