Barnet, B., Rapp, T., DeVoe, M., & Mullins, C. D. (2010). Cost-effectiveness of a motivational intervention to reduce rapid repeated childbearing in high-risk adolescent mothers: A rebirth of economic and policy considerations. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 164(4), 370-376.

Citation Year
Additional Source
Used in Implementation Reports
Study Participants

Pregnant teenagers were recruited from urban medical clinics that provided prenatal care to women without insurance or who were insured by Medicaid. The teens were assigned randomly to one of two intervention groups (CAMI and CAMI+) or a control group. Initially 235 pregnant teenagers were randomly assigned, 167 to the treatment groups (87 to CAMI and 80 to CAMI+) and 68 to the comparison group. Most were poor, African American, and unmarried. Mothers ranged in age from 12 to 18 years old at intake (24 weeks or more gestation). Ninety-seven percent of the mothers were African American. Participants were followed for 27 months.


The study was conducted in Baltimore, Maryland.

Home Visiting Services

The intervention included two home-based treatment groups: CAMI and CAMI+. The CAMI intervention began after the delivery of the participant’s child and sessions were held every three months until the child turned 2 years old. A participant assigned to the CAMI group met with her counselor to assess her current behaviors and to receive “motivational interview counseling” that encouraged the participant to use contraception and avoid future rapid subsequent pregnancies. The participant and counselor worked together to establish short- and long-term goals. Adolescents assigned to the CAMI+ intervention received all the services given to those in the CAMI group plus more intensive services. These services included additional monthly home visits with a CAMI counselor, which involved case management and education on effective parenting. Participants received a maximum of nine home visits by a CAMI counselor.

Comparison Conditions

Comparison group members received usual care at their prenatal care sites.

Staff Characteristics and Training

Trained community outreach workers (CAMI counselors) were African American paraprofessional women who were members of the communities where participants resided. The counselors were hired for their empathetic qualities and rapport with adolescents. Before the intervention, CAMI counselors received special training on motivational interviewing and the CAMI protocol. In the project’s first four months, the counselors met biweekly to further hone their motivational interviewing skills (Barnet et al. 2009).

Author Affiliation

Beth Barnet, a study author, is a developer of this model.

Funding Sources

Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Population Affairs, Office of Adolescent Pregnancy Programs, Grant APRPA006010.

Confounding Factors
Baseline Equivalence
Not applicable
Not applicable
Screening Decision
Passes screens
Design Detail
Randomized controlled trial
General Effects Notes
Results for CAMI+
General Outcome Notes
Results for CAMI+