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Olds, D. L., Holmberg, J. R., Donelan-McCall, N., Luckey, D. W., Knudtson, M. D., & Robinson, J. (2014). Effects of home visits by paraprofessionals and by nurses on children follow-up of a randomized trial at ages 6 and 9 years. JAMA Pediatrics, 168(2), 114-121.

Model(s) Reviewed: Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)® , NFP with Nurse Home Visitors - Mothers with low psychological resources subgroup , NFP with Paraprofessional Home Visitors , NFP with Paraprofessional Home Visitors - Mothers with low psychological resources subgroup
Manuscript screening details
Screening decision Screening conclusion
Passes screens Eligible for review
Study design details
Rating Design Attrition Baseline equivalence Reassignment Confounding factors
High Randomized controlled trial Low Established on race; established on SES; outcome measures not assessable at baseline None None
Notes:

footnote218

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In the full sample, the comparison of nurse home visiting to no home visiting at the 9-year follow-up rates moderate for three outcomes with high attrition: total behavioral problems, internalizing behavior, and externalizing behavior. Outcomes for the low psychological resources subgroup rate moderate because attrition information was not reported and was not available from the author.

Study characteristics
Study participants Pregnant women were referred to the study by staff at clinics serving low-income women in Denver, Colorado. Women were eligible to be included in the study if they were eligible for Medicaid or were uninsured, and had no previous live births. Women were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions: a control condition, paraprofessional home visiting, and nurse home visiting. Randomization occurred within strata defined by maternal race/ethnicity, maternal age, and maternal residence (geography).A total of 735 women were randomized: 255 into the control group, 245 into the paraprofessional home visiting group, and 235 into the nurse home visiting group. A total of 47.3 to 56 percent of children in the final analytic sample were boys (depending on treatment condition and follow-up period). A total of 12.9 to 17.6 percent of women in the final analytic sample were African American, 42.4 to 48.6 percent were Latino, and 33.7 to 40.1 percent were white. On average, at enrollment women had completed 11 years of school and were 19 or 20 years old. Average annual household incomes ranged from $12,308 to $13,561 and census tract poverty ranged from 20 to 21 percent. The percentage of women with low psychological resources ranged from 32.8 to 47.8.
Setting Denver, Colorado
Intervention services This study had two treatment groups, each of which was compared to the control condition. The first group received home visits from paraprofessionals, the second group received home visits from nurses. Both groups also received free developmental screenings and referrals. Home visits began during pregnancy and lasted until the child's second birthday. Both the nurse and paraprofessional home visits had the same goals: to improve pregnancy outcomes through improved maternal health behaviors, improve child health and development through improved parental care, and assist mothers with planning future pregnancies and pursuing education and employment.
Comparison conditions The comparison group did not receive any home visits, but received free developmental screenings and referrals when the child was 6, 12, 15, 21, and 24 months old.
Staff characteristics and training Nurse home visitors were required to have a bachelor's of science in nursing and nursing experience with maternal and child health or in a community setting; paraprofessional home visitors were required to have a high school education with no college work in the helping professions.
Funding sources The Colorado Trust: grants 99030, 2001-049, and 99012; the Administration for Children and Families: grants 90PD0232 and 90XP0017; the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention: grant 2004-52854-CO-JS; the US Department ofJustice: grant 2005-MU-MU-001; the National Institute of Mental Health: grants 1R01MH069891, 1R01MH62485, and Senior Research Scientist Award 1-K05-MH01382.
Author affiliation David L. Olds, a study author, is a founder of this model.
Study Registration:

Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00438282, NCT00438594. Study registration was assessed by HomVEE beginning with the 2014 review.

Findings details

Child development and school readiness
Rating Outcome measure Effect Sample Timing of follow-up Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
High Externalizing - 6 year, treatment 1 vs. 3
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (6 year follow up, Denver) 6 years 396 children Unadjusted mean = 0.08 Unadjusted mean = 0.10 Mean difference = -0.03 Study reported = 0.76 Not statistically significant, p = 0.42

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

High Internalizing - 6 year, treatment 1 vs. 3
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (6 year follow up, Denver) 6 years 396 children Unadjusted mean = 0.01 Unadjusted mean = 0.03 Mean difference = -0.02 Study reported = 0.42 Not statistically significant, p = 0.28

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

High Total behavioral problems - 6 year, treatment 1 vs. 3
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (6 year follow up, Denver) 6 years 396 children Unadjusted mean = 0.04 Unadjusted mean = 0.08 Mean difference = -0.04 Study reported = 0.45 Not statistically significant, p = 0.08

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

High Attention dysfunction - 9 year, treatment 1 vs. 3
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (9 year follow up, Denver) 9 years 378 children Unadjusted mean = 0.02 Unadjusted mean = 0.05 Mean difference = -0.04 Study reported = 0.34 Not statistically significant, p = 0.07

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

High Externalizing - 6 year, treatment 1 vs. 2
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Paraprofessional home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (6 year follow up, Denver) 6 years 411 children Unadjusted mean = 0.09 Unadjusted mean = 0.10 Mean difference = -0.01 Study reported = 0.87 Not statistically significant, p = 0.66

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

High Internalizing - 6 year, treatment 1 vs. 2
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Paraprofessional home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (6 year follow up, Denver) 6 years 411 children Unadjusted mean = 0.04 Unadjusted mean = 0.03 Mean difference = 0.01 Study reported = 1.35 Not statistically significant, p = 0.60

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

High Total behavioral problems - 6 year, treatment 1 vs. 2
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Paraprofessional home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (6 year follow up, Denver) 6 years 411 children Unadjusted mean = 0.08 Unadjusted mean = 0.08 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 1.04 Not statistically significant, p = 0.91

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

High Attention dysfunction - 9 year, treatment 1 vs. 2
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Paraprofessional home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (9 year follow up, Denver) 9 years 394 children Unadjusted mean = 0.03 Unadjusted mean = 0.05 Mean difference = -0.03 Study reported = 0.53 Not statistically significant, p = 0.22

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

High Externalizing - 9 year, treatment 1 vs. 2
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Paraprofessional home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (9 year follow up, Denver) 9 years 394 children Unadjusted mean = 0.14 Unadjusted mean = 0.10 Mean difference = 0.04 Study reported = 1.34 Not statistically significant, p = 0.33

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

High Internalizing - 9 year, treatment 1 vs. 2
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Paraprofessional home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (9 year follow up, Denver) 9 years 394 children Unadjusted mean = 0.08 Unadjusted mean = 0.08 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.96 Not statistically significant, p = 0.90

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

High Total behavioral problems - 9 year, treatment 1 vs. 2
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Paraprofessional home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (9 year follow up, Denver) 9 years 394 children Unadjusted mean = 0.09 Unadjusted mean = 0.10 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.97 Not statistically significant, p = 0.94

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Moderate Any therapeutic services - 6 year, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 3
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (6 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 6 years 141 children Unadjusted mean = 0.17 Unadjusted mean = 0.36 Mean difference = -0.19 HomeVEE calculated = -0.63 Statistically significant, p = 0.01

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Moderate Arithmetic achievement standard score - 6 year, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 3
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (6 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 6 years 141 children Adjusted mean = 94.27 Adjusted mean = 92.66 Mean difference = 1.61 Study reported = 0.13 Not statistically significant, p = 0.44
Moderate Behvioral regulation in testing - 6 year, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 3
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (6 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 6 years 140 children Adjusted mean = 99.13 Adjusted mean = 97.16 Mean difference = 1.97 Study reported = 0.23 Not statistically significant, p = 0.18
Moderate Dysregulated aggression - 6 year, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 3
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (6 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 6 years 141 children Adjusted mean = 100.40 Adjusted mean = 103.26 Mean difference = -2.86 Study reported = -0.26 Not statistically significant, p = 0.12

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Moderate Intellectual functioning - 6 year, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 3
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (6 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 6 years 141 children Adjusted mean = 96.58 Adjusted mean = 94.85 Mean difference = 1.73 Study reported = 0.16 Not statistically significant, p = 0.35
Moderate Percent incoherent stories - 6 year, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 3
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (6 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 6 years 141 children Adjusted mean = 58.53 Adjusted mean = 65.63 Mean difference = -7.10 Study reported = -0.23 Not statistically significant, p = 0.17

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Moderate Reading achievement standard score - 6 year, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 3
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (6 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 6 years 141 children Adjusted mean = 95.00 Adjusted mean = 93.40 Mean difference = 1.60 Study reported = 0.13 Not statistically significant, p = 0.46
Moderate Receptive language - 6 year, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 3
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (6 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 6 years 141 children Adjusted mean = 93.31 Adjusted mean = 90.56 Mean difference = 2.75 Study reported = 0.21 Not statistically significant, p = 0.16
Moderate Receptive language - averaged over 2, 4, and 6 years, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 3
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (6 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 6 years 141 children Adjusted mean = 92.96 Adjusted mean = 89.01 Mean difference = 3.95 Study reported = 0.30 Statistically significant, p = 0.01
Moderate Sustained attention - 6 year, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 3
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (6 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 6 years 138 children Adjusted mean = 9.28 Adjusted mean = 8.32 Mean difference = 0.96 Study reported = 0.33 Statistically significant, p = 0.05
Moderate Externalizing - 9 year, treatment 1 vs. 3
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (9 year follow up, Denver) 9 years 378 children Unadjusted mean = 0.07 Unadjusted mean = 0.10 Mean difference = -0.04 Study reported = 0.64 Not statistically significant, p = 0.25

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Moderate Internalizing - 9 year, treatment 1 vs. 3
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (9 year follow up, Denver) 9 years 378 children Unadjusted mean = 0.04 Unadjusted mean = 0.08 Mean difference = -0.05 Study reported = 0.44 Not statistically significant, p = 0.08

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Moderate Total behavioral problems - 9 year, treatment 1 vs. 3
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (9 year follow up, Denver) 9 years 378 children Unadjusted mean = 0.07 Unadjusted mean = 0.10 Mean difference = -0.02 Study reported = 0.76 Not statistically significant, p = 0.46

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Moderate Any therapeutic services - 9 year, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 3
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (9 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 9 years 127 children Unadjusted mean = 0.35 Unadjusted mean = 0.30 Mean difference = 0.05 HomeVEE calculated = 0.15 Not statistically significant, p = 0.51

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Moderate Arithmetic achievement standard score - 9 year, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 3
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (9 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 9 years 128 children Adjusted mean = 96.72 Adjusted mean = 96.53 Mean difference = 0.19 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant, p = 0.93
Moderate Arithmetic achievement standard score - averaged over 6 and 9 years, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 3
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (9 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 9 years 128 children Adjusted mean = 95.49 Adjusted mean = 94.60 Mean difference = 0.89 Study reported = 0.07 Not statistically significant, p = 0.63
Moderate Grade retention - 9 year, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 3
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (9 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 9 years 127 children Unadjusted mean = 0.13 Unadjusted mean = 0.09 Mean difference = 0.05 HomeVEE calculated = 0.29 Not statistically significant, p = 0.38

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Moderate Reading achievement standard score - 9 year, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 3
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (9 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 9 years 128 children Adjusted mean = 97.20 Adjusted mean = 94.60 Mean difference = 2.60 Study reported = 0.21 Not statistically significant, p = 0.22
Moderate Reading achievement standard score - averaged over 6 and 9 years, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 3
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (9 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 9 years 128 children Adjusted mean = 96.10 Adjusted mean = 94.00 Mean difference = 2.10 Study reported = 0.17 Not statistically significant, p = 0.27
Moderate Special education/remedial services - 9 year, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 3
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (9 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 9 years 127 children Unadjusted mean = 0.19 Unadjusted mean = 0.34 Mean difference = -0.14 HomeVEE calculated = -0.46 Not statistically significant, p = 0.06

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Moderate Sustained attention - 9 year, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 3
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (9 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 9 years 126 children Adjusted mean = 10.12 Adjusted mean = 9.17 Mean difference = 0.95 Study reported = 0.33 Not statistically significant, p = 0.08
Moderate Sustained attention - averaged over 4, 6, and 9 years, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 3
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (9 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 9 years 126 children Adjusted mean = 9.83 Adjusted mean = 8.80 Mean difference = 1.03 Study reported = 0.36 Statistically significant, p = 0.01
Moderate Visual attention/task switching errors - 9 year, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 3
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (9 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 9 years 126 children Adjusted mean = 0.89 Adjusted mean = 1.16 Mean difference = -0.27 Study reported = -0.25 Not statistically significant, p = 0.16

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Moderate Working memory errors - 9 year, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 3
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (9 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 9 years 123 children Adjusted mean = 6.13 Adjusted mean = 5.47 Mean difference = 0.66 Study reported = 0.26 Not statistically significant, p = 0.15

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Moderate Any therapeutic services - 6 year, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 2
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Paraprofessional home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (6 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 6 years 165 children Unadjusted mean = 0.22 Unadjusted mean = 0.36 Mean difference = -0.13 HomeVEE calculated = -0.40 Not statistically significant, p = 0.07

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Moderate Arithmetic achievement standard score - 6 year, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 2
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Paraprofessional home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (6 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 6 years 164 children Adjusted mean = 93.04 Adjusted mean = 92.66 Mean difference = 0.38 Study reported = 0.03 Not statistically significant, p = 0.85
Moderate Behvioral regulation in testing - 6 year, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 2
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Paraprofessional home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (6 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 6 years 164 children Adjusted mean = 99.89 Adjusted mean = 97.16 Mean difference = 2.73 Study reported = 0.32 Statistically significant, p = 0.05
Moderate Dysregulated aggression - 6 year, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 2
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Paraprofessional home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (6 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 6 years 162 children Adjusted mean = 99.34 Adjusted mean = 103.26 Mean difference = -3.92 Study reported = -0.36 Statistically significant, p = 0.02

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Moderate Intellectual functioning - 6 year, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 2
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Paraprofessional home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (6 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 6 years 166 children Adjusted mean = 96.81 Adjusted mean = 94.85 Mean difference = 1.96 Study reported = 0.18 Not statistically significant, p = 0.26
Moderate Percent incoherent stories - 6 year, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 2
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Paraprofessional home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (6 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 6 years 162 children Adjusted mean = 49.94 Adjusted mean = 65.63 Mean difference = -15.69 Study reported = -0.50 Statistically significant, p = 0.00

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Moderate Reading achievement standard score - 6 year, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 2
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Paraprofessional home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (6 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 6 years 164 children Adjusted mean = 96.16 Adjusted mean = 93.40 Mean difference = 2.76 Study reported = 0.22 Not statistically significant, p = 0.17
Moderate Receptive language - 6 year, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 2
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Paraprofessional home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (6 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 6 years 163 children Adjusted mean = 92.59 Adjusted mean = 90.56 Mean difference = 2.03 Study reported = 0.16 Not statistically significant, p = 0.28
Moderate Receptive language - averaged over 2, 4, and 6 years, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 2
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Paraprofessional home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (6 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 6 years 163 children Adjusted mean = 90.90 Adjusted mean = 89.01 Mean difference = 1.89 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant, p = 0.22
Moderate Sustained attention - 6 year, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 2
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Paraprofessional home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (6 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 6 years 160 children Adjusted mean = 8.71 Adjusted mean = 8.32 Mean difference = 0.39 Study reported = 0.13 Not statistically significant, p = 0.39
Moderate Any therapeutic services - 9 year, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 2
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Paraprofessional home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (9 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 9 years 155 children Unadjusted mean = 0.39 Unadjusted mean = 0.30 Mean difference = 0.09 HomeVEE calculated = 0.25 Not statistically significant, p = 0.23

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Moderate Arithmetic achievement standard score - 9 year, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 2
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Paraprofessional home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (9 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 9 years 156 children Adjusted mean = 97.11 Adjusted mean = 96.53 Mean difference = 0.58 Study reported = 0.05 Not statistically significant, p = 0.77
Moderate Arithmetic achievement standard score - averaged over 6 and 9 years, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 2
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Paraprofessional home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (9 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 9 years 156 children Adjusted mean = 95.07 Adjusted mean = 94.60 Mean difference = 0.47 Study reported = 0.04 Not statistically significant, p = 0.79
Moderate Grade retention - 9 year, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 2
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Paraprofessional home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (9 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 9 years 155 children Unadjusted mean = 0.11 Unadjusted mean = 0.09 Mean difference = 0.02 HomeVEE calculated = 0.15 Not statistically significant, p = 0.62

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Moderate Reading achievement standard score - 9 year, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 2
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Paraprofessional home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (9 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 9 years 156 children Adjusted mean = 97.24 Adjusted mean = 94.60 Mean difference = 2.64 Study reported = 0.21 Not statistically significant, p = 0.18
Moderate Reading achievement standard score - averaged over 6 and 9 years, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 2
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Paraprofessional home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (9 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 9 years 156 children Adjusted mean = 96.70 Adjusted mean = 94.00 Mean difference = 2.70 Study reported = 0.22 Not statistically significant, p = 0.13
Moderate Special education/remedial services - 9 year, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 2
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Paraprofessional home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (9 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 9 years 155 children Unadjusted mean = 0.32 Unadjusted mean = 0.34 Mean difference = -0.01 HomeVEE calculated = -0.03 Not statistically significant, p = 0.89

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Moderate Sustained attention - 9 year, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 2
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Paraprofessional home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (9 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 9 years 153 children Adjusted mean = 9.25 Adjusted mean = 9.17 Mean difference = 0.08 Study reported = 0.03 Not statistically significant, p = 0.86
Moderate Sustained attention - averaged over 4, 6, and 9 years, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 2
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Paraprofessional home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (9 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 9 years 153 children Adjusted mean = 9.21 Adjusted mean = 8.80 Mean difference = 0.41 Study reported = 0.14 Not statistically significant, p = 0.24
Moderate Visual attention/task switching errors - 9 year, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 2
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Paraprofessional home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (9 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 9 years 154 children Adjusted mean = 0.84 Adjusted mean = 1.16 Mean difference = -0.32 Study reported = -0.30 Not statistically significant, p = 0.08

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Moderate Working memory errors - 9 year, low psych resources, treatment 1 vs. 2
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Paraprofessional home visiting pregnancy to 2 years vs. comparison (9 year follow up, low psychological resources, Denver) 9 years 150 children Adjusted mean = 5.79 Adjusted mean = 5.47 Mean difference = 0.32 Study reported = 0.13 Not statistically significant, p = 0.46

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Outcome measure summary

Child development and school readiness
Outcome measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure

Attention dysfunction

Percent of children with attention dysfunction, as measured by the Conners' Continuous Performance Test and scores greater than 60 on the Clinical Confidence Index.

Child assessment

Norm-referenced measure

Externalizing

Percent of children with scores greater than clinical threshold for externalizing behavior. Assessed using parent scores from Child Behavior Checklist and teacher scores from Teacher's Report Form.

Teacher and parent report

Norm-referenced measure

Internalizing

Percent of children with scores greater than clinical threshold for internalizing behavior. Assessed using parent scores from Child Behavior Checklist and teacher scores from Teacher's Report Form.

Teacher and parent report

Norm-referenced measure

Total behavioral problems

Percent of children with scores greater than clinical threshold for total behavioral problems. Assessed using parent scores from Child Behavior Checklist and teacher scores from Teacher's Report Form.

Teacher and parent report

Norm-referenced measure

Any therapeutic services

Parental report on whether child ever received therapeutic services for any of the following: speech and language, cognitive delays, attention deficit and hyperactivity, or emotional problems.

Child assessment

Norm-referenced measure

Arithmetic achievement standard score

Average score on the Peabody Individual Achievement Test, which assesses reading, mathematics, and spelling ability in children.

Child assessment

Norm-referenced measure

Behvioral regulation in testing

Based on ratings from the child evaluators.

Child assessment

Norm-referenced measure

Dysregulated aggression

Average dysregulated aggression index based on coded children's responses to the MacArthur Story Stem Battery.

Child assessment

Norm-referenced measure

Externalizing

Percent of children with scores greater than clinical threshold for externalizing behavior. Assessed using parent scores from Child Behavior Checklist and teacher scores from Teacher's Report Form.

Teacher and parent report

Norm-referenced measure

Grade retention

Parent report of whether child had been retained in school.

Child assessment

Norm-referenced measure

Intellectual functioning

Average score on the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Mental Processing Composite. The mental processing composite includes measures of sequential and simultaneous processing, designed to elicit problem-solving and information processing styles while minimizing the role of language and verbal skills.

Child assessment

Norm-referenced measure

Internalizing

Percent of children with scores greater than clinical threshold for internalizing behavior. Assessed using parent scores from Child Behavior Checklist and teacher scores from Teacher's Report Form.

Teacher and parent report

Norm-referenced measure

Percent incoherent stories

Average score on percentage of incoherent story completion, based on coded children's responses to the MacArthur Story Stem Battery.

Child assessment

Norm-referenced measure

Reading achievement standard score

Average score on the Peabody Individual Achievement Test, which assesses reading, mathematics, and spelling ability in children.

Child assessment

Norm-referenced measure

Receptive language

Average score on Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, which assesses receptive vocabulary for Standard American English in young children.

Child assessment

Norm-referenced measure

Special education/remedial services

Parental report on whether child received any special education or remedial services in the first three years of elementary school.

Child assessment

Norm-referenced measure

Sustained attention

Average score on Leiter Sustained Attention Scale, which assesses skills in memory or attention in children.

Child assessment

Norm-referenced measure

Total behavioral problems

Percent of children with scores greater than clinical threshold for total behavioral problems. Assessed using parent scores from Child Behavior Checklist and teacher scores from Teacher's Report Form.

Teacher and parent report

Norm-referenced measure

Visual attention/task switching errors

Average score on the Trail Making Test, Part B.

Child assessment

Norm-referenced measure

Working memory errors

Average score on the Digit Span Task.

Child assessment

Norm-referenced measure