Study Detail

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Campbell, K. I., & Silva, P. A. (1997). Parents as first teachers pilot programme evaluation : Age three assessments. Final report to the ministry of education on the Dunedin and Gisborne/East coast areas. Wellington: Ministry of Education.

Model(s) Reviewed: Parents as First Teachers (New Zealand)
Study Screening Details
Screening Decision Screening Conclusion
Study passes screens Study Passes Screens
Study Design Details
Rating Design Attrition Baseline Equivalence Reassignment Confounding Factors
Moderate Randomized controlled trial Low Not established on race/ethnicity, SES, or outcomes None None
Notes:

footnote170

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

This study receives a mixed rating. All outcomes from the Gisborne/East Coast areas had high attrition and receive a low rating. Many of the outcomes from the Dunedin sample had low attrition and receive a moderate rating. Some of the Dunedin outcomes had high attrition or lacked the sample size information necessary to calculate attrition and receive a low rating (low-rated outcomes are not reported).

footnote171

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In order to receive a high rating, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with low attrition must control for race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and, if applicable, baseline outcomes if statistically significant differences exist between treatment and control groups. In this case, we had insufficient information to assess baseline equivalence on race/ethnicity, <abbr title="socioeconomic status">SES</abbr>, or outcomes in order to determine if there were statistically significant differences for which the authors should have controlled in analyses.

Study Characteristics
Study Participants The Parents as First Teachers (PAFT) pilot project was initiated in 1992–1993 in four areas of New Zealand: Whangarei, South Auckland, Gisbome, and Dunedin. This study reports on the Dunedin and Gisborne regions. The PAFT pilot project aimed to provide first-time parents in each of the four geographical areas with a variety of services, from the birth of their first child until the child was 3 years of age. Participants were randomly assigned to the program or comparison group. In Dunedin, 133 program families and 134 comparison families took part in the evaluation. In Gisborne, 108 program families and 100 comparison families took part in the evaluation.
Setting This study took place in two areas within New Zealand: Dunedin and Gisborne.
Home Visiting Services Trained parent educators provided monthly home visits, offering parenting education and guidance with the goal of increasing parents’ feelings of confidence and competence. The intervention included periodic child development screening and any necessary referrals, monthly group meetings, and access to resources at PAFT centers.
Comparison Conditions Comparison group families had annual contact with program staff, via mailings, to maintain contact and update addresses. 
Staff Characteristics and Training Parent educators had at least an undergraduate-level degree, had prior experience with children and parents, and were qualified in general or Plunket Society nursing or early childhood or primary teaching (or the equivalent). Initial training lasted two weeks and covered information on PAT, the home visits, conducting educationally focused parent meetings, empowering parents, encouraging parent-child interactions, sensory overload, avoiding dependency relationships, early language, record keeping, and children with special needs. Ongoing training was provided annually for one week. Parent educators received certification from the PAT National Center for fulfilling training requirements.
Funding Sources New Zealand Ministry of Education
Author Affiliation None of the study authors is a developer of this model.

Study Effects Details

Outcome domain: Maternal Health Outcome Effects
Rating Outcome Measure Effect Sample Timing of Follow-up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Moderate Maternal Social Support Index (MSSI),Overall
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 207 mothers Not available Not available Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Outcome domain: Child Health Outcome Effects
Rating Outcome Measure Effect Sample Timing of Follow-up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
Moderate Incidence of ear infections
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.70 Unadjusted % = 0.79 Mean difference = -0.09 HomeVEE calculated = -0.29 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Incidence of hearing problems
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.08 Unadjusted % = 0.07 Mean difference = 0.01 HomeVEE calculated = 0.09 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Number of health problems children had experienced
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted mean = 4.85 Unadjusted mean = 4.91 Mean difference = -0.06 HomeVEE calculated = -0.03 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote165

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Authors report that significantly more program children experienced bronchitis attacks.

Moderate Number of hospital admissions
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.33 Unadjusted % = 0.30 Mean difference = 0.03 HomeVEE calculated = 0.08 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Number of hospital visits
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.64 Unadjusted % = 0.72 Mean difference = -0.08 HomeVEE calculated = -0.22 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Number of times children visited a hospital clinic
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.42 Unadjusted % = 0.51 Mean difference = -0.09 HomeVEE calculated = -0.22 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Number of times children visited general practitioner
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.00 Unadjusted % = 0.00 Mean difference = 0.00 Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Number of times children visited health specialist
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.54 Unadjusted % = 0.51 Mean difference = 0.03 HomeVEE calculated = 0.07 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Number of times children visited other professional health service
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.18 Unadjusted % = 0.15 Mean difference = 0.03 HomeVEE calculated = 0.13 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Total number of injuries
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.42 Unadjusted % = 0.38 Mean difference = 0.04 HomeVEE calculated = 0.10 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Outcome domain: Child Development and School Readiness Outcome Effects
Rating Outcome Measure Effect Sample Timing of Follow-up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Moderate Age in months when child first walked 6 steps unaided
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 206 mothers Unadjusted mean = 12.90 Unadjusted mean = 12.37 Mean difference = 0.53 HomeVEE calculated = 0.24 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Behaviour Checklist
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Not available Not available Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Denver II Assessment, Fine Motor Delay
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 206 mothers Not available Not available Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Moderate Denver II Assessment, Gross Motor Delay
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 206 mothers Not available Not available Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Moderate Denver II Assessment, Language Delay
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 206 mothers Not available Not available Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Moderate Denver II Assessment, Personal Social Items
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 206 mothers Not available Not available Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Moderate Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Mental Processing Composite
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 158 mothers Unadjusted mean = 59.44 Unadjusted mean = 60.34 Mean difference = -0.90 HomeVEE calculated = -0.09 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Moderate Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Sequential Processing
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 158 mothers Unadjusted mean = 22.14 Unadjusted mean = 23.00 Mean difference = -0.86 HomeVEE calculated = -0.16 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Outcome domain: Positive Parenting Practices Outcome Effects
Rating Outcome Measure Effect Sample Timing of Follow-up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
Moderate HOME Questionnaire, Overall
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 207 mothers Not available Not available Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Moderate Parental Concerns, Disruption of plans
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.04 Unadjusted % = 0.04 Mean difference = 0.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Parental Concerns, Disruption of relationship with partner
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.10 Unadjusted % = 0.15 Mean difference = -0.05 HomeVEE calculated = -0.28 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Parental Concerns, Significant Concern
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.18 Unadjusted % = 0.14 Mean difference = 0.04 HomeVEE calculated = 0.18 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Parental Concerns, Social Concern
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.21 Unadjusted % = 0.25 Mean difference = -0.04 HomeVEE calculated = -0.14 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Parents as Teachers Questionnaire, Overall
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Not available Not available Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote167

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors report that significantly more program parents respond yes to the following item: Looking around his/her surroundings takes up much of a baby's day during the first month of life.

Moderate Total number of activities
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted mean = 27.64 Unadjusted mean = 27.27 Mean difference = 0.37 HomeVEE calculated = 0.17 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote166

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors report that significantly more program children play fantasy games.

Moderate Total number of experiences
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted mean = 18.93 Unadjusted mean = 18.79 Mean difference = 0.14 HomeVEE calculated = 0.04 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Video Session, Parent-Child Interaction
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 155 mothers Unadjusted mean = 26.78 Unadjusted mean = 30.97 Mean difference = -4.19 HomeVEE calculated = -0.21 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary

footnote168

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors report significant differences on several items: &amp;#8220;Book chosen by,&amp;#8221; &amp;#8220;Motivation,&amp;#8221; &amp;#8220;Attention maintained,&amp;#8221;&nbsp;&amp;#8220;Attending to help,&amp;#8221;&nbsp;and&nbsp;&amp;#8220;Using information.&amp;#8221;

Outcome domain: Family Economic Self-Sufficiency Outcome Effects
Rating Outcome Measure Effect Sample Timing of Follow-up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
Moderate Attained additional educational qualifications since birth of child
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin 3 years 207 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.23 Unadjusted % = 0.30 Mean difference = -0.07 HomeVEE calculated = -0.22 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Elley-Irving Socio-Economic Index
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Not available Not available Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Family composition
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Not available Not available Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Family means of transport
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Not available Not available Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Family owns car
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.88 Unadjusted % = 0.90 Mean difference = -0.02 HomeVEE calculated = -0.12 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Family Strains Questionnaire, Sum of strains
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 206 mothers Unadjusted mean = 10.92 Unadjusted mean = 9.97 Mean difference = 0.95 HomeVEE calculated = 0.12 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote169

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors report that significantly more program group families reported experiencing increased strain on family money for medical expenses, clothes, food, etc., but, after applying the Bonferroni inequality, this difference was no longer significant.

Moderate Family Stressors Questionnaire, Sum of stressors
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 206 mothers Unadjusted mean = 15.42 Unadjusted mean = 14.54 Mean difference = 0.88 HomeVEE calculated = 0.10 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Family type
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Not available Not available Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Father in paid employment
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.85 Unadjusted % = 0.84 Mean difference = 0.01 HomeVEE calculated = 0.05 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Held a community services card
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.39 Unadjusted % = 0.42 Mean difference = -0.03 HomeVEE calculated = -0.08 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Moderate In a "married" relationship
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.80 Unadjusted % = 0.87 Mean difference = -0.07 HomeVEE calculated = -0.31 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Language use in the home
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Not available Not available Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Live-in partner
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.86 Unadjusted % = 0.87 Mean difference = -0.01 HomeVEE calculated = -0.05 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Mother working in full-time position
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.35 Unadjusted % = 0.53 Mean difference = -0.18 HomeVEE calculated = -0.45 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Mother working in paid employment
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.64 Unadjusted % = 0.56 Mean difference = 0.08 HomeVEE calculated = 0.20 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Number of hours father figure employed per week
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Not available Not available Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Receiving government support
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.42 Unadjusted % = 0.39 Mean difference = 0.03 HomeVEE calculated = 0.08 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Solo parenting
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.20 Unadjusted % = 0.13 Mean difference = 0.07 HomeVEE calculated = 0.31 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Subjective perception of income level
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 207 mothers Not available Not available Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Type of accomodation
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Not available Not available Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

Study Outcome Measure Summary

Outcome Domain: Maternal Health Outcome Measures
Rating Outcome Measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure Outcome Type
Moderate

Maternal Social Support Index (MSSI),Overall

Mean overall results on the Maternal Social Support Index Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by authors

Secondary
Outcome Domain: Child Health Outcome Measures
Rating Outcome Measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure Outcome Type
Moderate

Incidence of ear infections

Number/percentage of children who experienced an ear infection Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Incidence of hearing problems

Number/percentage of children who experienced a hearing problem Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Number of health problems children had experienced

Mean number of health problems children experienced Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Number of hospital admissions

Number of hospital admissions children experienced Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Number of hospital visits

Number of hospital visits children experienced Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Number of times children visited a hospital clinic

Number of times children visited a hospital clinic Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Number of times children visited general practitioner

Number of times children visited a general practitioner Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Number of times children visited health specialist

Number of times children visited a health specialist Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Number of times children visited other professional health service

Number of times children visited another professional health service Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Total number of injuries

Total number of injuries children experienced Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Outcome Domain: Child Development and School Readiness Outcome Measures
Rating Outcome Measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure Outcome Type
Moderate

Age in months when child first walked 6 steps unaided

Mean age in months when child first walked 6 steps unaided Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Behaviour Checklist

Number/percentage of parents who responded whether each of 14 listed behavior and emotional problems (e.g. poor appetite, difficulty sleeping at night, overactive, etc.) apply, somewhat apply, or do not apply to their children. Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Denver II Assessment, Fine Motor Delay

Number/percentage of children whose performance on the Denver II Assessment of fine motor delay was categorized as advanced, delayed, or cautions. The Denver II Assessment was designed to detect potential developmental problems. Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary
Moderate

Denver II Assessment, Gross Motor Delay

Number/percentage of children whose performance on the Denver II Assessment of gross motor delay was categorized as advanced, delayed, or cautions. The Denver II Assessment was designed to detect potential developmental problems. Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary
Moderate

Denver II Assessment, Language Delay

Number/percentage of children whose performance on the Denver II Assessment of language delay was categorized as advanced, delayed, or cautions. The Denver II Assessment was designed to detect potential developmental problems. Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary
Moderate

Denver II Assessment, Personal Social Items

Number/percentage of children whose performance on the Denver II Assessment of personal social items was categorized as advanced, delayed, or cautions. The Denver II Assessment was designed to detect potential developmental problems. Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary
Moderate

Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Mental Processing Composite

Mean mental processing composite score on the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. The mental processing composite includes measures of sequential and simultaneous processing, designed to elicit problem-solving and information processing styles while minimizing the role of language and verbal skills. Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary
Moderate

Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Sequential Processing

Mean sequential processing score on the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary
Outcome Domain: Positive Parenting Practices Outcome Measures
Rating Outcome Measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure Outcome Type
Moderate

HOME Questionnaire, Overall

The Home Observation forMeasurement of theEnvironment (HOME)Questionnaire was designed to rate family interaction/reactionary behaviors and non-interactive behaviors, especially between the main caregiver and the child. Observational Assessment

Not reported by authors

Secondary
Moderate

Parental Concerns, Disruption of plans

Number/percentage of parents who reported caring for their child had disrupted their personal plans Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Parental Concerns, Disruption of relationship with partner

Number/percentage of parents who reported caring for their child had disrupted their relationship with their partner Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Parental Concerns, Significant Concern

Number/percentage of parents who had a significant concern about caring for their child Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Parental Concerns, Social Concern

Number/percentage of parents who had a social concern about caring for their child Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Parents as Teachers Questionnaire, Overall

The Parents as Teachers Questionnaire was designed to assess parental knowledge of child health and development. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by authors

Secondary
Moderate

Total number of activities

Mean total number of activities children experienced at home within six months prior to the parental interview Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Total number of experiences

Mean total number of children's experiences out of the home Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Video Session, Parent-Child Interaction

Parent-child interactions were video recorded and scored by researchers. Videotaped observation

Not reported by authors

Secondary
Outcome Domain: Family Economic Self-Sufficiency Outcome Measures
Rating Outcome Measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure Outcome Type
Moderate

Attained additional educational qualifications since birth of child

Number/percentage of mothers who attained additional educational qualifications since birth of their child Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Elley-Irving Socio-Economic Index

Distribution of socio-economic status (Level 1 & 2, Level 3 & 4, Level 5 or 6, Other), as defined by the Elley-Irving Socio-Economic Index. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by authors

Secondary
Moderate

Family composition

Categorical variable for household size Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Family means of transport

Distribution of families' means of transport Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Family owns car

Number/percentage of families that owned a car Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Family Strains Questionnaire, Sum of strains

Mean sum of strains parents experienced Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by authors

Secondary
Moderate

Family Stressors Questionnaire, Sum of stressors

Mean sum of stressors parents experienced Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by authors

Secondary
Moderate

Family type

Number/percentage of children who lived in a "nuclear family" arrangement Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Father in paid employment

Number/percentage of fathers working in paid employment Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Held a community services card

Number/percentage of families that held a Community Services Card Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

In a "married" relationship

Number/percentage of mothers in a married relationship Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Language use in the home

Distribution of languages families spoke at home Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Live-in partner

Number/percentage of mothers whose partner lived with the family Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Mother working in full-time position

Number/percentage of mothers working in full-time positions Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Mother working in paid employment

Number/percentage of mothers working in paid employment Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Number of hours father figure employed per week

Percent distribution of the number of hours father figures worked per week, categorized as less than 41 hours per week, 41-50 hours per week, or more than 50 hours per week. Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Receiving government support

Number/percentage of families receiving government support Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Solo parenting

Number/percentage of mothers who were separated, divorced, or single Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Subjective perception of income level

Distribution of mothers' perception of their income levels, categorized as top or second to top, middle to average, or lower Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Type of accomodation

Distribution of families' housing type Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary