Study Detail

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Boyd, A. (1997). Parents as first teachers pilot project evaluation (PAFT) : Report on Whangarei region: Final complete draft. Wellington: Ministry of Education.

Model(s) Reviewed: Parents as First Teachers (New Zealand)
Study Screening Details
Screening Decision Screening Conclusion
Study passes screens Study Passes Screens
Study Design Details
Rating Design Attrition Baseline Equivalence Reassignment Confounding Factors
Moderate Randomized controlled trial Low Not established on race/ethnicity, SES, or outcomes None None
Notes:

footnote171

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In order to receive a high rating, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with low attrition must control for race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and, if applicable, baseline outcomes if statistically significant differences exist between treatment and control groups. In this case, we had insufficient information to assess baseline equivalence on race/ethnicity, <abbr title="socioeconomic status">SES</abbr>, or outcomes in order to determine if there were statistically significant differences for which the authors should have controlled in analyses.

footnote178

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

This study received a mixed rating. Four outcomes have low attrition and receive a moderate rating (positive child behaviors - problem solving task, total; positive caregiver behaviors - imaginative play episode, responding to child; positive child behaviors - imaginative play episode, attending to help; positive child behaviors - imaginative play episode, using information). All other outcomes have high attrition and baseline equivalence is not established on race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), or any outcomes. These outcomes rate low (low-rated outcomes are not reported).

Study Characteristics
Study Participants The Parents as First Teachers (PAFT) pilot project was initiated in 1992–1993 in four areas of New Zealand: Whangarei, South Auckland, Gisbome, and Dunedin. This study reports on the Whangarei region. The PAFT pilot project aimed to provide first-time parents in each of the four geographical areas with a variety of services, from the birth of their first child until the child was 3 years of age. Participants were randomly assigned to the program or comparison group; 101 program families and 89 comparison families took part in the evaluation.
Setting This study took place in the Whangarei region of New Zealand.
Home Visiting Services Trained parent educators provided monthly home visits, offering parenting education and guidance with the goal of increasing parents’ feelings of confidence and competence. The intervention included periodic child development screening and any necessary referrals, monthly group meetings, and access to resources at PAFT centers.
Comparison Conditions Comparison group families had annual contact with program staff, via mailings, to maintain contact and update addresses.
Staff Characteristics and Training Parent educators had at least an undergraduate-level degree, had prior experience with children and parents, and were qualified in general or Plunket Society nursing or early childhood or primary teaching (or the equivalent). Initial training lasted two weeks and covered information on PAT , the home visits, conducting educationally focused parent meetings, empowering parents, encouraging parent-child interactions, sensory overload, avoiding dependency relationships, early language, record keeping, and children with special needs. Ongoing training was provided annually for one week. Parent educators received certification from the PAT National Center for fulfilling training requirements.
Funding Sources New Zealand Ministry of Education
Author Affiliation None of the study authors is a developer of this model.

Study Effects Details

Outcome domain: Child Development and School Readiness Outcome Effects
Rating Outcome Measure Effect Sample Timing of Follow-up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Moderate Positive child behaviors - imaginative play episode, attending to help
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Whangarei 3 years 163 mothers Unadjusted mean = 2.00 Unadjusted mean = 2.45 Mean difference = -0.45 HomeVEE calculated = -0.13 Not statistically significant, p = 0.41 Secondary
Moderate Positive child behaviors - imaginative play episode, using information
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Whangarei 3 years 163 mothers Unadjusted mean = 1.99 Unadjusted mean = 2.18 Mean difference = -0.19 HomeVEE calculated = -0.09 Not statistically significant, p = 0.58 Secondary
Moderate Positive child behaviors - problem solving task, total
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Whangarei 3 years 129 mothers Unadjusted mean = 12.09 Unadjusted mean = 11.31 Mean difference = 0.78 HomeVEE calculated = 0.11 Not statistically significant, p = 0.52 Secondary
Outcome domain: Positive Parenting Practices Outcome Effects
Rating Outcome Measure Effect Sample Timing of Follow-up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Moderate Positive caregiver behaviors - imaginative play episode, responding to child
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Whangarei 3 years 143 mothers Unadjusted mean = 3.75 Unadjusted mean = 4.29 Mean difference = -0.54 HomeVEE calculated = -0.19 Not statistically significant, p = 0.25 Secondary

Study Outcome Measure Summary

Outcome Domain: Child Development and School Readiness Outcome Measures
Rating Outcome Measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure Outcome Type
Moderate

Positive child behaviors - imaginative play episode, attending to help

Mean number of times child attended to help offered by caregiver during interactive play Videotaped observation

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Positive child behaviors - imaginative play episode, using information

Mean number of times child used information that caregiver offered during interactive play Videotaped observation

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Positive child behaviors - problem solving task, total

Mean total positive child behavior score on a problem-solving task (opening a puzzle box), with scores recorded as the number of times a child exhibited each of six positive behaviors (asking questions, exploration, verbalization, trying keys, attending to help offered, and using information offered). Videotaped observation

Not applicable

Secondary
Outcome Domain: Positive Parenting Practices Outcome Measures
Rating Outcome Measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure Outcome Type
Moderate

Positive caregiver behaviors - imaginative play episode, responding to child

Mean number of times caregiver responded to their child's initiative during interactive play Videotaped observation

Not applicable

Secondary