Study Detail

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Wagner, M., & Spiker, D. (2001). Experiences and outcomes for children and families: Multisite Parents as Teachers evaluation. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International. http://www.sri.com/policy/cehs/publications/humanpub/patfinal.pdf.

Model(s) Reviewed: Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Additional Sources:

WWHV014479

Wagner, M. (2001). The multisite evaluation of the Parents as Teachers home visiting program. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International.
Study Screening Details
Screening Decision Screening Conclusion
Study passes screens Study Passes Screens
Study Design Details
Rating Design Attrition Baseline Equivalence Reassignment Confounding Factors
Moderate Randomized controlled trial High Established on race/ethnicity, SES, and mother’s mental health. None None
Study Characteristics
Study Participants The sample presented here includes 667 mothers with children who were assessed at 1 and 2 years of age. Across three sites, families with a child up to 8 months of age were recruited for enrollment in the Parents as Teachers (PAT) program. At the time of enrollment, mothers had an average education level of just over 12 years. Most study participants were African American (58%) or white (29%). The majority of households enrolled had an annual income of less than $15,000 (60%). Twenty-nine percent of children in the sample had two married parents.
Setting Three local PAT programs participated in the evaluation: the first was located in an Eastern Seaboard rural community, the second was located in a mid-size Southern city, and the third was located in a large Western city.
Home Visiting Services Families enrolled in PAT received monthly home visits and other program services for as long as they remained in the program, up to the child’s third birthday. Among those families enrolled in PAT , 44% participated and remained in the program through the child’s second birthday (68% at Site 1, 35% at Site 2, and 31% at Site 3).
Comparison Conditions The comparison families received only the services that were normally available in the community and that they sought of their own accord. In addition, they received age-appropriate toys at regular quarterly intervals, which were used as a means of tracking their locations.
Staff Characteristics and Training Parent educators were trained by the PAT national staff at the certified training center during a weeklong session.
Funding Sources National Institute of Early Childhood Development and Education of the Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education; the Smith Richardson Foundation; the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation; and the Carnegie Corporation of New York.
Author Affiliation None of the study authors are developers of this model.

Study Effects Details

Outcome domain: Child Health Outcome Effects
Rating Outcome Measure Effect Sample Timing of Follow-up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
Moderate Child covered by health insurance
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2 year 265 children % = 79.80 % = 84.80 = -4.60 Study reported = -0.13 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Child saw doctor for well-child care in past 6 months
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2 year 265 children % = 91.40 % = 94.80 = -3.40 Study reported = -0.14 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (<em>p</em> &le; 0.05). The <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> tests of statistical significance are based on the <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Moderate Child treated for injury in the past year
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2 year 265 children % = 5.50 % = 11.00 = -5.50 Study reported = -0.20 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (<em>p</em> &le; 0.05). The <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> tests of statistical significance are based on the <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Moderate Child was fully immunized
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2 year 265 children % = 26.30 % = 19.00 = 7.30 Study reported = 0.17 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate Child went to the emergency room
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2 year 265 children % = 38.50 % = 50.60 = -12.10 Study reported = -0.24 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (<em>p</em> &le; 0.05). The <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> tests of statistical significance are based on the <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Outcome domain: Child Development and School Readiness Outcome Effects
Rating Outcome Measure Effect Sample Timing of Follow-up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Moderate DPII average months differential: cognitive development
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2-year assessment 266 children Mean = 2.20 Mean = 2.40 Mean difference = -0.20 Study reported = -0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate DPII average months differential: communication development
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2-year assessment 266 children Mean = 4.90 Mean = 4.50 Mean difference = 0.40 Study reported = 0.08 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate DPII average months differential: physical development
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2-year assessment 266 children Mean = 2.90 Mean = 3.00 Mean difference = -0.10 Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate DPII average months differential: self-help development
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2-year assessment 266 children Mean = 6.10 Mean = 6.00 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate DPII average months differential: social development
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2-year assessment 266 children Mean = 4.90 Mean = 4.90 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate ASBI score
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2-year assessment 259 children Mean = 72.30 Mean = 70.80 Mean difference = 1.50 Study reported = 0.21 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Outcome domain: Positive Parenting Practices Outcome Effects
Rating Outcome Measure Effect Sample Timing of Follow-up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Moderate AAPI average child maltreatment precursor scale (range = 6 to 24)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 1-year assessment 344 mothers Mean = 19.10 Mean = 19.10 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate AAPI average child maltreatment precursor scale (range = 6 to 24)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2-year assessment 267 mothers Mean = 18.30 Mean = 18.30 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate HOME acceptance of child’s behavior subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 1-year assessment 343 mothers Mean = 6.00 Mean = 6.20 Mean difference = -0.20 Study reported = -0.12 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate HOME acceptance of child’s behavior subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2-year assessment 254 mothers Mean = 6.00 Mean = 5.70 Mean difference = 0.30 Study reported = 0.22 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate HOME appropriate play materials subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2-year assessment 254 mothers Mean = 7.90 Mean = 7.40 Mean difference = 0.30 Study reported = 0.26 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate HOME involvement with child subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2-year assessment 254 mothers Mean = 5.00 Mean = 4.90 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate HOME involvement with child subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 1-year assessment 343 mothers Mean = 4.10 Mean = 4.10 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate HOME opportunities for stimulation subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2-year assessment 254 mothers Mean = 3.70 Mean = 3.50 Mean difference = 0.20 Study reported = 0.20 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate HOME opportunities for stimulation subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 1-year assessment 343 mothers Mean = 3.40 Mean = 3.40 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate HOME organization of the environment subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 1-year assessment 343 mothers Mean = 5.30 Mean = 5.30 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.03 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate HOME appropriate play materials subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 1-year assessment 343 mothers Mean = 6.80 Mean = 6.70 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 0.06 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate HOME organization of the environment subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2-year assessment 254 mothers Mean = 5.70 Mean = 5.60 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 0.17 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate HOME parental responsivity subcale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2-year assessment 254 mothers Mean = 9.40 Mean = 9.30 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 0.09 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate HOME subscale related to language- and literacy-promoting behaviors (range = 0 to 8)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 1-year assessment 343 mothers Mean = 5.50 Mean = 5.30 Mean difference = 0.20 Study reported = 0.08 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate HOME subscale related to language- and literacy-promoting behaviors (range = 0 to 8)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2-year assessment 266 mothers Mean = 6.50 Mean = 6.10 Mean difference = 0.40 Study reported = 0.31 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate HOME subscale: parental responsivity
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 1-year assessment 343 mothers Mean = 8.50 Mean = 8.50 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate HOME total scale (range = 0 to 45)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2-year assessment 254 mothers Mean = 37.70 Mean = 36.40 Mean difference = 1.30 Study reported = 0.22 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate HOME total scale (range = 0 to 45)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 1-year assessment 343 mothers Mean = 34.10 Mean = 34.20 Mean difference = -0.10 Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.93
Primary
Moderate NCAST, total scale score
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2-year assessment 254 mothers Mean = 52.60 Mean = 52.90 Mean difference = -0.30 Study reported = -0.09 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.41
Primary
Moderate PSOC parenting efficacy subscale (range = 8 to 32)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 1-year assessment 344 mothers Mean = 28.60 Mean = 28.80 Mean difference = -0.20 Study reported = -0.10 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate PSOC parenting efficacy subscale (range = 8 to 32)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2-year assessment 267 mothers Mean = 28.70 Mean = 28.70 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate PSOC satisfaction subscale (range = 9 to 36)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2-year assessment 267 mothers Mean = 25.50 Mean = 25.70 Mean difference = -0.20 Study reported = -0.05 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate PSOC satisfaction subscale (range = 9 to 36)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 1-year assessment 344 mothers Mean = 25.90 Mean = 26.80 Mean difference = -0.90 Study reported = -0.20 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate PSOC total scale (range = 17 to 68)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 1-year assessment 344 mothers Mean = 54.40 Mean = 55.60 Mean difference = -1.20 Study reported = -0.20 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate PSOC total scale (range = 17 to 68)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2-year assessment 267 mothers Mean = 54.20 Mean = 54.40 Mean difference = -0.20 Study reported = -0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Language literacy numeracy promotion scale (range = 6 to 24)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2-year assessment 266 mothers Mean = 20.00 Mean = 19.70 Mean difference = 0.30 Study reported = 0.09 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Language literacy numeracy promotion scale (range = 6 to 24)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 1-year assessment 343 mothers Mean = 19.00 Mean = 18.50 Mean difference = 0.50 Study reported = 0.12 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Parent Observation Scale (range 1 to 4; 4 = more observant)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2-year assessment 267 mothers Mean = 3.80 Mean = 3.80 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Parent Observation Scale (range 1 to 4; 4 = more observant)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 1-year assessment 340 mothers Mean = 3.70 Mean = 3.80 Mean difference = -0.10 Study reported = -0.21 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Parent reads books with child
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2-year assessment 261 mothers Mean = 3.20 Mean = 3.20 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.05 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Parent reads books with child
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 1-year assessment 327 mothers Mean = 3.00 Mean = 3.00 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Parent talks to/asks child questions during reading
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2-year assessment 261 mothers Mean = 3.60 Mean = 3.60 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Parent talks to/asks child questions during reading
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 1-year assessment 327 mothers Mean = 3.30 Mean = 3.10 Mean difference = 0.20 Study reported = 0.20 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Parent tell stories sings with child
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 1-year assessment 343 mothers Mean = 3.40 Mean = 3.50 Mean difference = -0.10 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Parent tell stories sings with child
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2-year assessment 266 mothers Mean = 3.40 Mean = 3.20 Mean difference = 0.20 Study reported = 0.19 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Parental knowledge all items (percentage answered correctly)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2-year assessment 268 mothers Mean % = 77.70 Mean % = 75.90 Mean difference = 1.80 Study reported = 0.14 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Parental knowledge all items (percentage answered correctly)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 1-year assessment 344 mothers Mean % = 78.80 Mean % = 80.00 Mean difference = -0.20 Study reported = -0.20 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Parental knowledge child care and safety (percentage answered correctly)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 1-year assessment 344 mothers Mean % = 84.00 Mean % = 85.50 Mean difference = -1.50 Study reported = -0.09 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Parental knowledge child care and safety (percentage answered correctly)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2-year assessment 268 mothers Mean % = 74.30 Mean % = 74.60 Mean difference = -0.30 Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Parental knowledge discipline (percentage answered correctly)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2-year assessment 268 mothers Mean % = 75.40 Mean % = 75.80 Mean difference = -0.40 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Parental knowledge discipline (percentage answered correctly)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 1-year assessment 344 mothers Mean % = 84.80 Mean % = 85.20 Mean difference = -0.40 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Parental knowledge emotional development (percentage answered correctly)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 1-year assessment 344 mothers Mean % = 75.50 Mean % = 77.90 Mean difference = -2.40 Study reported = -0.12 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Parental knowledge emotional development (percentage answered correctly)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2-year assessment 268 mothers Mean % = 79.80 Mean % = 75.10 Mean difference = 4.70 Study reported = 0.24 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Parental knowledge general child development (percentage answered correctly)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 1-year assessment 344 mothers Mean % = 82.40 Mean % = 80.30 Mean difference = 2.10 Study reported = 0.14 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Parental knowledge general child development (percentage answered correctly)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2-year assessment 268 mothers Mean % = 74.00 Mean % = 71.90 Mean difference = 2.10 Study reported = 0.13 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Parental knowledge language/cognitive development (percentage answered correctly)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 1-year assessment 344 mothers Mean % = 70.70 Mean % = 73.90 Mean difference = -3.20 Study reported = -0.20 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Parental knowledge language/cognitive development (percentage answered correctly)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2-year assessment 268 mothers Mean % = 79.90 Mean % = 78.70 Mean difference = 1.20 Study reported = 0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate While doing everyday things parent counts things or uses numbers with child
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 1-year assessment 343 mothers Mean = 3.10 Mean = 3.20 Mean difference = -0.10 Study reported = -0.10 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate While doing everyday things parent counts things or uses numbers with child
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2-year assessment 266 mothers Mean = 3.40 Mean = 3.40 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate While doing everyday things parent reads aloud to child
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2-year assessment 266 mothers Mean = 3.10 Mean = 2.90 Mean difference = 0.20 Study reported = 0.20 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate While doing everyday things parent reads aloud to child
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 1-year assessment 343 mothers Mean = 2.80 Mean = 2.60 Mean difference = 0.20 Study reported = 0.13 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate While doing everyday things parent talks to/asks child questions
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 2-year assessment 266 mothers Mean = 3.30 Mean = 3.40 Mean difference = -0.10 Study reported = -0.09 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate While doing everyday things parent talks to/asks child questions
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Three-site sample 1-year assessment 343 mothers Mean = 3.30 Mean = 3.20 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 0.09 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

Study Outcome Measure Summary

Outcome Domain: Child Health Outcome Measures
Rating Outcome Measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure Outcome Type
Moderate

Child covered by health insurance

Percentage of children who were covered by health insurance Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Child saw doctor for well-child care in past 6 months

Percentage of children who had seen a doctor for well-child care during the past 6 months Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Child treated for injury in the past year

Percentage of children who were treated for an injury during the past year Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Child was fully immunized

Percentage of children who were fully immunized for their age Review of immunization records for families who could produce them

Not applicable

Primary
Moderate

Child went to the emergency room

Percentage of children who went to the emergency room during the past year Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Outcome Domain: Child Development and School Readiness Outcome Measures
Rating Outcome Measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure Outcome Type
Moderate

DPII:

  • Physical Development Scale
  • Cognitive Development Scale
  • Communication Development Scale
  • Self-Help Development Scale
  • Social Development Scale
The subscales of the DPII assess the physical, communication, self-help, social, and cognitive development of young children. The scores were presented as the difference in months between a child’s chronological age and the age that corresponds to the skill level assessed. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary
Moderate

ASBI: Total score

The ASBI assesses the social development and prosocial/antisocial behaviors of young children. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary
Outcome Domain: Positive Parenting Practices Outcome Measures
Rating Outcome Measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure Outcome Type
Moderate

KIDI:

  • All items
  • General child development
  • Language/cognitive development
  • Emotional development
  • Discipline
  • Child care and safety
The KIDI measures the parent’s knowledge of childrearing practices and developmental processes. In addition to the total score, the researchers examined subscales about general child development, language/cognitive development, emotional development, and discipline. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary
Moderate

NCAST: Total score

The NCAST assesses the quality of teaching interaction between caregivers and young children. Mothers were assessed while introducing a new toy to their child. Areas of assessment included cue-giving and responsiveness to cues of both the parents and children. Observation

Not reported by author

Primary
Moderate

PSOC: Total score, Parenting efficacy, Satisfaction

The PSOC measures parent attitudes and self-efficacy. The researchers analyzed the total score and scores on the two subscales: parent satisfaction and parent efficacy. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary
Moderate

AAPI: Average CMPS score

The CMPS from the AAPI assesses attitudes toward disciplining children that have been shown to, correlate with later abusive behaviors toward them. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Primary
Moderate

HOME:

  • Language- and literacy-promoting behaviors
  • Total score
  • Parental responsivity
  • Acceptance of child’s behavior
  • Organization of the environment
  • Appropriate play materials
  • Involvement
  • Opportunities for stimulation
The HOME assesses parenting practices and aspects of the home environment. The researchers examined the total score, as well as subscales related to parental responsivity, acceptance of child's behavior, provision of appropriate play materials,, organization of the child’s environment, parental involvement with children, and the opportunities provided for daily stimulation. Parent/caregiver interview and observational assessment

Not reported by author

Primary
Moderate

Language, literacy, numeracy promotion scale

  • While doing everyday things, parent talks to/asks child questions
  • While doing everyday things, parent reads aloud to child
  • While doing everyday things, parent counts things or uses numbers with child
  • Parent tells stories, sings with child
  • Parent reads books with child
  • Parent talks to/asks child questions during reading
A 6-item measure of direct parent-child verbal interactions that encourage children’s language development, literacy, and numeracy. Each question was answered on a 4-point scale, with 4 being the most positive response. An overall scale was formed by summing the values on these six items. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary
Moderate

Parent Observation Scale

A scale of parent observations skills ranging from 1 to 4, with 4 being the most observant Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary