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Walkup, J. T., Barlow, A., Mullany, B. C., Pan, W., Goklish, N., Hasting, R., Cowboy, B., Fields, P., Baker, E. V., Speakman, K., Ginsburg, G., Reid, R. (2009). Randomized controlled trial of a paraprofessional-delivered in-home intervention for young reservation-based American Indian mothers. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 48(6), 591-601.

Model(s) Reviewed: Family Spirit®
Manuscript Screening Details
Screening Decision Screening Conclusion
Passes screens Eligible for review
Study Design Details
Rating Design Attrition Baseline Equivalence Reassignment Confounding Factors
Moderate Randomized controlled trial High Established on race/ethnicity, SES, and baseline measures of applicable outcomes None None
Notes:

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Information about the <abbr title="socioeconomic status">SES</abbr> and baseline measure equivalence of the analytic samples was obtained from the first author.

Study Characteristics
Study Participants Reservation-based American Indian mothers ages 12 to 22 years with 28 weeks or earlier of gestation were eligible for participation if they did not also have extreme medical, psychiatric, or substance abuse problems. Randomized participants ranged in age from 14 to 22 years, with a median age of 18. All were American Indian, most were Navajo (65 percent) or White Mountain Apache (18 percent). At enrollment, 8 percent were married and 10 percent had one or more children. Among the sample remaining at the 12-month post-partum follow-up, fewer than half had at least a high school education (38 percent in the Family Spirit group and 40 percent in the control group) and the employment rate was low (10.8 percent in the Family Spirit group and 14.9 percent in the control group)
Setting The program was implemented in four American Indian health service catchment areas on the Navajo and White Mountain Apache reservations in New Mexico and Arizona.
Intervention Services Mothers received approximately 25 one-hour visits in their homes or a confidential location of their choosing. During each session, home visitors used tabletop flip charts to deliver material that focused on developmentally timed prenatal and infant care parenting lessons, family planning, substance abuse prevention, problem solving, and coping skills. The model was designed to reflect local native practices and to respect cultural orientation and living situation of participants. When participants preferred, the services were delivered in their native language.
Comparison Conditions Control participants received a breastfeeding/nutrition education intervention over the course of 23 visits from paraprofessionals.
Staff Characteristics and Training Home visitors who delivered both Family Spirit and control conditions received more than 80 hours of training that focused on home visiting methods and curriculum content. They were required to demonstrate mastery of the content and fidelity to the study protocol. Supervision occurred through daily observation and weekly conference calls.
Funding Sources Support for this research was provided by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, the Ford Foundation, the Annie E. Casey Foundation, and the C.S. Mott Foundation.
Author Affiliation Ms. Barlow is part of the team that developed this model. Dr. Walkup was affiliated with the Center for American Indian Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, where the team that developed this model is based.
Study Registration:
Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00356551

Findings Details

Outcome Domain: Maternal Health
Rating Outcome Measure Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
Moderate Alcohol in last month - 12 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 12 months postpartum 82 mothers &#37 (Adjusted) = 19.00 Adjusted mean % = 13.00 OR = 1.54 HomeVEE calculated = 0.25 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Secondary
Moderate Alcohol in last month - 2 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 2 months postpartum 125 mothers &#37 (Adjusted) = 11.00 Adjusted mean % = 7.00 OR = 1.52 HomeVEE calculated = 0.30 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Secondary
Moderate Alcohol in last month - 6 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 6 months postpartum 115 mothers &#37 (Adjusted) = 12.00 Adjusted mean % = 6.00 OR = 2.19 HomeVEE calculated = 0.39 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Secondary
Moderate Change in depressive symptoms (CES-D) - 2 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 2 months postpartum 125 mothers Adjusted mean = -2.00 Adjusted mean = -3.30 coeff = 0.05 HomeVEE calculated = 0.12 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Secondary
Moderate Change in depressive symptoms (CES-D) - 6 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 6 months postpartum 115 mothers Adjusted mean = -4.00 Adjusted mean = -4.00 coeff = -0.58 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Secondary
Moderate Change in depressive symptoms (CES-D)- 12 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 12 months postpartum 82 mothers Adjusted mean = -3.10 Adjusted mean = -2.00 coeff = -1.69 HomeVEE calculated = -0.10 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Secondary
Moderate Change in social support - 12 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 12 months postpartum 82 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.50 Adjusted mean = -2.20 coeff = 1.98 HomeVEE calculated = 0.13 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Secondary
Moderate Change in social support - 2 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 2 months postpartum 125 mothers Adjusted mean = -0.40 Adjusted mean = -1.70 coeff = -0.21 HomeVEE calculated = 0.07 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Secondary
Moderate Change in social support - 6 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 6 months postpartum 115 mothers Adjusted mean = -3.70 Adjusted mean = -2.50 coeff = -0.98 HomeVEE calculated = -0.06 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Secondary
Moderate Cigarette in last month - 12 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 12 months postpartum 82 mothers &#37 (Adjusted) = 19.00 Adjusted mean % = 15.00 OR = 1.27 HomeVEE calculated = 0.14 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Secondary
Moderate Cigarette in last month - 2 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 2 months postpartum 125 mothers &#37 (Adjusted) = 13.00 Adjusted mean % = 17.00 OR = 0.74 HomeVEE calculated = -0.19 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Secondary
Moderate Cigarette in last month - 6 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 6 months postpartum 115 mothers &#37 (Adjusted) = 22.00 Adjusted mean % = 13.00 OR = 2.06 HomeVEE calculated = 0.35 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Secondary
Moderate Illegal substance in last month - 12 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 12 months postpartum 82 mothers &#37 (Adjusted) = 16.00 Adjusted mean % = 9.00 OR = 2.37 HomeVEE calculated = 0.41 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Secondary
Moderate Illegal substance in last month - 2 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 2 months postpartum 125 mothers &#37 (Adjusted) = 13.00 Adjusted mean % = 7.00 OR = 2.02 HomeVEE calculated = 0.41 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Secondary
Moderate Illegal substance in last month - 6 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 6 months postpartum 115 mothers &#3 (Adjusted) = 7.00 Adjusted mean % = 3.00 OR = 2.57 HomeVEE calculated = 0.49 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Secondary
Moderate Parenting stress index - 12 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 12 months postpartum 82 mothers Adjusted mean = 62.60 Adjusted mean = 60.40 coeff = 3.91 HomeVEE calculated = 0.14 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Primary
Moderate Parenting stress index - 2 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 2 months postpartum 125 mothers Adjusted mean = 62.30 Adjusted mean = 66.80 coeff = -3.31 HomeVEE calculated = -0.26 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Primary
Moderate Parenting stress index - 6 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 6 months postpartum 115 mothers Adjusted mean = 63.30 Adjusted mean = 64.10 coeff = 1.01 HomeVEE calculated = -0.05 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Primary
Outcome Domain: Child Development and School Readiness
Rating Outcome Measure Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Moderate ITSEA Competence domain
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 12 months old 65 children Adjusted mean = 0.94 Adjusted mean = 0.95 coeff = -0.01 HomeVEE calculated = -0.03 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Primary
Moderate ITSEA Competence: Attention
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 12 months old 65 children Adjusted mean = 1.11 Adjusted mean = 1.07 coeff = 0.05 HomeVEE calculated = 0.08 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Primary
Moderate ITSEA Competence: Compliance
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 12 months old 65 children Adjusted mean = 0.91 Adjusted mean = 0.84 coeff = 0.10 HomeVEE calculated = 0.18 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Primary
Moderate ITSEA Competence: Empathy
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 12 months old 65 children Adjusted mean = 0.66 Adjusted mean = 0.59 coeff = 0.09 HomeVEE calculated = 0.15 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Primary
Moderate ITSEA Competence: Imitation/play
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 12 months old 65 children Adjusted mean = 1.08 Adjusted mean = 1.10 coeff = -0.03 HomeVEE calculated = -0.05 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Primary
Moderate ITSEA Competence: Mastery motivation
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 12 months old 65 children Adjusted mean = 1.30 Adjusted mean = 1.34 coeff = -0.05 HomeVEE calculated = -0.08 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Primary
Moderate ITSEA Competence: Prosocial peer relations
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 12 months old 65 children Adjusted mean = 0.51 Adjusted mean = 0.79 coeff = -0.24 HomeVEE calculated = -0.68 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Primary
Moderate ITSEA Dysregulation domain
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 12 months old 65 children Adjusted mean = 0.43 Adjusted mean = 0.49 coeff = -0.05 HomeVEE calculated = -0.22 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Primary
Moderate ITSEA Dysregulation: Eating
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 12 months old 65 children Adjusted mean = 0.43 Adjusted mean = 0.44 coeff = -0.02 HomeVEE calculated = -0.04 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Primary
Moderate ITSEA Dysregulation: Negative emotionality
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 12 months old 65 children Adjusted mean = 0.47 Adjusted mean = 0.48 coeff = 0.02 HomeVEE calculated = -0.03 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Primary
Moderate ITSEA Dysregulation: Sensory sensitivity
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 12 months old 65 children Adjusted mean = 0.37 Adjusted mean = 0.52 coeff = -0.14 HomeVEE calculated = -0.41 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Primary
Moderate ITSEA Dysregulation: Sleep
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 12 months old 65 children Adjusted mean = 0.44 Adjusted mean = 0.53 coeff = -0.06 HomeVEE calculated = -0.25 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Primary
Moderate ITSEA Externalizing domain
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 12 months old 65 children Adjusted mean = 0.39 Adjusted mean = 0.57 coeff = -0.17 HomeVEE calculated = -0.63 Statistically significant, p<.05 Primary

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Negative differences favor the program group

Moderate ITSEA Externalizing: Activity/impulsivity
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 12 months old 65 children Adjusted mean = 0.69 Adjusted mean = 0.98 coeff = -0.27 HomeVEE calculated = -0.65 Statistically significant, p<.05 Primary

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Negative differences favor the program group

Moderate ITSEA Externalizing: Aggression/defiance
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 12 months old 65 children Adjusted mean = 0.27 Adjusted mean = 0.35 coeff = -0.06 HomeVEE calculated = -0.29 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Primary
Moderate ITSEA Externalizing: Peer aggression
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 12 months old 65 children Adjusted mean = 0.13 Adjusted mean = 0.30 coeff = -0.23 HomeVEE calculated = -0.68 Statistically significant, p<.05 Primary

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Negative differences favor the program group

Moderate ITSEA Internalizing domain
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 12 months old 65 children Adjusted mean = 0.48 Adjusted mean = 0.55 coeff = -0.06 HomeVEE calculated = -0.35 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Primary
Moderate ITSEA Internalizing: Depression/withdraw
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 12 months old 65 children Adjusted mean = 0.12 Adjusted mean = 0.15 coeff = 0.01 HomeVEE calculated = -0.13 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Primary
Moderate ITSEA Internalizing: General anxiety
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 12 months old 65 children Adjusted mean = 0.20 Adjusted mean = 0.21 coeff = 0.01 HomeVEE calculated = -0.04 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Primary
Moderate ITSEA Internalizing: Inhibition to novelty
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 12 months old 65 children Adjusted mean = 0.73 Adjusted mean = 0.82 coeff = -0.09 HomeVEE calculated = -0.24 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Primary
Moderate ITSEA Internalizing: Separation distress
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 12 months old 65 children Adjusted mean = 0.84 Adjusted mean = 1.02 coeff = -0.17 HomeVEE calculated = -0.52 Statistically significant, p<.05 Primary

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Negative differences favor the program group

Outcome Domain: Positive Parenting Practices
Rating Outcome Measure Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
Moderate Change in maternal involvement - 2 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 2 months postpartum 125 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.10 Adjusted mean = 1.20 coeff = -0.60 HomeVEE calculated = -0.04 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Secondary
Moderate Change in maternal involvement - 12 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 12 months postpartum 82 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.00 Adjusted mean = 0.60 coeff = 0.22 HomeVEE calculated = 0.15 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Secondary
Moderate Change in maternal involvement - 6 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 6 months postpartum 115 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.30 Adjusted mean = 1.20 coeff = -0.15 HomeVEE calculated = 0.03 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Secondary
Moderate Change in parenting knowledge - 12 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 12 months postpartum 82 mothers Adjusted mean = 26.60 Adjusted mean = 15.20 coeff = 13.92 HomeVEE calculated = 0.86 Statistically significant, p<.01 Secondary
Moderate Change in parenting knowledge - 2 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 2 months postpartum 125 mothers Adjusted mean = 3.20 Adjusted mean = 2.60 coeff = 3.10 HomeVEE calculated = 0.06 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.05
Secondary
Moderate Change in parenting knowledge - 6 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 6 months postpartum 115 mothers Adjusted mean = 23.80 Adjusted mean = 12.80 coeff = 13.46 HomeVEE calculated = 0.81 Statistically significant, p<.01 Secondary
Moderate Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment - 12 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 12 months postpartum 82 mothers Adjusted mean = 37.10 Adjusted mean = 37.40 coeff = -0.04 HomeVEE calculated = -0.04 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Primary
Moderate Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment - 6 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 6 months postpartum 115 mothers Adjusted mean = 32.50 Adjusted mean = 33.40 coeff = -1.27 HomeVEE calculated = -0.14 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Primary

Outcome Measure Summary

Outcome Domain: Maternal Health
Rating Outcome Measure Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of Measure Outcome Type Link to delete Content
Moderate

Alcohol in last month - 12 months

Self-report item developed by Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration regarding participants’ substance use in the previous month Maternal self-report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Alcohol in last month - 2 months

Self-report item developed by Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration regarding participants’ substance use in the previous month Maternal self-report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Alcohol in last month - 6 months

Self-report item developed by Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration regarding participants’ substance use in the previous month Maternal self-report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Change in depressive symptoms (CES-D) - 2 months

Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression is a 20-item assessment of depressive symptoms scored on a 4-point scale Maternal self-report

α = 0.88

Secondary
Moderate

Change in depressive symptoms (CES-D) - 6 months

Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression is a 20-item assessment of depressive symptoms scored on a 4-point scale Maternal self-report

α = 0.88

Secondary
Moderate

Change in depressive symptoms (CES-D)- 12 months

Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression is a 20-item assessment of depressive symptoms scored on a 4-point scale Maternal self-report

α = 0.88

Secondary
Moderate

Change in social support - 12 months

A 20-item assessment scored on a 5-point scale designed to measure participants’ perceived support form family, friends, and community Maternal self report

α = 0.93

Secondary
Moderate

Change in social support - 2 months

A 20-item assessment scored on a 5-point scale designed to measure participants’ perceived support form family, friends, and community Maternal self report

α = 0.93

Secondary
Moderate

Change in social support - 6 months

A 20-item assessment scored on a 5-point scale designed to measure participants’ perceived support form family, friends, and community Maternal self report

α = 0.93

Secondary
Moderate

Cigarette in last month - 12 months

Self-report item developed by Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration regarding participants’ substance use in the previous month Maternal self-report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Cigarette in last month - 2 months

Self-report item developed by Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration regarding participants’ substance use in the previous month Maternal self-report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Cigarette in last month - 6 months

Self-report item developed by Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration regarding participants’ substance use in the previous month Maternal self-report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Illegal substance in last month - 12 months

Self-report item developed by Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration regarding participants’ substance use in the previous month Maternal self-report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Illegal substance in last month - 2 months

Self-report item developed by Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration regarding participants’ substance use in the previous month Maternal self-report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Illegal substance in last month - 6 months

Self-report item developed by Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration regarding participants’ substance use in the previous month Maternal self-report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Parenting stress index - 12 months

30-item assessment of parenting-related stress, for which scoring norms are available by child age Maternal self-report

α = 0.80

Secondary
Moderate

Parenting stress index - 2 months

30-item assessment of parenting-related stress, for which scoring norms are available by child age Maternal self-report

α = 0.80

Secondary
Moderate

Parenting stress index - 6 months

30-item assessment of parenting-related stress, for which scoring norms are available by child age Maternal self-report

α = 0.80

Secondary
Outcome Domain: Child Development and School Readiness
Rating Outcome Measure Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of Measure Outcome Type Link to delete Content
Moderate

ITSEA Competence domain

Subscale from 126 item normed assessment of child behaviors, the Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment Maternal report

α range = 0.71-.83

Primary
Moderate

ITSEA Competence: Attention

Subscale from 126 item normed assessment of child behaviors, the Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment Maternal report

α range = 0.71-.83

Primary
Moderate

ITSEA Competence: Compliance

Subscale from 126 item normed assessment of child behaviors, the Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment Maternal report

α range = 0.71-.83

Primary
Moderate

ITSEA Dysregulation domain

Subscale from 126 item normed assessment of child behaviors, the Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment Maternal report

α range = 0.71-.83

Primary
Moderate

ITSEA Dysregulation: Eating

Subscale from 126 item normed assessment of child behaviors, the Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment Maternal report

α range = 0.71-.83

Primary
Moderate

ITSEA Dysregulation: Negative emotionality

Subscale from 126 item normed assessment of child behaviors, the Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment Maternal report

α range = 0.71-.83

Primary
Moderate

ITSEA Dysregulation: Sensory sensitivity

Subscale from 126 item normed assessment of child behaviors, the Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment Maternal report

α range = 0.71-.83

Primary
Moderate

ITSEA Dysregulation: Sleep

Subscale from 126 item normed assessment of child behaviors, the Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment Maternal report

α range = 0.71-.83

Primary
Moderate

ITSEA Externalizing domain

Subscale from 126 item normed assessment of child behaviors, the Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment Maternal report

α range = 0.71-.83

Primary
Moderate

ITSEA Externalizing: Activity/impulsivity

Subscale from 126 item normed assessment of child behaviors, the Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment Maternal report

α range = 0.71-.83

Primary
Moderate

ITSEA Externalizing: Aggression/defiance

Subscale from 126 item normed assessment of child behaviors, the Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment Maternal report

α range = 0.71-.83

Primary
Moderate

ITSEA Externalizing: Peer aggression

Subscale from 126 item normed assessment of child behaviors, the Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment Maternal report

α range = 0.71-.83

Primary
Moderate

ITSEA Internalizing domain

Subscale from 126 item normed assessment of child behaviors, the Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment Maternal report

α range = 0.71-.83

Primary
Moderate

ITSEA Internalizing: Depression/withdraw

Subscale from 126 item normed assessment of child behaviors, the Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment Maternal report

α range = 0.71-.83

Primary
Moderate

ITSEA Internalizing: General anxiety

Subscale from 126 item normed assessment of child behaviors, the Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment Maternal report

α range = 0.71-.83

Primary
Moderate

ITSEA Internalizing: Inhibition to novelty

Subscale from 126 item normed assessment of child behaviors, the Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment Maternal report

α range = 0.71-.83

Primary
Moderate

ITSEA Internalizing: Separation distress

Subscale from 126 item normed assessment of child behaviors, the Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment Maternal report

α range = 0.71-.83

Primary
Outcome Domain: Positive Parenting Practices
Rating Outcome Measure Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of Measure Outcome Type Link to delete Content
Moderate

Change in maternal involvement - 2 months

5-item assessment scored on a 4-point scale adapted from Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration measures Maternal self-report

α = 0.65

Secondary
Moderate

Change in maternal involvement - 12 months

5-item assessment scored on a 4-point scale adapted from Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration measures Maternal self-report

α = 0.65

Secondary
Moderate

Change in maternal involvement - 6 months

5-item assessment scored on a 4-point scale adapted from Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration measures Maternal self-report

α = 0.65

Secondary
Moderate

Change in parenting knowledge - 12 months

76-item assessment created by the investigator team to measure knowledge gains Maternal self-report

α = 0.95

Secondary
Moderate

Change in parenting knowledge - 2 months

76-item assessment created by the investigator team to measure knowledge gains Maternal self-report

α = 0.95

Secondary
Moderate

Change in parenting knowledge - 6 months

76-item assessment created by the investigator team to measure knowledge gains Maternal self-report

α = 0.95

Secondary
Moderate

Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment - 12 months

45-item assessment of parental behavior, parent-child interaction, and home environment Researcher observation

α = 0.89

Primary
Moderate

Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment - 6 months

45-item assessment of parental behavior, parent-child interaction, and home environment Researcher observation

α = 0.89

Primary