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Drazen, S. M., & Haust, M. (1993, August). Raising reading readiness in low-income children by parent education. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association.

Model(s) Reviewed: Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Study Screening Details
Screening Decision Screening Conclusion
Study passes screens
Study Design Details
Rating Design Attrition Baseline Equivalence Reassignment Confounding Factors
Moderate Quasi-experimental design Not applicable Established on race/ethnicity, SES, and outcomes Not applicable None
Notes:

footnote172

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

This study receives a mixed rating. The authors conducted two studies. Two outcomes from Study 1 rate low and all of Study 2 rates low because baseline equivalence was not demonstrated on race/ethnicity, <abbr title="socioeconomic status">SES</abbr>, or outcomes (low-rated outcomes are not reported). In Study 1, receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) at present rates low because, though groups were equivalent at baseline on this measure, the authors do not control for it in analyses. In addition, months receiving <abbr title="Aid to Families with Dependent Children">AFDC</abbr> rates low because baseline equivalence is not established on this measure (baseline data are not reported). The other outcomes reported in Study 1 receive a moderate rating.

Study Characteristics
Study Participants The intervention group comprised 20 Parents and Children Together (PACT) graduates ages 4 and 5 with the highest risk of school failure whose parents started participation in PACT between the time of the child’s birth and first birthday (most started when children were newborns). A comparison child was selected for each intervention child based on race, sex, educational experience, participation in Head Start, and number of risk factors, for a total of 20 comparison children.
Setting This study took place in Binghamton City School District in New York.
Home Visiting Services Trained and certified parent educators visit the families’ homes at least one per month, starting at birth and continuing until the child is 3 years old. Parent educators provide information about child development and demonstrate parenting techniques. They also refer parents to other agencies when appropriate. The program provides developmental screening tests, parent group meetings, and access to parenting resources such as books and toys.
Comparison Conditions The comparison condition was business as usual.
Staff Characteristics and Training No information given.
Funding Sources No information given.
Author Affiliation None of the authors is a developer of this model.

Study Effects Details

Outcome domain: Child Development and School Readiness Outcome Effects
Rating Outcome Measure Effect Sample Timing of Follow-up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Moderate Achievement-Kaufman ABC
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Binghamton, NY 4-5 years 24 children Unadjusted mean = 97.00 Unadjusted mean = 94.00 Mean difference = 3.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.25 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Moderate Achievement-Kaufman ABC, % Below 90
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Binghamton, NY 4-5 years 24 children Unadjusted mean = 0.25 Unadjusted mean = 0.20 Mean difference = 0.05 HomeVEE calculated = 0.17 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Moderate Fine Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Binghamton, NY 4-5 years 40 children Unadjusted mean = 0.30 Unadjusted mean = 0.50 Mean difference = -0.20 HomeVEE calculated = -0.30 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Moderate Fine Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test, % Below Age Level
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Binghamton, NY 4-5 years 40 children Unadjusted mean = 0.25 Unadjusted mean = 0.40 Mean difference = -0.15 HomeVEE calculated = -0.41 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Moderate Gross Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Binghamton, NY 4-5 years 40 children Unadjusted mean = 0.10 Unadjusted mean = 0.90 Mean difference = -0.80 HomeVEE calculated = -0.77 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary
Moderate Gross Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test, % Below Age Level
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Binghamton, NY 4-5 years 40 children Unadjusted mean = 0.10 Unadjusted mean = 0.45 Mean difference = -0.35 HomeVEE calculated = 1.05 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary
Moderate Language Acquisition Quotient-Zimmerman Preschool Language Scale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Binghamton, NY 4-5 years 40 children Unadjusted mean = 107.00 Unadjusted mean = 100.00 Mean difference = 7.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.57 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary
Moderate Language Acquisition Quotient-Zimmerman Preschool Language Scale, % Below Age Level
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Binghamton, NY 4-5 years 40 children Unadjusted mean = 0.30 Unadjusted mean = 0.65 Mean difference = -0.35 HomeVEE calculated = -0.80 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary
Moderate Mental Processing-Kaufman ABC
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Binghamton, NY 4-5 years 24 children Unadjusted mean = 102.00 Unadjusted mean = 94.00 Mean difference = 8.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.62 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Moderate Mental Processing-Kaufman ABC, % Below 90
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Binghamton, NY 4-5 years 24 children Unadjusted mean = 0.05 Unadjusted mean = 0.25 Mean difference = -0.20 HomeVEE calculated = -1.27 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary
Outcome domain: Reductions in Child Maltreatment Outcome Effects
Rating Outcome Measure Effect Sample Timing of Follow-up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
Moderate Abuse and/or Neglect-DSS and School Records, Cases Remaining Open
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Binghamton, NY 4-5 years 40 children Unadjusted mean = 0.05 Unadjusted mean = 0.05 Mean difference = 0.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Moderate Abuse and/or Neglect-DSS and School Records, Confirmed Cases 1987-1992
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Binghamton, NY 4-5 years 40 children Unadjusted mean = 0.25 Unadjusted mean = 0.25 Mean difference = 0.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Moderate Abuse and/or Neglect-DSS and School Records, Current Suspected Cases
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Binghamton, NY 4-5 years 40 children Unadjusted mean = 0.25 Unadjusted mean = 0.50 Mean difference = -0.25 HomeVEE calculated = -0.65 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary

footnote164

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

<abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr>-calculated <em>p</em>-value reported (authors do not report the <em>p</em>-value for this measure).

Outcome domain: Family Economic Self-Sufficiency Outcome Effects
Rating Outcome Measure Effect Sample Timing of Follow-up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Moderate Change in AFDC Status
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Binghamton, NY 4-5 years 40 children Unadjusted mean = -0.10 Unadjusted mean = 0.20 Mean difference = -0.30 Not available Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary

Study Outcome Measure Summary

Outcome Domain: Child Development and School Readiness Outcome Measures
Rating Outcome Measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure Outcome Type
Moderate

Achievement-Kaufman ABC

Mean score on achievement portion of Kaufman Assessment Battery for children (K- ABC) Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary
Moderate

Achievement-Kaufman ABC, % Below 90

Percentage of children who scored below 90 on achievement portion of Kaufman Assessment Battery for children (K- ABC) Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary
Moderate

Fine Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test

Mean number of fine motor delays (definite delays) and cautions (questionable delays) on the Denver Developmental Screening Test Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary
Moderate

Fine Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test, % Below Age Level

Percentage of children who scored below age level for fine motor delays (definite delays) and cautions (questionable delays) on the Denver Developmental Screening Test Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary
Moderate

Gross Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test

Mean number of gross motor delays (definite delays) and cautions (questionable delays) on the Denver Developmental Screening Test Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary
Moderate

Gross Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test, % Below Age Level

Percentage of children who scored below age level for gross motor delays (definite delays) and cautions (questionable delays) on the Denver Developmental Screening Test Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary
Moderate

Language Acquisition Quotient-Zimmerman Preschool Language Scale

Mean language age quotient on Zimmerman Preschool Language Scale, calculated by comparing the child's language development with his/her chronical age to measure language development. Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary
Moderate

Language Acquisition Quotient-Zimmerman Preschool Language Scale, % Below Age Level

Percentage of children whose language age quotient was below 100 on the Zimmerman Preschool Language Scale, indicating their language development was below their cronical age. Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary
Moderate

Mental Processing-Kaufman ABC

Mean score on mental processing portion of Kaufman Assessment Battery for children (K- ABC) Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary
Moderate

Mental Processing-Kaufman ABC, % Below 90

Percentage of children who scored below 90 on mental processing portion of Kaufman Assessment Battery for children (K- ABC) Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary
Outcome Domain: Reductions in Child Maltreatment Outcome Measures
Rating Outcome Measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure Outcome Type
Moderate

Abuse and/or Neglect-DSS and School Records, Cases Remaining Open

Percentage of children who had open cases of abuse and/or neglect Department of Social Services records, school records

Not applicable

Primary
Moderate

Abuse and/or Neglect-DSS and School Records, Confirmed Cases 1987-1992

Percentage of children who had confirmed cases of abuse and/or neglect Department of Social Services records, school records

Not applicable

Primary
Moderate

Abuse and/or Neglect-DSS and School Records, Current Suspected Cases

Percentage of children currently suspected to be abused and/or neglected Department of Social Services records, school records

Not applicable

Primary
Outcome Domain: Family Economic Self-Sufficiency Outcome Measures
Rating Outcome Measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure Outcome Type
Moderate

Change in AFDC Status

Difference in percentage of families who received AFDC when children were age 1 and when children were age 4 or 5 Department of Social Services records

Not applicable

Primary