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Astuto, J., & Allen, L. (2016). Improving school readiness for children living in urban poverty through home-based intervention: Study 2. Unpublished manuscript submitted to HomVEE in July 2016 and July 2017.

Model(s) Reviewed: ParentChild+® Core Model
Manuscript Screening Details
Screening Decision Screening Conclusion
Passes Screens Eligible for review
Study Design Details
Rating Design Attrition Baseline Equivalence Reassignment Confounding Factors
High Randomized controlled trial Low Established on race/ethnicity and SES; not established on baseline measures of the outcomes in the analyzed sample None None
Notes:

All analyses included baseline measures of the outcomes as controls. Therefore, outcomes with low attrition are eligible for a high rating. In addition to the outcomes that are eligible for a high rating, five outcomes in the Child Development and School Readiness domain are eligible for a low rating because they had high attrition or attrition could not be assessed and information was not available from the authors.

This manuscript is one of a set of four reports that examine two distinct studies (Astuto & Allen (2018, Study 1); Astuto & Allen (2016, Study 1); Astuto & Allen (2018, Study 2); and Astuto & Allen (2016, Study 2)). This manuscript describes the same study and sample reported in Astuto & Allen (2018, Study 2).

Study Characteristics
Study Participants Families were eligible to participate if their children were ages 18 to 30 months, the family was Spanish speaking, and the family was within 100 percent of the federal poverty level and eligible for government assistance programs (including WIC, Medicaid, and SNAP). Most families were referred to the study through a waitlist for a program at a community based organization that serves primarily low-income, immigrant, Spanish-speaking families and delivers the ParentChild+ model. All of the parents identified as Latino and were born outside of the United States. On average, children were 2.4 years old at the start of the study and 3.8 years old at the end of the study.
Setting Large city in the northeastern United States
Intervention Services At each home visit, home visitors brought a new book or toy for the family and used it to model reading and verbal interactions and teach parents about age-appropriate expectations and interactions. Families received home visits twice per week for 46 weeks over a two-year period, and home visits were delivered in the parents’ primary language. Families also received a $15 incentive for participating in each data collection interview.
Comparison Conditions Participants in the comparison condition participated in data collection interviews and received a $25 incentive for each interview.
Staff Characteristics and Training Home visitors were matched to families based on culture and language.
Funding Sources PEW Charitable Funds, Heising-Simons Foundation, Edith Glick Shoolman Foundation, and Edward & Ellen Roche Relief Foundation
Author Affiliation The study authors are not developers of this model.
Study Registration:

Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: None found. Study registration was assessed by HomVEE beginning with the 2014 review.

Findings Details

Outcome Domain: Child Development and School Readiness
Rating Outcome Measure Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
High Day Night Task
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
ParentChild+ vs. comparison, northeastern U.S., Study 2 full sample 24 months 136 children Not reported Not reported Not Reported Study reported = 0.18 Not statistically significant, p = 0.29 Primary
High Preschool Language Scale Fourth Edition (PLS-4) - Auditory
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
ParentChild+ vs. comparison, northeastern U.S., Study 2 full sample 24 months 133 children Not reported Not reported Not Reported Study reported = 0.38 Statistically significant, p = 0.03 Primary
High Preschool Language Scale Fourth Edition (PLS-4) - Total
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
ParentChild+ vs. comparison, northeastern U.S., Study 2 full sample 24 months 127 children Not reported Not reported Not Reported Study reported = 0.37 Statistically significant, p = 0.04 Primary
Outcome Domain: Positive Parenting Practices
Rating Outcome Measure Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
High Parent as a Teacher Inventory (PAAT) - Total
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
ParentChild+ vs. comparison, northeastern U.S., Study 2 full sample 24 months 144 parents Not reported Not reported Not Reported Study reported = 0.08 Not statistically significant, p = 0.64 Secondary

Outcome Measure Summary

Outcome Domain: Child Development and School Readiness
Rating Outcome Measure Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of Measure Outcome Type Link to delete Content
High

Day Night Task

A measure of self-regulation and effortful control, child is shown a card with a day or night sky and asked to select opposite response of card shown. Children can earn 0-3 points per trial, and total score ranges from 0-30 for 10 trials.

Observed task

Not reported

Primary
High

Preschool Language Scale Fourth Edition (PLS-4) - Auditory

The PLS-4 is individually administered to assess language competence in children from birth to 6 years. The auditory comprehension subscale includes 48 items.

Standardized test

Internal reliability (r) = 0.86

Primary
High

Preschool Language Scale Fourth Edition (PLS-4) - Total

The PLS-4 is individually administered to assess language competence in children from birth to 6 years.

Standardized test

Internal reliability (r) = 0.93

Primary
Outcome Domain: Positive Parenting Practices
Rating Outcome Measure Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of Measure Outcome Type Link to delete Content
High

Parent as a Teacher Inventory (PAAT) - Total

A 50-item questionnaire assessing parents' expectation of their child and attitudes about appropriate behavior.

Parent questionnaire

Cronbach's alpha = 0.60 and 0.70

Secondary