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Van Zeijl, J., Mesman, J., Van IJzendoorn, M. H., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., Juffer, F., Stolk, M. N., . . . Alink, L. R. (2006). Attachment-based intervention for enhancing sensitive discipline in mothers of 1-to 3-year-old children at risk for externalizing behavior problems: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(6), 994–1005.

Model(s) Reviewed: Video-Feedback Intervention to Promote Positive Parenting-Sensitive Discipline® (VIPP-SD)
Manuscript screening details
Screening decision Screening conclusion
Passes screens Eligible for review
Study design details
Rating Design Attrition Baseline equivalence Reassignment Confounding factors
Moderate Randomized controlled trial Low Established on baseline measures of the outcomes; not established on race/ethnicity and SES No No
Study characteristics
Study participants Participants were 242 mother–child dyads in families identified from community records in the western Netherlands. Eligible participants were families with non-twin children 1, 2, or 3 years old, who had a Dutch first or last name, and lived in a two-parent household where neither mother nor child had a serious medical condition. Families were screened using mail-in questionnaires. Eligible families with a child scoring above the 75th percentile on the Dutch Child Behavioral Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 Externalizing Problems scale were contacted to participate in the study. At baseline, average maternal age was 33 years. Sixty-four percent of sample dyads came from a household with at least one parent with a bachelor’s or master’s degree. Fifty-six percent of the children were boys.
Setting The study took place in the western region of the Netherlands.
Intervention services The intervention, Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline (VIPP-SD), consisted of six 90-minute home visits; the first four visits occurred monthly, and the last two occurred bimonthly. Visits were conducted by 10 trained interventionists. During visits, interventionists video recorded mother–child interactions and provided feedback on video recordings from prior visits as well as other information to help mothers improve their sensitivity and use of sensitive disciplinary practices when confronted with their child’s externalizing problem behavior. After the last home visit, the interventionists provided the families with brochures on key issues discussed, tips, and exercises.
Comparison conditions Mothers in the comparison condition received six telephone calls over the course of the intervention period. The phone calls were semi-structured interviews in which mothers were asked about their child’s development and behavior. The authors report that no mothers in the comparison condition received any parenting advice or information during these calls.
Staff characteristics and training The 10 interventionists delivering VIPP-SD had at least a university degree in education, child studies, or psychology. Seven of them were psychology master’s students.
Funding sources This study was supported by an award from the Zorg Onderzoek Nederland (Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development grant no. 2200.0097).
Author affiliation The authors helped develop VIPP-SD.
Study Registration:

Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: None found. Study registration was assessed by HomVEE beginning with the 2014 review.

Findings details

Child development and school readiness
Rating Outcome measure Effect Sample Timing of follow-up Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
Moderate

Dutch Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5) Externalizing Problems scale: Aggressive

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

VIPP-SD vs. comparison, western Netherlands

1 year

242 dyads Unadjusted mean = 4.78 Unadjusted mean = 4.90 MD = -0.12 Study reported = -0.04

Not statistically significant, p = 0.77

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Moderate

Dutch Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5) Externalizing Problems scale: Oppositional

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

VIPP-SD vs. comparison, western Netherlands

1 year

242 dyads Unadjusted mean = 14.02 Unadjusted mean = 14.68 MD = -0.66 Study reported = -0.12

Not statistically significant, p = 0.37

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Moderate

Dutch Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5) Externalizing Problems scale: Overactive

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

VIPP-SD vs. comparison, western Netherlands

1 year

242 dyads Unadjusted mean = 3.58 Unadjusted mean = 4.05 MD = -0.47 Study reported = -0.25

Not statistically significant, p = 0.06

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Positive parenting practices
Rating Outcome measure Effect Sample Timing of follow-up Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
Moderate

Maternal attitudes questionnaire: sensitive discipline

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

VIPP-SD vs. comparison, western Netherlands

1 year

242 dyads Adjusted mean = 60.71 Adjusted mean = 57.37 MD = 3.34 Study reported = 0.27

Statistically significant, p = 0.04

footnote1452

Submitted by user on Thu, 05/09/2019 - 19:33
The p-value is based on a MANOVA that controls for child sex and age and dichotomous variables for child temperament, daily hassles, marital discord, maternal well-being, and the educational attainment of those delivering VIPP-SD.
Moderate

Maternal attitudes questionnaire: sensitivity

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

VIPP-SD vs. comparison, western Netherlands

1 year

242 dyads Adjusted mean = 65.01 Adjusted mean = 59.24 MD = 5.77 Study reported = 0.56

Statistically significant, p = 0.00

footnote1452

Submitted by user on Thu, 05/09/2019 - 19:33
The p-value is based on a MANOVA that controls for child sex and age and dichotomous variables for child temperament, daily hassles, marital discord, maternal well-being, and the educational attainment of those delivering VIPP-SD.
Moderate

Maternal negative discipline

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

VIPP-SD vs. comparison, western Netherlands

1 year

242 dyads Unadjusted mean = -0.07 Unadjusted mean = 0.07 MD = -0.14 Study reported = -0.06

Not statistically significant, p = 0.65

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Moderate

Maternal positive discipline

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

VIPP-SD vs. comparison, western Netherlands

1 year

242 dyads Unadjusted mean = 0.35 Unadjusted mean = -0.36 MD = 0.71 Study reported = 0.34

Statistically significant, p = 0.01

Moderate

Maternal sensitivity

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

VIPP-SD vs. comparison, western Netherlands

1 year

242 dyads Unadjusted mean = 0.00 Unadjusted mean = 0.00 MD = 0.00 Study reported = 0.00

Not statistically significant, p = 1.00

Outcome measure summary

Child development and school readiness
Outcome measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure

Dutch Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5) Externalizing Problems scale: Aggressive

The Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1-1.5) is a checklist of 100 different behaviors, designed to help identify externalizing problems in infants. The aggressive scale involved 9 of the 100 behaviors. Mother report

Authors reported that this measure is validated and was internally consistent in this study. Chronbach's alpha = 0.75.

Dutch Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5) Externalizing Problems scale: Oppositional

The Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1-1.5) is a checklist of 100 different behaviors, designed to help identify externalizing problems in infants. The oppositional scale involved 17 of the 100 behaviors. Mother report

Authors reported that this measure is validated and was internally consistent in this study. Chronbach's alpha = 0.89.

Dutch Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5) Externalizing Problems scale: Overactive

The Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1-1.5) is a checklist of 100 different behaviors, designed to help identify externalizing problems in infants. The overactive scale involved 5 of the 100 behaviors. Mother report

Authors reported that this measure is validated and was internally consistent in this study. Chronbach's alpha = 0.66.

Positive parenting practices
Outcome measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure

Maternal attitudes questionnaire: sensitive discipline

The maternal attitudes questionnaire was adapted from scales developed by Bakermans-Kranenburg & Van IJzendoorn (2003). It is designed to gauge maternal opinion of sensitive discipline practices. The maternal attitudes toward sensitive discipline subscale involved 10 of the items in the questionnaire. Mother report

Authors reported that this measure is internally consistent, with a Cronbach's alpha of .58

Maternal attitudes questionnaire: sensitivity

The maternal attitudes questionnaire was adapted from scales developed by Bakermans-Kranenburg & Van IJzendoorn (2003). It is designed to gauge maternal opinion of sensitive discipline practices. The maternal attitudes toward sensitivity subscale involved 9 of the items in the questionnaire. Mother report

Authors reported that this measure is internally consistent, with a Cronbach's alpha of .54

Maternal negative discipline

The maternal positive discipline measure rates negative discipline actions by mothers in mother-child dyadic interaction. Interactions involving prohibition, physical obstruction, and giving in were considered negative. Trained observation

Authors reported that this measure was internally consistent and that subscale scores were standardized prior to being added. Inter-rater reliability was 0.85.

Maternal positive discipline

The maternal positive discipline measure rates positive discipline actions by mothers in mother-child dyadic interaction. Interactions involving distraction, induction, and understanding were considered positive. Trained observation

Authors reported that this measure was internally consistent and that subscale scores were standardized prior to being added. Inter-rater reliability was 0.85.

Maternal sensitivity

The maternal sensitivity measure was adapted by the authors from scales developed by Egeland et al. (1990). It is designed to rate sensitive actions by mothers in mother-child dyadic interaction. Trained observation

Authors reported that this measure was internally consistent and that subscale scores were standardized prior to being added. Inter-rater reliability ranges from 0.71 to 0.80.