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Landry, S. H., Smith, K. E., & Swank, P. R. (2006). Responsive parenting: Establishing early foundations for social, communication, and independent problem-solving skills. Developmental Psychology, 42(4), 627-42.

Model(s) Reviewed: Play and Learning Strategies (PALS) Infant
Additional Sources:

WWHV029409

Guttentag, C. L., Pedrosa-Josic, C., Landry, S. H., Smith, K. E., & Swank, P. R. (2006). Individual variability in parenting profiles and predictors of change: Effects of an intervention with disadvantaged mothers. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 27, p. 349-369.
Study Screening Details
Screening Decision Screening Conclusion
Study Passes Screens Study Passes Screens
Study Design Details
Rating Design Attrition Baseline Equivalence Reassignment Confounding Factors
High Randomized controlled trial Low Established on race and socioeconomic status None None
Study Characteristics
Study Participants Mother-infant pairs were recruited from hospitals serving families from lower-income backgrounds and assigned to one of two intervention groups: PALS I or a Developmental Assessment of Skills (DAS) comparison group. Initially 264 mother-infant pairs were randomly assigned, 131 to the treatment group and 133 to the comparison group. After attrition, 241 mother-infant pairs (121 PALS I and 120 DAS) remained in the study. Approximately one-third of each group was African American, Hispanic, or Caucasian. Most were poor and unmarried. Mothers were all 18 years old or older at intake, and averaged 27.8 years old in the treatment group and 27.0 years old in the comparison group. On average, mothers had 12.6 years of education in both groups. Participants were followed over the course of 10 visits.Guttentag et al. (2006) and Smith et al. (2006) used the same sample as this study and described an analytic sample of this size and composition. Although the two studies do not include outcomes that are eligible for the HomVEE review, their information about the analytical sample size and composition provide an additional source of information for evaluating the Landry et al. (2006) study.
Setting The study was conducted in the Houston-Galveston (Texas) area.
Home Visiting Services PALS I consists of a series of 10 home visits, each lasting 1.5 hours and occurring approximately weekly. The home visits are guided by a curriculum that included (1) asking mothers to review their experiences across the past week related to their efforts to try targeted behaviors, (2) describing the current visit’s targeted behavior, (3) watching and discussing with mothers the educational videotape of mothers from similar backgrounds, (4) videotaping mothers interacting with their infants in situations that the mothers selected with coaching, (5) supporting mothers to critique their behaviors and the infants’ responses during the videotaped practice, and (6) planning with mothers how to integrate responsive behaviors into their everyday activities with laminated cards. The facilitator coached the mothers to use the targeted behaviors, including commenting on the infants’ responses when the behaviors were used. Sessions were available in both English and Spanish.
Comparison Conditions Comparison group members received the same number of home visits from facilitators, which included discussions about new infant skills during the previous week and infant development and assessment. Facilitators provided mothers with answers to and handouts about their questions on infant skill development.
Staff Characteristics and Training Facilitators, who had bachelor’s or master’s degrees, were trained to use the curriculum in a flexible manner to meet the learning needs of individual families. Training included review of videotaped facilitated sessions and coaching by a supervisor.
Funding Sources Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, Grant HD36099.
Author Affiliation Susan Landry, a study author, is a developer of this model.

Study Effects Details

Outcome domain: Child Development and School Readiness Outcome Effects
Rating Outcome Measure Effect Sample Timing of Follow-up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
High Negative Affect (With Examiner)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
PALS I vs. DAS 12 months 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = -0.07 Coefficient = 0.28 Not Reported Study reported = 0.70 Statistically significant, p < 0.01 Primary

footnote142

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

The <em>p</em>-values are study reported.

High Social Skills: Cooperation
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
PALS I vs. DAS 12 months 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = 5.56 Coefficient = 5.16 Not Reported Study reported = 0.39 Not statistically significant, p = 0.08 Primary

footnote142

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

The <em>p</em>-values are study reported.

Outcome domain: Positive Parenting Practices Outcome Effects
Rating Outcome Measure Effect Sample Timing of Follow-up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
High Contingent Responsiveness
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
PALS I vs. DAS 12 months 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = 0.77 Coefficient = 0.99 Not Reported Study reported = 0.93 Statistically significant, p < 0.01 Primary

footnote141

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Lower parameter value indicates a better score. The <em>p</em>-values are study reported.

High Harshness of Voice Tone
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
PALS I vs. DAS 12 months 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = 0.07 Coefficient = 0.12 Not Reported Study reported = 0.28 Statistically significant, p = 0.02 Primary

footnote141

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Lower parameter value indicates a better score. The <em>p</em>-values are study reported.

High Labeling Actions
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
PALS I vs. DAS 12 months 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = -8.94 Coefficient = -9.20 Not Reported Study reported = 0.63 Statistically significant, p < 0.01 Primary

footnote141

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Lower parameter value indicates a better score. The <em>p</em>-values are study reported.

High Labeling Objects
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
PALS I vs. DAS 12 months 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = -5.47 Coefficient = -5.86 Not Reported Study reported = 0.71 Statistically significant, p < 0.01 Primary

footnote141

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Lower parameter value indicates a better score. The <em>p</em>-values are study reported.

High Maintaining Infant Foci of Attention
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
PALS I vs. DAS 12 months 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = 13.21 Coefficient = 12.40 Not Reported Study reported = 0.36 Not statistically significant, p = 0.08 Primary

footnote142

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

The <em>p</em>-values are study reported.

High Physical Intrusiveness
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
PALS I vs. DAS 12 months 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = 0.44 Coefficient = 0.51 Not Reported Study reported = 0.50 Statistically significant, p = 0.01 Primary

footnote141

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Lower parameter value indicates a better score. The <em>p</em>-values are study reported.

High Redirecting Infant Foci of Attention
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
PALS I vs. DAS 12 months 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = 1.14 Coefficient = 1.57 Not Reported Study reported = 1.31 Statistically significant, p < 0.01 Primary

footnote141

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Lower parameter value indicates a better score. The <em>p</em>-values are study reported.

High Verbal Encouragement
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
PALS I vs. DAS 12 months 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = 0.67 Coefficient = 0.24 Not Reported Study reported = 0.71 Statistically significant, p < 0.01 Primary

footnote142

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

The <em>p</em>-values are study reported.

High Verbal Scaffolding
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
PALS I vs. DAS 12 months 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = 0.41 Coefficient = -0.08 Not Reported Study reported = 0.79 Statistically significant, p < 0.01 Primary

footnote142

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

The <em>p</em>-values are study reported.

High Warm Sensitivity
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
PALS I vs. DAS 12 months 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = 0.74 Coefficient = 0.90 Not Reported Study reported = 0.49 Statistically significant, p < 0.01 Primary

footnote141

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Lower parameter value indicates a better score. The <em>p</em>-values are study reported.

Study Outcome Measure Summary

Outcome Domain: Child Development and School Readiness Outcome Measures
Rating Outcome Measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure Outcome Type
High

Negative Affect (With Examiner)

The frequency with which an infant displayed signs of irritation such as whining, fussing, and crying when interacting with the examiner. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.76

Primary
High

Social Skills: Cooperation

The frequency with which an infant attempted to respond to his/her mother's request for an action or verbalization. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.62

Primary
Outcome Domain: Positive Parenting Practices Outcome Measures
Rating Outcome Measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure Outcome Type
High

Contingent Responsiveness

The degree to which a mother responded promptly and appropriately to her infant's cues was rated on a five-point scale. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.74

Primary
High

Harshness of Voice Tone

The degree to which the mother used a harsh and/or impatient tone with her infant, rated on a five-point scale. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.70

Primary
High

Labeling Actions

The frequency with which a mother provided the specific names of actions during the interaction. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.70 for the labeling one action and 0.75 for the labeling of more than one action

Primary
High

Labeling Objects

The frequency with which a mother provided the specific names of objects during the interaction. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.77 for both the labeling of one object and the labeling of more than one object

Primary
High

Maintaining Infant Foci of Attention

The frequency with which the mother's behavior helped to sustain her child's current activity. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.81

Primary
High

Physical Intrusiveness

The degree of abruptness in physical interactions such as moving the infant, and physical expressions of impatience. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.45

Primary
High

Redirecting Infant Foci of Attention

The frequency with which the mother's interaction was unrelated to her child's current activity in an attempt to redirect the child's attention. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.77

Primary
High

Verbal Encouragement

The frequency with which a mother praised her infant's efforts. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Primary
High

Verbal Scaffolding

The frequency with which a mother provided verbal hints and prompts. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.64

Primary
High

Warm Sensitivity

The degree to which the mother was warm and sensitive in her interactions with her infant (e.g., accepting of the infant's needs and interests), rated on a five-point scale. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.74

Primary