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Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., Grant, H., & Ridder, E. M. (2005). Early start evaluation report. Christchurch, NZ: Early Start Project Ltd.

Model(s) Reviewed: Early Start (New Zealand) , Early Start (New Zealand) - Māori subgroup
Additional Sources:

WWHV004074

Fergusson, D. M., Grant, H., Horwood, L. J., & Ridder, E. M. (2005). Randomized trial of the Early Start program of home visitation. Pediatrics, 116(6), e803-e809.

Fergusson, D. M., Grant, H., Horwood, L. J., & Ridder, E. M. (2006). Randomized trial of the Early Start program of home visitation: Parent and family outcomes. Pediatrics, 117(3), 781-786. doi:10.1542/peds.2005-1517

Manuscript Screening Details
Screening Decision Screening Conclusion
Passes screens Eligible for review
Study Design Details
Rating Design Attrition Baseline Equivalence Reassignment Confounding Factors
Moderate Randomized controlled trial High Established on race/ethnicity, SES, and outcomes None None
Notes:

In 2020, HomVEE updated this review in three ways. First, HomVEE removed mother's partnership status/family structure findings from the Family Economic Self-Sufficiency domain because ACF determined that mother's partnership status is ineligible for review by HomVEE. Second, HomVEE removed the finding "percent parental report of agency contact for abuse/neglect" from the Reductions in Child Maltreatment domain because some cases measured may be unsubstantiated. In this domain, HomVEE reviews only outcomes focused on substantiated cases of abuse and neglect. Finally, HomVEE clarified that the direction for the finding on duration of attendance for early childhood education is ambiguous, rather than favorable. 

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Maternal outcomes could be assessed at baseline, but were not measured, so these outcomes rate low and are not reported.

Study Characteristics
Study Participants Nurses screened all families in the Christchurch area who had new infants. Screening included an 11-point assessment of family stress and an evaluation of the client's need for Early Start services. A total of 588 families were determined to be eligible and 443 families agreed to participate. Those 443 families were then randomly assigned to either the treatment or comparison group. The analysis sample consisted of 184 families in the treatment group and 207 in the comparison group. Approximately one quarter of the analysis sample was Māori, and weekly income in both the Early Start and comparison groups averaged about $340 per week (according to information provided by the authors). Results are reported as of the 36-month follow-up (certain outcomes have fewer than 391 respondents at this follow-up).
Setting The study was conducted in Christchurch, New Zealand.
Intervention Services Trained family support workers engaged in home visits to encourage positive family change in the following areas: child health, maternal well-being, parenting skills, family economic functioning, and crisis management. The services were tailored to each family’s particular circumstances. Initially, families received two hours of contact with a home visitor per week. Some families in crisis received more contact. The intensity of services decreased as families made progress. Once families became self-reliant, they received a home visit every three months.
Comparison Conditions Comparison participants were not offered any services beyond what is typically available to families in the Christchurch, NZ area.
Staff Characteristics and Training Family support workers must have a relevant educational background, awareness of cultural issues, experience dealing with high-risk families, and evidence of good interpersonal skills and sound judgment. They participated in a four-week training program and received regular supervision and support.
Funding Sources Major funders are The Department of Child, Youth, and Family, Ministry of Health, Canterbury District Health Board, Christchurch City Council, Trustbank Community Trust and Health Research Council of New Zealand. Hyman Marks Trust, Mayor’s Welfare Fund, McKenzie Trust, Telecom New Zealand and UMC Ltd. provided other financial and non-financial support.
Author Affiliation David M. Fergusson, a study author, is a board member of Early Start. Hildegard Grant, another study author, is the general manager of the program.

Findings Details

Outcome Domain: Maternal Health
Rating Outcome Measure Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Moderate Percent any family/social relationship problem
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Christchurch sample 36 months 388 families % = 81.30 % = 82.90 = -1.60 Study reported = 0.04 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote150

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High score equals unfavorable.

Moderate Percent ever pregnant to 36 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Christchurch sample 36 months 388 mothers % = 42.90 % = 47.60 = -4.70 Study reported = 0.09 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote150

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High score equals unfavorable.

Moderate Percent major depression
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Christchurch sample 36 months 388 mothers % = 36.00 % = 37.10 = -1.10 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary

footnote150

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High score equals unfavorable.

Moderate Percent mother smoked cigarettes
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Christchurch sample 36 months 388 mothers % = 73.10 % = 68.90 = 4.20 Study reported = -0.09 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote150

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High score equals unfavorable.

Moderate Percent substance use problems
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Christchurch sample 36 months 388 mothers % = 38.50 % = 33.00 = 5.50 Study reported = -0.11 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary

footnote150

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High score equals unfavorable.

Outcome Domain: Child Health
Rating Outcome Measure Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Moderate Number of home safety features
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Christchurch sample 36 months 388 children Unadjusted mean = 5.20 Unadjusted mean = 4.90 Mean difference = 0.30 Study reported = 0.17 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Number of visits made to family doctor in past 36 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Christchurch sample 36 months 388 children Unadjusted mean = 23.50 Unadjusted mean = 20.70 = 2.80 Study reported = 0.24 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary
Moderate Percent attended hospital for any other reason
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Christchurch sample 36 months 382 children % = 68.40 % = 74.20 = -9.80 Study reported = 0.13 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary

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High score equals unfavorable.

Moderate Percent breastfed for six months or more
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Christchurch sample 36 months 388 children % = 31.30 % = 34.10 = -2.80 Study reported = -0.05 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Percent of children up to date with immunizations
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Christchurch sample 36 months 388 children % = 92.50 % = 91.90 = 0.60 Study reported = 0.24 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Moderate Percent of children up to date with well-child checks
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Christchurch sample 36 months 388 children % = 41.90 % = 30.10 = 11.80 Study reported = 0.24 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary
Moderate Percent with dental service
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Christchurch sample 36 months 391 children % = 72.30 % = 62.80 = 9.50 Study reported = 0.20 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Number of visits made to family doctor in past 36 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Tribal/Māori sample 36 months 151 families Unadjusted mean = 22.00 Unadjusted mean = 23.20 Mean difference = -1.20 HomeVEE calculated = -0.10 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate Percent of children up to date with well-child checks
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Tribal/Māori sample 36 months 151 families = 0.38 = 0.32 Mean difference = 6.20 HomeVEE calculated = 0.16 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate Percent with dental service
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Tribal/Māori sample 36 months 151 families = 0.68 = 0.60 Mean difference = 8.40 HomeVEE calculated = 0.22 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Outcome Domain: Child Development and School Readiness
Rating Outcome Measure Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Moderate Duration of attendance (months)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Christchurch sample 36 months 388 children Unadjusted mean = 16.40 Unadjusted mean = 13.60 Mean difference = 2.80 Study reported = 0.22 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Percent ever attended early childhood education
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Christchurch sample 36 months 388 children % = 90.80 % = 84.50 = 6.30 Study reported = 0.19 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Performance IQ
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Christchurch sample 36 months 367 children Unadjusted mean = 98.10 Unadjusted mean = 96.80 Mean difference = 1.30 Study reported = 0.08 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Moderate Total IQ
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Christchurch sample 36 months 367 children Unadjusted mean = 97.70 Unadjusted mean = 96.50 Mean difference = 1.20 Study reported = 0.07 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Moderate Total behavior score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Christchurch sample 36 months 391 children Unadjusted mean = 9.87 Unadjusted mean = 10.11 Mean difference = -0.24 Study reported = 0.24 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary

footnote150

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High score equals unfavorable.

Moderate Total externalizing score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Christchurch sample 36 months 391 children Unadjusted mean = 9.90 Unadjusted mean = 10.09 Mean difference = -0.19 Study reported = 0.19 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary

footnote150

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High score equals unfavorable.

Moderate Total internalizing score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Christchurch sample 36 months 391 children Unadjusted mean = 9.86 Unadjusted mean = 10.12 Mean difference = -0.26 Study reported = 0.26 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary

footnote150

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High score equals unfavorable.

Moderate Verbal IQ
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Christchurch sample 36 months 367 children Unadjusted mean = 97.70 Unadjusted mean = 97.00 Mean difference = 0.70 Study reported = 0.04 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Moderate Duration of attendance (months)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Tribal/Māori sample 36 months 151 families Unadjusted mean = 15.80 Unadjusted mean = 12.20 Mean difference = 3.60 HomeVEE calculated = 0.28 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Total behavior score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Tribal/Māori sample 36 months 151 families Unadjusted mean = 9.93 Unadjusted mean = 10.36 Mean difference = -0.43 HomeVEE calculated = -0.40 Statistically significant,
p = 0.01
Primary

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Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Moderate Total externalizing score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Tribal/Māori sample 36 months 151 families Unadjusted mean = 9.98 Unadjusted mean = 10.28 Mean difference = -0.30 HomeVEE calculated = -0.28 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary

footnote162

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Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Moderate Total internalizing score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Tribal/Māori sample 36 months 151 families Unadjusted mean = 9.84 Unadjusted mean = 10.41 Mean difference = -0.57 HomeVEE calculated = -0.57 Statistically significant,
p = 0.00
Primary

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Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Outcome Domain: Reductions in Child Maltreatment
Rating Outcome Measure Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Moderate Percent attended hospital for accident/injury or accidental poisoning
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Christchurch sample 36 months 382 children % = 17.50 % = 26.30 = -8.80 Study reported = 0.22 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary

footnote150

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High score equals unfavorable.

Moderate Percent severe/very severe physical assault by any parent (Conflict Tactics Scale)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Christchurch sample 36 months 388 families % = 4.40 % = 11.70 = -7.30 Study reported = 0.26 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Secondary

footnote150

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High score equals unfavorable.

Moderate Percent attended hospital for accident/injury or accidental poisoning
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Tribal/Māori sample 36 months 151 families = 0.25 = 0.27 Mean difference = -1.70 HomeVEE calculated = -0.05 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Moderate Percent severe/very severe physical assault by any parent (Conflict Tactics Scale)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Tribal/Māori sample 36 months 151 families = 0.03 = 0.12 Mean difference = -9.40 HomeVEE calculated = -0.98 Statistically significant,
p = 0.00
Secondary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Outcome Domain: Reductions in Juvenile Delinquency, Family Violence, and Crime
Rating Outcome Measure Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Moderate Percent mother assaulted by any partner
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Christchurch sample 36 months 388 families % = 26.40 % = 22.30 = -4.10 Study reported = -0.10 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary

footnote150

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High score equals unfavorable.

Outcome Domain: Positive Parenting Practices
Rating Outcome Measure Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
Moderate Non-punitive attitudes (CRPR)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Christchurch sample 36 months 391 children Unadjusted mean = 10.12 Unadjusted mean = 9.90 Mean difference = 0.22 Study reported = 0.22 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary
Moderate Percent smoke-free home/smoke-free area
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Christchurch sample 36 months 388 children % = 80.80 % = 81.60 = -0.80 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Positive parenting attitude (Child Rearing Practices Report [ CRPR])
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Christchurch sample 36 months 391 children Unadjusted mean = 10.14 Unadjusted mean = 9.88 Mean difference = 0.26 Study reported = 0.26 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary
Moderate Total parenting score (CRPR)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Christchurch sample 36 months 391 children Unadjusted mean = 10.14 Unadjusted mean = 9.87 Mean difference = 0.27 Study reported = 0.27 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary
Moderate Non-punitiveattitudes (CRPR)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Tribal/Māori sample 36 months 151 families Unadjusted mean = 10.08 Unadjusted mean = 9.76 Mean difference = 0.32 HomeVEE calculated = 0.30 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate Positive parenting attitude (Child Rearing Practices Report [ CRPR])
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Tribal/Māori sample 36 months 151 families Unadjusted mean = 10.04 Unadjusted mean = 9.63 Mean difference = 0.41 HomeVEE calculated = 0.37 Statistically significant,
p = 0.02
Primary
Moderate Total parenting score (CRPR)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Tribal/Māori sample 36 months 151 families Unadjusted mean = 10.07 Unadjusted mean = 9.65 Mean difference = 0.42 HomeVEE calculated = 0.38 Statistically significant,
p = 0.02
Primary
Outcome Domain: Family Economic Self-Sufficiency
Rating Outcome Measure Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Moderate Mean amount of debt
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Christchurch sample 36 months 388 families Unadjusted mean $3,582 = 3582.00 Unadjusted mean = 3380.00 Mean difference = 202.00 Study reported = -0.04 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

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High score equals unfavorable.

Moderate Mean family income per week
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Christchurch sample 36 months 388 families Unadjusted mean = 454.00 Unadjusted mean = 443.00 Mean difference = 11.00 Study reported = 0.08 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Moderate Percent income inadequate/very inadequate
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Christchurch sample 36 months 388 families % = 41.80 % = 37.40 = 4.40 Study reported = -0.09 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

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High score equals unfavorable.

Moderate Percent welfare dependent
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Christchurch sample 36 months 388 families % = 89.60 % = 86.40 = 3.20 Study reported = -0.10 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote150

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High score equals unfavorable.

Outcome Measure Summary

Outcome Domain: Maternal Health
Rating Outcome Measure Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of Measure Outcome Type Link to delete Content
Moderate

Percent any family/social relationship problem

The percentage of families who experienced any family or social relationship problems within the past 36 months Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Percent ever pregnant to 36 months

The percentage of mothers who had become pregnant within the past 36 months Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Percent major depression

The authors used items from the Composite International DiagnosticInterview (CIDI) to assess whether parents ever met the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for major depression within the past 36 months. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author.

Primary
Moderate

Percent mother assaulted by any partner

The ConflictTactics Scale (CTS2) was used to assess partner violence. The percentage of parents who reported any incident of psychological or physical assault by any partner within the past 36 months. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author.

Primary
Moderate

Percent mother smoked cigarettes

Percentage of mothers who smoked cigarettes within the past 36 months Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Percent substance use problems

Items from the CompositeInternational DiagnosticInterview (CIDI) was used to assess alcohol and drug abuse and dependence. The percentage of parents with substance use problems within the past 36 months. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author.

Primary
Outcome Domain: Child Health
Rating Outcome Measure Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of Measure Outcome Type Link to delete Content
Moderate

Number of home safety features

The number of safety features present in the home including working smoke alarms; plug protectors on electric sockets; childproof latches on cupboards; locked medicine cabinet/safe storage of medicines; safe storage for poisons; hot water temperature set at 60°C or lower; fireguards for open fires, log burners, or heaters; and an escape route planned in case of fire. Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Percent attended hospital for any other reason

The percentage of children who attended the hospital for reasons other than accident/injury in the past 36 months Review of medical records

Not applicable

Primary
Moderate

Percent breastfed for six months or more

The percentage of children who were breastfed for six months or more. Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Percent of children up to date with immunizations

The percentage of children who were up to date with immunizations. Review of medical records

Not applicable

Primary
Moderate

Percent of children up to date with well-child checks

The percentage of children who were up to date with well-child checks

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Primary
Moderate

Percent smoke-free home/smoke-free area

The percentage of homes that were always smoke-free within the past 36 months Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Percent with dental service

The percentage of children enrolled to receive free dental service

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Outcome Domain: Child Development and School Readiness
Rating Outcome Measure Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of Measure Outcome Type Link to delete Content
Moderate

Duration of attendance (months)

Duration of attendance in early childhood education (in months)

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Percent ever attended early childhood education

Percentage of children who ever attended early childhood education Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Performance IQ

The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) was used to assess intelligence at age three. The authors obtained a verbal IQ score, a performance IQ score , and full score IQ Child assessment

Cronbach's α = 0.86 for the performance subscale, 0.93 for the verbal subscale, and .0.94 for the total scale.

Primary
Moderate

Total IQ

The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) was used to assess intelligence at age three. The authors obtained a verbal IQ score, a performance IQ score , and full score IQ . Child assessment

Cronbach's α = 0.86 for the performance subscale, 0.93 for the verbal subscale, and .0.94 for the total scale.

Primary
Moderate

Total internalizing/Total externalizing score

Child social-emotional /behavioral problems were assessed using 50 items from the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA). The following dimensions of behavior combine to form the Externalizing score: activity, aggression/defiance, peer aggression, and emotional negativity. The dimensions of inhibition/separation problems and depression/withdrawal comprise the Internalizing score. Items are rated on a 3-point scale from not true (1), rarely to very true (2), and often (3).

Parent/caregiver report

Cronbach’s α ranged from 0.47 to 0.85, with a median of 0.75.

Primary
Moderate

Verbal IQ

The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) was used to assess intelligence at age three. The authors obtained a verbal IQ score, a performance IQ score , and full score IQ. Child assessment

Cronbach's α = 0.86 for the performance subscale, 0.93 for the verbal subscale, and .0.94 for the total scale.

Primary
Outcome Domain: Reductions in Child Maltreatment
Rating Outcome Measure Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of Measure Outcome Type Link to delete Content
Moderate

Percent attended hospital for accident/injury or accidental poisoning

The percentage of children who attended the hospital for accident/injury or accidental poisoning Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Primary
Moderate

Percent attended hospital for accident/injury or accidental poisoning

The percentage of children who attended the hospital for accidents/injuries or accidental poisonings within the past 36 months

Review of medical records

Not applicable

Primary
Moderate

Percent severe/very severe physical assault by any parent (Conflict Tactics Scale)

The Severe/Very Severe assault subscales of the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale was used to assess child abuse/neglect.

Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author.

Primary
Outcome Domain: Positive Parenting Practices
Rating Outcome Measure Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of Measure Outcome Type Link to delete Content
Moderate

Non-punitive attitudes (CRPR)

Positive and punitive parenting practices were assessed using a 49-item measure that combined items from the Child Rearing Practices Report (CRPR), the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI) and study developed items.

Parent/caregiver report

Cronbach's α ranged from 0.73 to 0.89.

Primary
Moderate

Positive parenting attitude (Child Rearing Practices Report [ CRPR])

Positive and punitive parenting practices were assessed using a 49-item measure that combined items from the Child Rearing Practices Report (CRPR), the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI) and study developed items.

Parent/caregiver report

Cronbach’s α ranged from 0.73 to 0.89.

Primary
Moderate

Total parenting score (CRPR)

Positive and punitive parenting practices were assessed using a 49-item measure that combined items from the Child Rearing Practices Report (CRPR), the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI) and study developed items.

Parent/caregiver report

Cronbach's α ranged from 0.73 to 0.89.

Primary
Outcome Domain: Family Economic Self-Sufficiency
Rating Outcome Measure Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of Measure Outcome Type Link to delete Content
Moderate

Mean amount of debt

The average amount of debt families owed over the past 36 months Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Mean family income per week

The average of families' income per week over the past 36 months Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Percent income inadequate/very inadequate

The percentage of families who reported that the adequacy of their income to meet their basic family needs was inadequate/very inadequate within the past 36 months. Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Percent welfare dependent

The percentage of families that were ever dependent on welfare within the past six months Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary