Study Detail

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Love, J., Kisker, E., Ross, C. M., Schochet, P. Z., Brooks-Gunn, J., Paulsell, D., et al. (2002). Making a difference in the lives of infants and toddlers and their families: The impacts of Early Head Start. Volumes I-III: Final technical report [and] appendixes [and] local contributions to understanding the programs and their impacts. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Head Start Bureau.

Model(s) Reviewed: Early Head Start–Home-Based Option (EHS-HBO)
Additional Sources:

WWHV004198

Love, J. M., Kisker, E. E., Ross, C., Raikes, H., Constantine, J., Boller, K., et al. (2005). The effectiveness of Early Head Start for 3-year-old children and their parents: Lessons for policy and programs. Developmental Psychology, 41(6), 885–901. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.41.6.885
Study Screening Details
Screening Decision Screening Conclusion
Study Passes Screens Study Passes Screens
Study Design Details
Rating Design Attrition Baseline Equivalence Reassignment Confounding Factors
High Randomized controlled trial Low Established on race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status; Established on many relevant outcomes None None
Notes:

In 2020, HomVEE updated this review to remove mother's partnership status/family structure findings from the Family Economic Self-Sufficiency domain because ACF determined that mother's partnership status is ineligible for review by HomVEE.

footnote38

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

The study expressed some effect sizes as a percentage of the standard deviation. To be consistent with other studies, HomVEE divided the study-reported effect size by 100 and rounded to two decimal places.

footnote176

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

This study received a mixed rating. Outcomes from the Parent Services Interview have low attrition and typically receive a high rating (though some outcomes that were assessable at baseline and not controlled receive a moderate rating). Outcomes from the Child Assessment (Bayley) and Parent/Child Interactions have high attrition, but baseline equivalence is established and those outcomes receive a moderate rating. Outcomes from the 36-month parent interview have high attrition, but baseline equivalence was established so they generally rate moderate, although outcomes on maternal health and male/father presence were assessable and not controlled, and therefore rate low.

Study Characteristics
Study Participants This study relies on data from a randomized controlled trial of 17 Early Head Start (EHS) programs that began in 1995. Seven of the programs served clients through a home-based option (though other clients in other EHS options also received home visits) and are the focus of this report (EHS-HBO). The study randomly assigned 1,385 families, who applied to those 7 programs, either to receive home-based EHS or a comparison condition. This study included outcomes reported for the 3-year-old follow-up (other years of follow-up are reported in separate studies). For this follow-up, 950 parents (502 in EHS-HBO and 448 in the comparison group) provided data for parent interviews. Among parent interview participants, 46 percent were white, 25 percent were black, and 26 percent were Hispanic. One in four parents had more than a high school education, and one in 10 were in families living above the poverty line; one-third to one-half of families were receiving welfare (AFDC) or Food Stamps.
Setting The study was conducted in 17 EHS programs throughout the United States, including 7 programs with home-based options, which are the focus of this report. Four programs were located in urban areas and three programs were located in rural areas. The seven programs represented a mix of implementation timing; one early implementer had all EHS-HBO elements in place by 1997, and three later implementers had all elements in place by 1999; three programs did not have all elements in place by 1999. The early-implementing program had fully implemented both child and family development services early and continued to have those services in place in 1999.
Home Visiting Services EHS-HBO services are intended to be delivered to study families via weekly home visits. Seventy percent of families in these programs received weekly visits during at least one of the first two follow-up periods, and 26 percent received such services throughout both periods. Over the first two years, families in the home-based option received an average of 71 visits. Typical home visits are at least one hour long. Topics for home visits included child growth and development, child play activities, housing issues, and parent-child communication.
Comparison Conditions Control group families could not receive EHS-HBO services, but could receive other services available in their community.
Staff Characteristics and Training Not specified
Funding Sources Administration for Children and Families (ACF), the Child Outcomes Research and Evaluation team (CORE)within ACF’s Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation (OPRE), and the Head Start Bureau in the Administration on Children, Youth and Families (ACYF)
Author Affiliation None of the study authors are developers of this model.

Study Effects Details

Outcome domain: Maternal Health Outcome Effects
Rating Outcome Measure Effect Sample Timing of Follow-up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
High Subsequent birth by 24 months after random assignment
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact sample 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 21.80 % = 24.70 Mean difference = -2.90 Study reported = -0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate FES: Family conflict
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact sample 36 months postpartum 950 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.70 Adjusted mean = 1.70 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate PSI Parent-Child dysfunctional interaction
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact sample 36 months postpartum 950 mothers Adjusted mean = 17.50 Adjusted mean = 18.10 Mean difference = -0.60 Study reported = -0.10 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate PSI Parental distress
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact sample 36 months postpartum 950 mothers Adjusted mean = 24.90 Adjusted mean = 26.30 Mean difference = -1.40 Study reported = -0.14 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Outcome domain: Child Health Outcome Effects
Rating Outcome Measure Effect Sample Timing of Follow-up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
High Any child health services
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 100.00 % = 99.80 = 0.20 Not Applicable Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Any dentist visits
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 27.10 % = 28.10 = -1.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.03 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Any doctor visits
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 99.00 % = 98.70 = 0.30 HomeVEE calculated = 0.16 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Any emergency room visits
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 53.40 % = 56.00 = -2.60 HomeVEE calculated = -0.06 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Any immunizations
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 99.10 % = 98.50 = 0.70 HomeVEE calculated = 0.31 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Any screening tests
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 62.40 % = 61.00 = 1.40 HomeVEE calculated = 0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Child’s health status
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact sample Age 3 950 children Adjusted mean = 4.00 Adjusted mean = 4.00 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Percentage of children in fair or poor health
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact sample Age 3 950 children % = 9.80 % = 9.60 Mean difference = 0.20 Study reported = 0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Outcome domain: Child Development and School Readiness Outcome Effects
Rating Outcome Measure Effect Sample Timing of Follow-up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Moderate Bayley BRS: Orientation/Engagement
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study Age 3 744 children Adjusted mean = 3.90 Adjusted mean = 3.80 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 3.40 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate Bayley Behavioral Rating Scale(BRS): Emotional regulation
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study Age 3 744 children Adjusted mean = 4.00 Adjusted mean = 4.00 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 2.10 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate Bayley Mental DevelopmentIndex(MDI)Standard Score
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study Age 3 746 children Adjusted mean = 94.10 Adjusted mean = 92.80 Mean difference = 1.20 Study reported = 9.50 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate Child behavior checklist - aggressive behavior
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study Age 3 746 children Adjusted mean = 11.20 Adjusted mean = 11.70 Mean difference = -0.50 Study reported = -7.80 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Engagement of parent during parent-child puzzle challenge task
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study Age 3 744 children Adjusted mean = 5.10 Adjusted mean = 5.00 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 5.60 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate Engagement of parent during parent-child semistructured play
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study Age 3 744 children Adjusted mean = 4.80 Adjusted mean = 4.60 Mean difference = 0.20 Study reported = 19.20 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Primary
Moderate Frustration during parent-child puzzle challenge task
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study Age 3 744 children Adjusted mean = 2.70 Adjusted mean = 2.60 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 5.90 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate Negativity toward parent during parent-child semistructured play
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study Age 3 744 children Adjusted mean = 1.30 Adjusted mean = 1.30 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -6.60 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)-III Standard Score
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study Age 3 746 children Adjusted mean = 84.60 Adjusted mean = 83.10 Mean difference = 1.50 Study reported = 9.10 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate Percentage with PPVT-III<85
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study Age 3 746 children % = 45.60 % = 48.60 = -3.00 Study reported = -6.10 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate Percentage with MDI <85
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study Age 3 746 children % = 20.50 % = 22.00 = -1.40 Study reported = -3.10 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate Persistence during parent-child puzzle challenge task
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study Age 3 744 children Adjusted mean = 4.70 Adjusted mean = 4.60 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 12.00 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate Sustained attention with objects during parent-child semistructured play
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study Age 3 744 children Adjusted mean = 5.00 Adjusted mean = 4.90 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 10.60 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Outcome domain: Reductions in Child Maltreatment Outcome Effects
Rating Outcome Measure Effect Sample Timing of Follow-up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
High Number of emergency room visits for injuries
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.30 Adjusted mean = 0.30 Mean difference = 0.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Outcome domain: Positive Parenting Practices Outcome Effects
Rating Outcome Measure Effect Sample Timing of Follow-up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Moderate HOME harshness
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study Age 3 950 children Adjusted mean = 0.30 Adjusted mean = 0.30 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.06 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate HOME internal physical environment
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study Age 3 950 children Adjusted mean = 8.00 Adjusted mean = 8.00 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate HOME total score
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study Age 3 950 children Adjusted mean = 28.30 Adjusted mean = 28.10 Mean difference = 0.20 Study reported = 0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate HOME warmth
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study Age 3 950 children Adjusted mean = 2.70 Adjusted mean = 2.70 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate HOME: support of language and learning
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study Age 3 950 children Adjusted mean = 10.90 Adjusted mean = 10.70 Mean difference = 0.20 Study reported = 0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate Detachment during parent-child puzzle challenge tasks
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study Age 3 744 children Adjusted mean = 1.60 Adjusted mean = 1.60 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate Detachment during parent-child semi-structured play
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study Age 3 744 children Adjusted mean = 1.20 Adjusted mean = 1.30 Mean difference = -0.10 Study reported = -0.09 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate Index of severity of discipline strategies
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study Age 3 950 children Adjusted mean = 3.30 Adjusted mean = 3.30 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Intrusiveness during parent-child puzzle challenge task
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study Age 3 744 children Adjusted mean = 2.50 Adjusted mean = 2.60 Mean difference = -0.10 Study reported = -0.09 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate Intrusiveness during parent-child semistructured play
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study Age 3 744 children Adjusted mean = 1.60 Adjusted mean = 1.60 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.06 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate Negative regard during parent-child semistructured play
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study Age 3 744 children Adjusted mean = 1.20 Adjusted mean = 1.30 Mean difference = -0.10 Study reported = -0.10 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate Parent-child play
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study Age 3 744 children Adjusted mean = 4.40 Adjusted mean = 4.40 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.06 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate Percentage of children that follow a bedtime routine
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study Age 3 950 children % = 72.00 % = 71.00 = 1.00 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Percentage of children with a regular bedtime
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study Age 3 950 children % = 59.30 % = 55.60 = 3.70 Study reported = 0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Percentage of parents suggesting physical punishment as a discipline strategy
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study Age 3 950 children = 44.90 = 44.50 = 0.40 Study reported = 0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Percentage of parents that read to child at bedtime
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study Age 3 950 children % = 29.60 % = 25.80 = 3.80 Study reported = 0.08 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Percentage of parents that read to child daily
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study Age 3 950 children % = 54.50 % = 55.70 = -1.20 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Percentage of parents that spanked child in the past week
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study Age 3 950 children % = 44.10 % = 49.60 = -5.50 Study reported = -0.11 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Percentage of parents that usually use a car seat correctly
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study Age 3 950 children = 70.40 = 69.40 = 1.00 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Percentage of parents that would use mild discipline only
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study Age 3 950 children = 45.80 = 45.90 = -0.10 Study reported = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Quality of assistance during parent-child puzzle challenge task
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study Age 3 744 children Adjusted mean = 3.60 Adjusted mean = 3.50 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 0.03 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate Supportive presence during parent-child puzzle challenge task
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study Age 3 744 children Adjusted mean = 4.60 Adjusted mean = 4.50 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Moderate Supportiveness during parent-child semistructured play
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study Age 3 744 children Adjusted mean = 4.00 Adjusted mean = 3.90 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 0.16 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Primary
Outcome domain: Family Economic Self-Sufficiency Outcome Effects
Rating Outcome Measure Effect Sample Timing of Follow-up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
High Average hours per week employed
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers Adjusted mean = 14.80 Adjusted mean = 15.10 Mean difference = -0.30 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Average hours per week in any employment, education, or training activity
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers Adjusted mean = 19.90 Adjusted mean = 18.50 Mean difference = 1.40 Study reported = -0.09 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Average hours per week in education or training
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers Adjusted mean = 4.50 Adjusted mean = 3.00 Mean difference = 1.50 Study reported = -0.24 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01
Secondary
High Employed: 1st quarter
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 33.80 % = 36.10 = -2.30 Study reported = 0.05 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Employed: 2nd quarter
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 38.20 % = 42.90 = -4.70 Study reported = 0.10 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Employed: 3rd quarter
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 46.90 % = 50.10 = -3.20 Study reported = 0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Employed: 4th quarter
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 51.90 % = 51.70 = 0.20 Study reported = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Employed: 5th quarter
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 57.70 % = 58.90 = -1.20 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Employed: 6th quarter
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 61.70 % = 58.20 = 3.50 Study reported = -0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Employed: 7th quarter
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 57.50 % = 55.00 = 2.50 Study reported = -0.05 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Employed: 8th quarter
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 55.90 % = 59.90 = -4.00 Study reported = 0.08 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Employment, education, or training: 1st quarter
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 47.30 % = 48.40 = -1.10 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Employment, education, or training: 2nd quarter
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 53.40 % = 55.50 = -2.10 Study reported = 0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Employment, education, or training: 3rd quarter
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 62.30 % = 62.90 = -0.60 Study reported = 0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Employment, education, or training: 4th quarter
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 65.20 % = 61.60 = 3.60 Study reported = -0.08 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Employment, education, or training: 5th quarter
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 69.60 % = 67.90 = 1.70 Study reported = -0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Employment, education, or training: 6th quarter
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 72.90 % = 66.40 = 6.50 Study reported = -0.14 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Secondary
High Employment, education, or training: 7th quarter
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 66.40 % = 62.70 = 3.70 Study reported = -0.08 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Employment, education, or training: 8th quarter
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 65.20 % = 66.60 = -14.00 Study reported = 0.03 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Ever employed
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 83.10 % = 81.80 = 1.30 Study reported = -0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Ever employed or in education/training
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 90.50 % = 88.90 = 1.60 Study reported = -0.05 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Ever in education or training
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 53.10 % = 45.50 = 7.60 Study reported = -0.15 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Secondary
High Ever received AFDC or TANF
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 55.20 % = 52.50 = 2.70 Study reported = -0.06 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Ever received food stamps
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers = 66.70 = 65.40 = 1.30 Study reported = -0.03 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Ever received welfare
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers = 72.90 = 70.50 = 2.40 Study reported = -0.05 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Have GED
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 8.50 % = 11.50 = 3.00 Study reported = 0.09 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Have high school diploma
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 49.10 % = 45.70 = 3.40 Study reported = -0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High In education or training: 1st quarter
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 21.20 % = 21.60 = -0.40 Study reported = 0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High In education or training: 2nd quarter
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 25.10 % = 22.90 = 2.20 Study reported = -0.05 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High In education or training: 3rd quarter
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 28.20 % = 26.50 = 1.70 Study reported = -0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High In education or training: 4th quarter
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 27.10 % = 22.50 = 4.60 Study reported = -0.11 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High In education or training: 5th quarter
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 28.60 % = 22.90 = 5.70 Study reported = -0.13 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Secondary
High In education or training: 6th quarter
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 28.70 % = 21.30 = 7.40 Study reported = -0.18 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01
Secondary
High In education or training: 7th quarter
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 23.10 % = 17.60 = 5.50 Study reported = -0.14 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Secondary
High In education or training: 8th quarter
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 24.30 % = 15.60 = 8.70 Study reported = -0.22 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01
Secondary
High Income above poverty line, (percentage)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers Adjusted mean % = 41.10 Adjusted mean % = 40.80 Mean difference = 0.30 Study reported = -0.05 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Received AFDC or TANF: 1st quarter
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 42.20 % = 29.40 = 12.80 Study reported = -0.06 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Received AFDC or TANF: 2nd quarter
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 41.90 % = 42.40 = -0.50 Study reported = 0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Received AFDC or TANF: 3rd quarter
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 46.20 % = 43.90 = 2.30 Study reported = -0.05 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Received AFDC or TANF: 4th quarter
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 37.20 % = 38.10 = -0.90 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Received AFDC or TANF: 5th quarter
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 36.00 % = 37.80 = -1.80 Study reported = 0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Received AFDC or TANF: 6th quarter
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 36.40 % = 38.50 = -2.10 Study reported = 0.05 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Received AFDC or TANF: 7th quarter
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 27.40 % = 32.10 = -4.70 Study reported = 0.11 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Received AFDC or TANF: 8th quarter
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 27.80 % = 27.80 = 0.00 Study reported = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Total AFDC or TANF benefits ($)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers = 2675.50 = 2833.80 = -158.30 Study reported = 0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Total food stamps benefits ($)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers Adjusted mean = 2297.80 Adjusted mean = 2152.50 Mean difference = 145.30 Study reported = -0.05 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Total welfare benefits ($)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers Adjusted mean = 5928.60 Adjusted mean = 6088.80 Mean difference = -160.20 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Ever in ESL class
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 3.40 % = 2.40 = 1.00 Study reported = -0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Ever in high school
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 12.60 % = 6.80 = 5.80 Study reported = -0.20 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01
Secondary
Moderate Ever in vocational program
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 18.20 % = 15.70 = 2.50 Study reported = -0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Outcome domain: Linkages and Referrals Outcome Effects
Rating Outcome Measure Effect Sample Timing of Follow-up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
High Any family health services
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 100.00 % = 100.00 = 0.00 Not Applicable Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Any family mental health services
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 23.90 % = 21.00 = 2.90 HomeVEE calculated = 0.10 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Identification of child’s disability
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 7.60 % = 5.00 = 2.70 HomeVEE calculated = -0.05 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High Services for child with disability
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 5.30 % = 3.70 Mean difference = 1.50 HomeVEE calculated = -0.06 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Any education-related services
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 86.90 % = 50.80 = 36.10 HomeVEE calculated = 1.13 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01
Secondary
Moderate Any employment-related services
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 77.30 % = 47.10 = 30.20 HomeVEE calculated = 0.81 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01
Secondary
Moderate Housing assistance
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 65.70 % = 64.10 = 1.60 HomeVEE calculated = 0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Moderate Transportation assistance
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study 28 months after assignment 941 mothers % = 32.00 % = 23.90 = 8.10 HomeVEE calculated = 0.24 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01
Secondary

Study Outcome Measure Summary

Outcome Domain: Maternal Health Outcome Measures
Rating Outcome Measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure Outcome Type
High

Subsequent birth by 24 months after random assignment

Percentage of parents who had a subsequent birth by 24 months after random assignment Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

FES: Family conflict

The FES assesses the social-environmental characteristics of families. The researchers used the Family Conflict dimension, which measures the extent to which anger, aggression, frustration, and contentious interactions are common in the family. Parent/caregiver report

Cronbach’s α = 0.68

Primary
Moderate

PSI: Parental DistressPSI: Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction

The PSI–SF assesses stress in the parent-child relationship arising from child temperament, parental depression, and negatively reinforcing parent-child interactions. The researchers used two subscales: (1) Parental Distress, which measures the level of distress parents feel in their role because of personal factors; and (2) Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction, which measures parents’ perception of parent-child interaction not meeting expectations and feelings of child rejection and abuse. Parent/caregiver report

Cronbach’s α = 0.84 (Parental Distress) Cronbach’s a = 0.81 (Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction)

Primary
Outcome Domain: Child Health Outcome Measures
Rating Outcome Measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure Outcome Type
High

Any child health services

No description provided Parent report

Not applicable

Secondary
High

Any dentist visits

No description provided Parent report

Not applicable

Secondary
High

Any doctor visits

No description provided Parent report

Not applicable

Secondary
High

Any emergency room visits

No description provided Parent report

Not applicable

Secondary
High

Any immunizations

No description provided Parent report

Not applicable

Secondary
High

Any screening tests

No description provided Parent report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Child’s health status

The child health status was rated on a five-point scale of 1 (poor) to 5 (excellent). Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Percentage of children in fair or poor health

Percentage of children who were reported to be in fair or poor health Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Outcome Domain: Child Development and School Readiness Outcome Measures
Rating Outcome Measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure Outcome Type
Moderate

Bayley BRS : Orientation/Engagement

The Bayley BRS assesses child behavior, with each item scored on a 5-point scale. Orientation and engagement was an average score on items including positive affect, interest in materials, and exploration of objects and surroundings. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Secondary
Moderate

Bayley Behavioral Rating Scale(BRS): Emotional regulation

The Bayley BRS assesses child behavior, with each item scored on a 5-point scale. Emotional regulation was an average score on items including negative affect and attention adaptation to change in test materials. Trained assessor ratings

Not reported by author

Secondary
Moderate

Bayley Mental DevelopmentIndex(MDI)Standard Score

The MDI of the BSI D assesses the cognitive functioning of young children. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary
Moderate

Child behavior checklist - aggressive behavior

The CBCL is a questionnaire that assesses behavioral problems in young children. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary
Moderate

Engagement of parent during parent-child puzzle challenge task

Children were given puzzles at increasing levels of challenge to work on with their parent. The task was videotaped, and child and parent behaviors were coded on a 7-point scale by child development researchers according to strict protocols. The scales are based on a puzzle task used by Brooks-Gunn et al. (1992) in the Newark Observational Study of the Teenage Parent Demonstration. Engagement measures the extent to which the child shows, initiates, or maintains interaction with the parent. Very high engagement receives a 7. Videotape observation

Not reported by author

Secondary
Moderate

Engagement of parent during parent-child semistructured play

The child’s behavior during a play task was coded. Child engagement with parent was measured as the extent to which the child interacted with the parent and communicated positive feelings. Videotape observation

Not reported by author

Secondary
Moderate

Frustration during parent-child puzzle challenge task

Children were given puzzles at increasing levels of challenge to work on with their parent. The task was videotaped, and child and parent behaviors were coded on a 7-point scale by child development researchers according to strict protocols. The scales are based on a puzzle task used by Brooks-Gunn et al. (1992) in the Newark Observational Study of the Teenage Parent Demonstration. Frustration measures the degree to which the child expresses frustration or anger toward the puzzle task. Very high frustration receives a 7. Videotape observation

Not reported by author

Secondary
Moderate

Negativity toward parent during parent-child semistructured play

The child’s behavior during a play task was coded. Child negativity toward parent measured displays of anger, rejection, or a negative reaction to parent’s behavior. Videotape observation

Not reported by author

Secondary
Moderate

Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)-III Standard Score

The PPVT -III is a test of children’s receptive vocabulary. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary
Moderate

Percentage with MDI <85

The MDI of the BSI D assesses the cognitive functioning of young children. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary
Moderate

Percentage with PPVT -III<85

The PPVT -III is a test of children’s receptive vocabulary. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary
Moderate

Persistence during parent-child puzzle challenge task

Children were given puzzles at increasing levels of challenge to work on with their parent. The task was videotaped, and child and parent behaviors were coded on a 7-point scale by child development researchers according to strict protocols. The scales are based on a puzzle task used by Brooks-Gunn et al. (1992) in the Newark Observational Study of the Teenage Parent Demonstration. Persistence measures how goal-oriented, focused, and motivated the child remains toward the puzzle throughout the task. Very high persistence receives a 7. Videotape observation

Not reported by author

Secondary
Moderate

Sustained attention with objects during parent-child semistructured play

The child’s behavior during a play task was coded. Child sustained attention with objects was measured as the duration of the child’s focus on an object or set of objects. Videotape observation

Not reported by author

Secondary
Outcome Domain: Reductions in Child Maltreatment Outcome Measures
Rating Outcome Measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure Outcome Type
High

ER visits due to accident or injury

Percentage of children who had visited an ER because of accident or injury Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Outcome Domain: Positive Parenting Practices Outcome Measures
Rating Outcome Measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure Outcome Type
Moderate

HOME:

  • Total score
  • Internal physical environment
  • Warmth
  • Harshness
  • Support of language and learning
The HOME assesses parenting practices and aspects of the home environment. In addition to a total score, four subscales were used. Warmth measured responsive and supportive parenting behavior. Items included whether the mother kissed or caressed the child during the visit, whether her voice conveyed positive feeling, and whether she praised the child. Scores ranged from 0, if none of the positive behaviors were observed, to 3, if all of the behaviors were observed. Harshness measured harsh or punitive parenting behavior observed during the HOME interview. Items included whether the parent scolded the child, physically restrained the child, or slapped or spanked the child. For this subscale (but not for the total HOME score), items were reverse-coded so that higher scores indicate greater harshness. Scores ranged from 0, if no harsh behavior was observed, to 3, if the three types of harsh behavior were observed. Support of language and learning measured the breadth and quality of the mother’s speech and verbal responses to the child, such as whether the parent encourages the child to learn shapes, colors, numbers, and the alphabet; the presence of books, toys, and games accessible to the child; and whether the parent read to the child several times per week. Internal physical environment measured the cleanliness, organization, and warmth of the home environment. Items in this subscale were each coded on a 3-point scale for this subscale (but on a binary scale for the total HOME) ranging from 3 to 9. Parent/caregiver interview and observational assessment

Cronbach’s α = .80 (Total Score) Cronbach’s α = .77 ( Internal physical environment) Cronbach’s α = .72 (Warmth) Cronbach’s α = .55 (Harshness) Cronbach’s α = .67 (Support of language and learning) 

Primary
Moderate

Parent-child play

Measured the frequency with which the parent engaged in several activities with the child that can stimulate cognitive and language development, including reading or telling stories, dancing, singing, and playing outside together Parent/caregiver report

Cronbach’s α = .80

Primary
Moderate

Percentage of children who follow a bedtime routine

Percentage of parents who had regular routines with the child around bedtime, such as singing lullabies, putting toys away, or telling stories Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Percentage of children with a regular bedtime

Percentage of parents who set a regular bedtime for the child, and the child was put to bed at that time four out of five weekdays in previous week Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Percentage of parents suggesting physical punishment as a discipline strategy Percentage of parents who would use mild discipline only Index of severity of discipline strategies

Parents were asked about strategies for handling four different potential conflict situations with the child: (1) the child keeps playing with breakable things; (2) the child refuses to eat; (3) the child throws a temper tantrum in a public place; and (4) the child hits the parent in anger. Parents provided open-ended answers to how they would respond to each of the four situations, and these responses were classified into discipline strategies that were coded as binary variables. Index of severity measured the degree of harshness of discipline strategies suggested. An individual’s score on this ranged from 1 to 5, and was determined by the harshest strategy that was suggested in response to any of the four conflict situations. Mild Discipline was a binary variable indicating parents who mentioned only the following types of responses for each situation: prevent the situation; distract the child; remove the child or object; talk to the child or explain the issue; ignore the behavior; put the child in time out; send the child to his or her room; threaten to take away treats or threaten time out; or tell child "No." Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Percentage of parents who read to child at bedtime

Percentage of parents who read to child as part of the regular bedtime routine and followed this routine four out of five weekdays in previous week Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Percentage of parents who read to child daily

Percentage of parents who read to the child every day or more than once per day Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Percentage of parents who spanked child in the past week

Percentage of parents who had spanked the child in the previous week Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Percentage of parents who usually use a car seat correctly

Percentage of families who used a car seat for the child, and it was in the back seat of the car Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Supportive presence during parent-child puzzle challenge task Quality of assistance during parent-child puzzle challenge task Detachment during parent-child puzzle challenge tasks Intrusiveness during parent-child puzzle challenge task

The child was given a puzzle to play with, and the parent was instructed to give the child any help needed. After 3 minutes, or earlier if the puzzle was completed, the interviewer gave the child a second, harder puzzle and asked the mother not to help the child. If that puzzle was completed or 3 minutes elapsed, another, more challenging puzzle was provided. Child and parent behaviors were coded on a 7-point scale. Supportive presence measured the parent’s level of emotional support and enthusiasm toward the child and his or her work on the puzzles, displays of affection, and a positive attitude toward the child and his or her abilities. Quality of Assistance measured the frequency and quality of clear guidance to the child, flexible strategies for providing assistance, and diverse, descriptive verbal instructions and exchanges with the child. Detachment measured the extent to which the parent acted inattentive or indifferent toward the child. Intrusiveness measured the extent to which the parent controlled the child, rather than validating the child’s perspective and exploration. Higher scores indicate that the parent controlled the play agenda. Videotaped observation

Cronbach’s α = .82

Primary
Moderate

Supportiveness during parent-child semistructured play  Intrusiveness during parent-child semistructured play  Negative regard during parent-child semistructured play Detachment during parent-child semistructured play

The parent and child were given three bags of toys and asked to play with the toys in sequence, and child and parent behaviors were coded. The assessment was adapted from the Three Box coding scales used in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. Aspects of the parent’s behavior with the child were rated on a 7-point scale. Supportiveness was a measure of parental sensitivity, cognitive stimulation, and positive regard during play. Detachment measured the extent to which the parent was inattentive to the child, or interacted in a indifferent manner. Intrusiveness measured the degree to which the parent controlled the child, rather than recognizing and respecting the validity of the child’s independent efforts to solve the puzzle. Negative regard measured the parent’s expression of discontent with, anger toward, disapproval of, or rejection of the child. High scores on negative regard indicate that the parent used a disapproving or negative tone; showed frustration, anger, physical roughness, or harshness toward the child; threatened the child for failing at a task or not playing the way the parent desired; or belittled the child. Videotaped observation

Not reported by author

Primary
Outcome Domain: Family Economic Self-Sufficiency Outcome Measures
Rating Outcome Measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure Outcome Type
High

Average hours per week employed

The average hours per week that program participants spent in paid work Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
High

Average hours per week in any employment, education, or training activity

The average hours per week that program participants spent in school, job/vocational training, or employment activities Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
High

Average hours per week in education or training

The average hours per week that program participants spend in school or job/vocational training Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
High

Employed

Percentage of parents who were employed at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th quarters after enrolling in EHS Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
High

Employment, education, or training

Percentage of parents who participated in school, job/vocational training, or employment activities at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th quarters after enrolling in EHS Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
High

Ever employed

Percentage of parents who had ever been employed during their time in EHS Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
High

Ever employed or in education/training

Percentage of parents who had ever participated in an education or job training program or been employed during their time in the program Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
High

Ever in education or training

Percentage of parents who had ever participated in an education or job training program during their time in EHS Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
High

Ever received AFDC or TANF

Percentage of households that had ever received AFDC or TANF during their time in EHS Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
High

Ever received food stamps

Percentage of households that had ever received food stamps during their time in EHS Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
High

Ever received welfare

Percentage of households that had ever received welfare benefits during their time in the program, including (1) AFDC or TANF, (2) SSI, (3) food stamps, and (4) GA Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
High

Has GED

Percentage of parents who had earned a GED Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
High

Has high school diploma

Percentage of parents who had earned a high school diploma Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
High

In education or training

Percentage of parents who were participating in an education or job training program at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th quarters after enrolling in EHS Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
High

Income above poverty line

Percentage of households that had a household income above the poverty line Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
High

Received AFDC or TANF

Percentage of households that had ever received AFDC or TANF at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th quarters after enrolling in EHS Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
High

Total AFDC or TANF benefits

A sum of reported household AFDC or TANF benefits Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
High

Total food stamp benefits

A sum of reported household food stamp benefits Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
High

Total welfare benefits

A sum of all reported household welfare benefits, including (1) AFDC or TANF, (2) SSI, (3) food stamps, and (4) GA Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Ever in ESL class

Percentage of parents who had ever enrolled in ESL classes during their time in EHS Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Ever in high school

Percentage of parents who had ever enrolled in high school during their time in EHS Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Ever in vocational program

Percentage of parents who had ever enrolled in a vocational training program during their time in EHS Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Outcome Domain: Linkages and Referrals Outcome Measures
Rating Outcome Measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure Outcome Type
High

Any family health services

Percentage of families that had received any family health services Parent interview

Not applicable

Secondary
High

Any family mental health services

Percentage of families that had received any family mental health services Parent interview

Not applicable

Secondary
High

Identification of child’s disability

Percentage of children identified as having a disability Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
High

Services for child with disability

Percentage of families that received early intervention servicesfor a child with a disability Parent interview

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Any education-related services

Indicates whether the family reported receiving any education-related services from the EHS program Parent interview

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Any employment-related services

Indicates whether the family reported receiving help finding a job from the EHS program Parent interview

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Housing assistance

Indicates whether the family reported receiving housing assistance from the EHS program Parent interview

Not applicable

Secondary
Moderate

Transportation assistance

Indicates whether the family reported receiving trasnporation assistance from the EHS program Parent interview

Not applicable

Secondary