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Landry, S. H., Smith, K. E., Swank, P. R., Zucker, T., Crawford, A. D., & Solari, E. F. (2012). The effects of a responsive parenting intervention on parent-child interactions during shared book reading. Developmental Psychology, 48(4), 969–986.

 

Model(s) Reviewed: Play and Learning Strategies (PALS) Infant , PALS Infant + Toddler/Preschooler , PALS Toddler/Preschooler
Additional Sources:

WWHV064545

Landry, S. H., Smith, K. E., Swank, P. R., Zucker, T., Crawford, A. D., & Solari, E. F. (2011, November 28). The effects of a responsive parenting intervention on parent–child interactions during shared book reading. Developmental Psychology. Advance online publication.

Manuscript Screening Details
Screening Decision Screening Conclusion
Passes Screens Eligible for review
Study Design Details
Rating Design Attrition Baseline Equivalence Reassignment Confounding Factors
High Randomized controlled trial Low Established on race and socioeconomic status None None
Study Characteristics
Study Participants The study included mother-infant pairs who had participated in an earlier study by Landry et al. (2006) in which they had been randomly assigned to PALS I (PALS Infant) or a Development Assessment of Skills (DAS) group. For the current study, they were randomly assigned to one of two intervention groups: PALS II (PALS Toddler/Preschooler) or another DAS comparison group, stratified by whether they had initially received PALS I or DAS. Thus, some received PALS I only, some received PALS II only, some received both PALS I and II, and the remaining pairs received DAS home visits only. According to information provided by the first author, initially 169 mother-infant pairs were randomly assigned, 85 to the treatment groups and 84 to the comparison group. After attrition, 166 mother-infant pairs (84 PALS and 82 DAS) remained in the study. Approximately one-third of each group was African American, Hispanic, or Caucasian. Most were poor and unmarried. Mothers were all 18 years old or older at intake into the original study and averaged approximately 30 years old. On average, mothers had 12 or more years of education in both groups. Participants were followed over the course of 11 visits.
Setting The study was conducted in the Houston-Galveston (Texas) area.
Intervention Services PALS II was adapted from the PALS I curriculum to target similar responsive behaviors for toddlers plus an additional session targeting behavioral guidance. PALS II consists of a series of 11 home visits, each lasting 1.5 hours and occurring approximately weekly. The home visits are guided by a curriculum that included (1) asking mothers to review their experiences across the past week related to their efforts to try targeted behaviors, (2) describing the current visit’s targeted behavior, (3) watching and discussing with mothers the educational videotape of mothers from similar backgrounds, (4) videotaping mothers interacting with their infants in situations that the mothers selected with coaching, (5) supporting mothers to critique their behaviors and the infants’ responses during the videotaped practice, and (6) planning with mothers how to integrate responsive behaviors into their everyday activities with laminated cards. The facilitator coached the mothers to use the targeted behaviors, including commenting on the infants’ responses when the behaviors were used. Sessions were available in both English and Spanish.
Comparison Conditions Comparison group members received the same number of home visits from facilitators, which included discussions about new infant skills during the previous week and infant development and assessment. Facilitators provided mothers with answers to and handouts about their questions on infant skill development.
Staff Characteristics and Training Facilitators, who had bachelor’s or master’s degrees, were trained to use the curriculum in a flexible manner to meet the learning needs of individual families. Training included review of videotaped facilitated sessions and coaching by a supervisor.
Funding Sources Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, Grant HD36099.
Author Affiliation Susan Landry, a study author, is a developer of this model.

Findings Details

Outcome Domain: Child Development and School Readiness
Rating Outcome Measure Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
High Behavioral responses
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS I 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.43 Not applicable Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.28 Primary
High Comments
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS I 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.12 Not applicable Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.97 Primary
High Coordination of gestures and verbalizations
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS I 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = 0.01 Not applicable Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.95 Primary
High Engagement in activity
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS I 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = 0.43 Not applicable Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.81 Primary
High Questions and requests
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS I 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = 0.01 Not applicable Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.26 Primary
High Verbal responses
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS I 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.07 Not applicable Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.20 Primary
High Behavioral responses
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS I*PALS II 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.26 Not applicable Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.88 Primary
High Comments
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS I*PALS II 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.30 Not applicable Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.42 Primary
High Coordination of gestures and verbalizations
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS I*PALS II 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.42 Not applicable Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.50 Primary
High Engagement in activity
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS I*PALS II 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -1.68 Not applicable Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = .63 Primary
High Questions and requests
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS I*PALS II 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.34 Not applicable Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.38 Primary
High Verbal responses
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS I*PALS II 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.04 Not applicable Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.50 Primary
High Behavioral responses
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS II 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.07 Not applicable Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.28 Primary
High Comments
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS II 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = 0.12 Not applicable Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.10 Primary
High Coordination of gestures and verbalizations
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS II 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.14 Not applicable Not Reported Not available Statistically significant, p < .01 Primary
High Engagement in activity
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS II 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = 0.08 Not applicable Not Reported Not available Statistically significant, p = .04 Primary

footnote146

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Positive coefficient values favors the comparison group.

High Questions and requests
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS II 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.57 Not applicable Not Reported Study reported = 0.16 Statistically significant, p = .01 Primary

footnote143

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative coefficient values favor the intervention group.

High Verbal responses
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS II 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.17 Not applicable Not Reported Study reported = 0.30 Not statistically significant, p = 0.06 Primary
Outcome Domain: Positive Parenting Practices
Rating Outcome Measure Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
High Comments
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS I 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.23 Not applicable Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.51 Primary
High General verbal support
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS I 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.48 Not applicable Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.59 Primary
High Language facilitation
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS I 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.11 Not applicable Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.41 Primary
High Open prompts
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS I 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = 0.02 Not applicable Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.87 Primary
High Percent time only reading text
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS I 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = 0.30 Not applicable Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.26 Primary
High Praise and encourage
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS I 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.12 Not applicable Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.51 Primary
High Responsiveness
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS I 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = 0.02 Not applicable Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.35 Primary
High Comments
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS I*PALS II 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.14 Not applicable Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.87 Primary
High General verbal support
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS I*PALS II 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = 0.44 Not applicable Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.89 Primary
High Language facilitation
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS I*PALS II 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = 0.10 Not applicable Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.03 Primary
High Open prompts
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS I*PALS II 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = 0.24 Not applicable Not Reported Study reported = 0.38 Statistically significant, p = 0.03 Primary
High Percent time only reading text
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS I*PALS II 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = 0.12 Not applicable Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.26 Primary
High Praise and encourage
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS I*PALS II 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.14 Not applicable Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
High Responsiveness
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS I*PALS II 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = 0.24 Not applicable Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.08 Primary
High Comments
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS II 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.24 Not applicable Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.98 Primary
High General verbal support
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS II 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.77 Not applicable Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.96 Primary
High Language facilitation
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS II 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.47 Not applicable Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.13 Primary
High Open prompts
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS II 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.53 Not applicable Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.27 Primary
High Percent time only reading text
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS II 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = 0.44 Not applicable Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.07 Primary
High Praise and encourage
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS II 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = 0.19 Not applicable Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.46 Primary
High Responsiveness
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
PALS II 3 months after program end 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.53 Not applicable Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.22 Primary

Outcome Measure Summary

Outcome Domain: Child Development and School Readiness
Rating Outcome Measure Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of Measure Outcome Type Link to delete Content
High

Behavioral responses

Frequency of child's behavioral responses to maternal requests. The responses were coded as (1) ignore/refuse, (2) passive or incorrect attempt, or (3) correct response.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.81

Primary
High

Coordination of gestures and verbalizations

Whether or not children engaged in nonverbal behaviors indicating recognition of appropriate book reading activities in conjunction with verbal responses.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Primary
High

Engagement in activity

The amount of time in which a child actively participated in the book reading activity.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Primary
High

Questions and requests

The frequency with which the child requested his/her mother identify a picture or asked his/her mother a more sophisticated question such as, "What is he doing?"

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.77

Primary
High

Verbal responses

Frequency of child's verbal responses to maternal requests. The responses were coded as (1) attempt to respond verbally but incorrect, (2) correct verbal response, or (3) more complex verbalization including explanations, excuses, and/or alternatives.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Primary
Outcome Domain: Positive Parenting Practices
Rating Outcome Measure Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of Measure Outcome Type Link to delete Content
High

Comments

The frequency with which the child comments on a book. Responses were coded as (1) orients mother's attention without use of label, (2) labels or describes a picture, or (3) makes a connection involving elements of the story.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.76

Primary
High

General verbal support

The frequency with which the mother used hints and prompts to help her child make connections.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.57

Primary
High

Language facilitation

The frequency with which the mother used verbal strategies to facilitate her child's cognitive-linguistic development. These strategies included expansion, assists, and lead-ins.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.68

Primary
High

Open prompts

The frequency with which the mother asked open-ended questions or made requests that required the child to think more generally about what was happening in the story.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.84

Primary
High

Percent time only reading text

The length of time during which the mother just read the text of the book.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.72

Primary
High

Praise and encourage

The frequency with which the mother praised or encouraged her infant's efforts.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.83

Primary
High

Responsiveness

The degree to which the mother responded promptly and appropriately to her infant's cues and expressed enthusiasm during the book reading interaction, rated on a five-point scale from almost always to almost never.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.70

Primary