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Olds, D. L., Kitzman, H., Cole, R., Robinson, J., Sidora, K., Luckey, D. W., et al. (2004). Effects of nurse home-visiting on maternal life course and child development: Age 6 follow-up results of a randomized trial. Pediatrics, 114(6), 1550–1559

Model(s) Reviewed: Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)® , NFP with Nurse Home Visitors - Mothers with low psychological resources subgroup
Manuscript screening details
Screening decision Screening conclusion
Passes screens Eligible for review
Study design details
Rating Design Attrition Baseline equivalence Reassignment Confounding factors
High Randomized controlled trial Low Difference in SES, but controlled in analysis. None None
Notes:

In 2020, HomVEE updated this review in two ways. First, HomVEE removed remove seven mother's partnership status/family structure findings from the Family Economic Self-Sufficiency domain because ACF determined that mother's partnership status is ineligible for review by HomVEE.  In addition, in the Child Development and School Readiness domain, the review was updated to clarify that the direction for "child attended Head Start, preschool, day care, or early intervention, age 24-54 months" is ambiguous, rather than favorable.  Second, HomVEE removed two partner SES variables from the Family Economic Self-Sufficiency domain because partner SES is not eligible for review unless the same SES variable is measured for the mother, and the partner is coresident with the mother.

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Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Subgroup findings have been replicated in at least two different samples. Other subgroup findings are excluded from this report. For the NFP model, the low psychological resource subgroup findings were used in the Memphis and Denver samples. The categorization for this subgroup differed somewhat across the two samples. Although both samples created a scale using intelligence, mental health, and mastery, only the Memphis sample also used a measure of self-efficacy in the scale. The authors indicated that self-efficacy was dropped in the Denver study because the measure was time-consuming to administer and did not appreciably improve the predictive power of the scale (this information was received through communication with the author).

footnote19

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Except for the Achenbach Child Behavioral Problems Checklist, for which HomVEE calculated the effect size, the effect sizes in this table for Olds, Kitzman, Cole, Robinson, Sidora, Luckey, et al. (2004) are those reported in the study, and could not be confirmed by HomVEE calculations. The sample size was received through communication with the author.

Study characteristics
Study participants The sample included pregnant, first-time mothers who were less than 29 weeks pregnant. Women were recruited through an obstetrical clinic if they had no previous live births, no chronic illnesses linked to fetal growth retardation or preterm delivery, and at least two of the following sociodemographic characteristics: unmarried, less than 12 years of education, and unemployed. Between June 1990 and August 1991, 1,290 women were invited to participate and 1,139 consented and were randomly assigned. At enrollment, 92 percent of the women enrolled were African American, 98 percent were unmarried, and 64 percent were age 18 or younger. This study measured the sample when the children were 6 years old. The study sample included 641 women, 197 in the program group and 444 in the comparison group.
Setting Memphis, Tennessee
Intervention services The study included two treatment groups. The first treatment group received home visits from a nurse during pregnancy and two postpartum visits (one in the hospital prior to discharge and one in the home). The treatment group also received the screening and transportation services described below for the comparison groups. The second treatment group received the same services as the first treatment group, but the home visiting continued until the child was 2 years old. On average, the nurses completed 7 home visits during pregnancy and 26 home visits postpartum. Nurses used a detailed protocol for each visit, which focused on health-related behaviors, parenting, education, and employment. The two treatment groups were combined for the prenatal analysis. Only the second treatment group was followed for postnatal outcomes.
Comparison conditions The study included two comparison groups. The first comparison group received taxicab transportation for prenatal care appointments. The second comparison group received the transportation plus developmental screening and referral to services when the children were 6, 12, and 24 months old. The two comparison groups were combined for the prenatal analysis. Only the second group was followed for postnatal outcomes.
Staff characteristics and training All home visitors were nurses. No other information on training is provided.
Funding sources The Administration for Children and Families, Department of Health and Human Services (grant 90PD0215/01); the Hearst Foundation; the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (grant 027901); and a Senior Research Scientist Award (1-K05-MH01382-01) to D.L.O.
Author affiliation David L. Olds, a study author, is a developer of this model.

Findings details

Child development and school readiness
Rating Outcome measure Effect Sample Timing of follow-up Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
High CBCL (externalizing problems)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers with low psychological resources – Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 335 children % (adjusted) = 22.00 Adjusted mean % = 24.00 OR = 0.87 HomeVEE calculated = -0.09 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.63
High CBCL (internalizing problems)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers with low psychological resources – Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 335 children % (adjusted) = 20.00 Adjusted mean % = 17.00 OR = 1.30 HomeVEE calculated = 0.16 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.40
High CBCL (total problems, percentage)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers with low psychological resources – Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 335 children %, (adjusted) = 3.70 Adjusted mean % = 6.60 Difference = -2.90 Study reported = -0.37 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.31
High HTC Rating Scale(academic engagement)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers with low psychological resources – Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 335 children Adjusted mean = 4.74 Adjusted mean = 4.23 Mean difference = 0.51 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.86
High HTC Rating Scale(classroom social skills)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers with low psychological resources – Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 335 children Adjusted mean = 24.54 Adjusted mean = 22.92 Mean difference = 1.62 Study reported = 0.14 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.27
High KABC arithmetic achievement
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers with low psychological resources – Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 335 children Adjusted mean = 88.61 Adjusted mean = 85.42 Mean difference = 3.19 Study reported = 0.25 Statistically significant,
p = 0.04
High KABC mental processing composite (arithmetic and reading)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers with low psychological resources – Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 335 children Adjusted mean = 90.49 Adjusted mean = 87.64 Mean difference = 2.85 Study reported = 0.25 Statistically significant,
p = 0.03
High KABC reading achievement
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers with low psychological resources – Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 335 children Adjusted mean = 92.07 Adjusted mean = 90.87 Mean difference = 1.20 Study reported = 0.09 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.44
High MSSB (dysregulated aggression index)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers with low psychological resources – Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 335 children Adjusted mean = 98.58 Adjusted mean = 101.10 Mean difference = -2.52 Study reported = -0.25 Statistically significant,
p = 0.04
High MSSB (percentage incoherent stories)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers with low psychological resources – Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 335 children Adjusted mean = 20.90 Adjusted mean = 29.84 Mean difference = -8.94 Study reported = -0.34 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01
High MSSB (warmth/ empathy index)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers with low psychological resources – Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 335 children Adjusted mean = 100.30 Adjusted mean = 98.98 Mean difference = 1.32 Study reported = 0.13 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.27
High PPVT-III receptive vocabulary
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers with low psychological resources – Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 335 children Adjusted mean = 81.75 Adjusted mean = 79.08 Mean difference = 2.67 Study reported = 0.21 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.07
High CBCL (externalizing problems)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 615 children % (adjusted) = 17.40 Adjusted mean % = 20.20 OR = 0.83 HomeVEE calculated = -0.11 Not statistically significant, p = 0.43
High CBCL (internalizing problems)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 615 children % (adjusted) = 12.60 Adjusted mean % = 14.70 OR = 0.84 HomeVEE calculated = -0.11 Not statistically significant, p = 0.50
High CBCL (total problems)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 615 children % (adjusted) = 2.00 Adjusted mean % = 5.00 OR = 0.32 HomeVEE calculated = -0.37 Statistically significant,
p = 0.04

footnote2

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Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

High HTC Rating Scale (classroom social skills)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 615 children Adjusted mean = 24.93 Adjusted mean = 24.53 Mean difference = 0.40 Study reported = 0.03 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.71
High HTC Rating Scale(academic engagement)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 615 children Adjusted mean = 6.16 Adjusted mean = 6.86 Mean difference = -0.70 Study reported = -0.03 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.72
High KABC arithmetic achievement
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 615 children Adjusted mean = 89.75 Adjusted mean = 88.61 Mean difference = 1.14 Study reported = 0.09 Not statistically significant, p = 0.30
High KABC mental processing composite (arithmetic and reading)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 615 children Adjusted mean = 92.34 Adjusted mean = 90.24 Mean difference = 2.10 Study reported = 0.18 Statistically significant,
p = 0.03
High KABC reading achievement
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 615 children Adjusted mean = 93.79 Adjusted mean = 93.56 Mean difference = 0.23 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant, p = 0.84
High MSSB (dysregulated aggression index)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 615 children Adjusted mean = 99.24 Adjusted mean = 100.26 Mean difference = -1.02 Study reported = -0.10 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.26
High MSSB (percentage incoherent stories)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 615 children Adjusted mean = 21.15 Adjusted mean = 25.22 Mean difference = -4.07 Study reported = -0.16 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.07
High MSSB (warmth/empathy index)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 615 children Adjusted mean = 100.86 Adjusted mean = 99.51 Mean difference = 1.35 Study reported = 0.14 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.13
High PPVT-III receptive vocabulary
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 615 children Adjusted mean = 84.32 Adjusted mean = 82.13 Mean difference = 2.19 Study reported = 0.17 Statistically significant,
p = 0.04
High Child attended Head Start, preschool, day care, or early intervention, age 24–54 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 641 mothers % (adjusted) = 82.00 Adjusted mean % = 75.00 OR = 1.53 HomeVEE calculated = 0.26 Statistically significant,
p = 0.05

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

Child health
Rating Outcome measure Effect Sample Timing of follow-up Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
High Subsequent NICU/special care admission (rate per subsequent birth)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 641 mothers % (adjusted) = 18.00 Adjusted mean % = 23.00 OR = -0.72 HomeVEE calculated = -0.20 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.14

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

High Subsequent low birth weight newborn (rate per subsequent birth)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 641 mothers % (adjusted) = 11.00 Adjusted mean % = 16.00 OR = -0.69 HomeVEE calculated = -0.22 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.16

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

Family economic self-sufficiency
Rating Outcome measure Effect Sample Timing of follow-up Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
High SES of current job (mother)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 641 mothers Adjusted mean = 14.01 Adjusted mean = 13.06 Mean difference = 0.95 Study reported = 0.05 Not statistically significant, p = 0.56
High Months mother employed (54–72 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 641 mothers Adjusted mean = 9.96 Adjusted mean = 9.99 Mean difference = -0.03 Study reported = 0.00 Not statistically significant, p = 0.97
High Months of AFDC (54–72 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 641 mothers Adjusted mean = 7.21 Adjusted mean = 8.96 Mean difference = -1.75 Study reported = -0.22 Statistically significant, p = 0.01
High Months of food stamps (54–72 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 641 mothers Adjusted mean = 9.67 Adjusted mean = 11.50 Mean difference = -1.83 Study reported = -0.24 Statistically significant, p < 0.01
High Months of Medicaid, (54–72 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 641 mothers Adjusted mean = 11.98 Adjusted mean = 13.08 Mean difference = -1.10 Study reported = -0.15 Not statistically significant, p = 0.08
High Mother graduated from high school/earned GED (percentage)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 641 mothers % (adjusted) = 69.00 Adjusted mean % = 66.00 OR = 1.12 Study reported = 0.07 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.54

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

Maternal health
Rating Outcome measure Effect Sample Timing of follow-up Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
High MHI
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 641 mothers Adjusted mean = 100.18 Adjusted mean = 99.92 Mean difference = 0.26 Study reported = 0.03 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.76
High Behavioral problems attributable to substance abuse
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 641 mothers % (adjusted) = 4.00 Adjusted mean % = 4.00 OR = 0.94 HomeVEE calculated = -0.03 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.88

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

High Currently uses marijuana
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 641 mothers % (adjusted) = 5.00 Adjusted mean % = 3.00 OR = 1.37 HomeVEE calculated = 0.19 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.47

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

High Moderate/heavy drinker (= 3 drinks = 3 times per month)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 641 mothers % (adjusted) = 5.00 Adjusted mean % = 3.00 OR = 2.03 HomeVEE calculated = 0.44 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.11

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

High Months between births of first and second children
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 641 mothers Adjusted mean = 34.38 Adjusted mean = 30.23 Mean difference = 4.15 Study reported = 0.26 Statistically significant,
p = 0.01
High Number of subsequent children (birth to 72 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 641 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.08 Adjusted mean = 1.28 Mean difference = -0.20 Study reported = -0.22 Statistically significant,
p = 0.01
High Number of subsequent pregnancies (birth to 72 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 641 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.16 Adjusted mean = 1.38 Mean difference = -0.22 Study reported = -0.22 Statistically significant,
p = 0.01
High Pearlin Mastery Scale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 641 mothers Adjusted mean = 100.46 Adjusted mean = 99.79 Mean difference = 0.67 Study reported = 0.07 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.43
High Subsequent abortion (rate per subsequent pregnancy)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 641 mothers % (adjusted) = 4.00 Adjusted mean % = 5.00 OR = 0.70 HomeVEE calculated = -0.23 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.42

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

High Subsequent miscarriage (rate per subsequent pregnancy)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 641 mothers % (adjusted) = 3.00 Adjusted mean % = 5.00 OR = 0.75 HomeVEE calculated = -0.27 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.50

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

Reductions in juvenile delinquency, family violence, and crime
Rating Outcome measure Effect Sample Timing of follow-up Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
High Any domestic violence, birth to age 6
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 641 mothers % (adjusted) = 39.00 Adjusted mean % = 40.00 OR = 0.97 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.87

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

Outcome measure summary

Child development and school readiness
Outcome measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure

CBCL

The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is a questionnaire that assesses behavioral problems in young children.

Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

HTC Rating Scale

Children’s classroom behavior was summarized into two scales derived from principal components analysis: (1) the degree to which children were engaged with school, and (2) their classroom socioemotional adjustment.

Teacher report

Cronbach’s α = 0.96

KABC

The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children

Child assessment

Not reported by author

MSSB

Children’s responses to eight story stems were videotaped and coded for a series of content themes, observable affective expressions, and coherence in completing the stories. The coding scheme and constructs were adapted explicitly for low-income black children with a combination of theory, prior research, and factor analysis to characterize children’s representations of dysregulated aggressive behavior and parental warmth/empathy themes in their stories and whether each story completion was incoherent. Codes were averaged for all stories, and components were standardized before aggregation.

Videotaped observation

Cronbach’s α = 0.67, Interobserver Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.83

PPVT-III

The PPVT-III assesses receptive vocabulary for Standard American English in young children.

Child assessment

Not reported by author

Child attended Head Start, preschool, day care, or early intervention, age 24–54 months

Percentage of children who attended Head Start, preschool, day care, or an early intervention Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Child health
Outcome measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure

Subsequent NICU or special care admission

Rate of subsequent NICU or special care admissions per subsequent pregnancy after completion of the program Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Subsequent low birth weight newborn

Rate of subsequent low birth weight newborns per subsequent births after completion of the program Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Family economic self-sufficiency
Outcome measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure

SES of current job

Percentile rank of the mother’s occupation estimated by calculating percentile rank for each occupation using Census categories and the median income and educational achievement associated with each occupation Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Months mother employed

Counts of the number of months the mother was employed Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Months on AFDC

Counts of the number of months the mother received AFDC Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Months on food stamps

Counts of the number of months the mother received food stamps Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Months on Medicaid

Counts of the number of months the mother received Medicaid Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Mother graduated from high school/earned GED

Percentage of mothers who had earned a high school diploma or GED Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Maternal health
Outcome measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure

MHI

The MHI assesses mental health in the areas of anxiety, depression, behavior, positive affect, and general distress. Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Behavioral problems attributable to substance abuse

Percentage of mothers who had behavioral problems, such as traffic violations, poor performance at work, or compromised care of the child, that were attributable to the use of substances Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Currently uses marijuana

Percentage of mothers who currently used marijuana Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Moderate/heavy drinker

Percentage of mothers who had at least three drinks at a time at least three times per month Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Months between births of first and second children

Number of months that passed between the birth of the mother’s first and second child Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Number of subsequent children

The number of subsequent children born to the mother Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Number of subsequent pregnancies

The number of subsequent pregnancies experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Pearlin Mastery Scale

The Pearlin Mastery Scale assesses the degree to which a person has a sense of mastery or control over their life. Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Subsequent abortion

Rate of abortion per subsequent pregnancy experienced by the mothers Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Subsequent miscarriage

Rate of miscarriage per subsequent pregnancy experienced by the mothers Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Reductions in juvenile delinquency, family violence, and crime
Outcome measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure

Any domestic violence

Rate of domestic violence since the birth of the first child through age 6 Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable