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Olds, D. L., Kitzman, H., Hanks, C., Cole, R., Anson, E., Sidora-Arcoleo, K., et al. (2007). Effects of nurse home visiting on maternal and child functioning: Age-9 follow-up of a randomized trial. Pediatrics, 120(4), e832–e845.

Model(s) Reviewed: Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)® , NFP with Nurse Home Visitors - Mothers with low psychological resources subgroup
Manuscript screening details
Screening decision Screening conclusion
Passes screens Eligible for review
Study design details
Rating Design Attrition Baseline equivalence Reassignment Confounding factors
High Randomized controlled trial Low Difference in SES, but controlled in analysis. None None
Notes:

In 2020, HomVEE updated this review in two ways. First, HomVEE removed findings related to remove mother's partnership status/family structure findings from the Family Economic Self-Sufficiency domain because ACF determined that mother's partnership status is ineligible for review by HomVEE. second, HomVEE removed two partner SES variables from the Family Economic Self-Sufficiency domain because partner SES is not eligible for review unless the same SES variable is measured for the mother, and the partner is coresident with the mother.

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Subgroup findings have been replicated in at least two different samples. Other subgroup findings are excluded from this report. For the NFP model, the low psychological resource subgroup findings were used in the Memphis and Denver samples. The categorization for this subgroup differed somewhat across the two samples. Although both samples created a scale using intelligence, mental health, and mastery, only the Memphis sample also used a measure of self-efficacy in the scale. The authors indicated that self-efficacy was dropped in the Denver study because the measure was time-consuming to administer and did not appreciably improve the predictive power of the scale (this information was received through communication with the author).

footnote20

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

The effect sizes in this table for Olds, Kitzman, Hanks, Cole, Anson, Sidora-Arcoleo, et al. (2007) are those reported in the study, and could not be confirmed by HomVEE calculations. In addition, p-values and statistical significance determinations are based on the author’s likelihood ratio tests. The sample size was received through communication with the author.

Study characteristics
Study participants The sample included pregnant, first-time mothers who were less than 29 weeks pregnant. Women were recruited through an obstetrical clinic if they had no previous live births, no chronic illnesses linked to fetal growth retardation or preterm delivery, and at least two of the following sociodemographic characteristics: unmarried, less than 12 years of education, and unemployed. From June 1990 through August 1991, 1,290 women were invited to participate and 1,139 consented and were randomly assigned. At enrollment, 92 percent of the women enrolled were African American, 98 percent were unmarried, and 64 percent were aged 18 years or younger. This study measured the sample when the children were 9 years old. The study sample included 627 women, 191 in the program group and 436 in the comparison group.
Setting Memphis, Tennessee
Intervention services The study included two treatment groups. The first treatment group received home visits from a nurse during pregnancy and two postpartum visits (one in the hospital prior to discharge and one in the home). The treatment group also received the screening and transportation services described below for the comparison groups. The second treatment group received the same services as the first treatment group, but the home visiting continued until the child was 2 years old. On average, the nurses completed 7 home visits during pregnancy and 26 home visits postpartum. Nurses used a detailed protocol for each visit, which focused on health-related behaviors, parenting, education, and employment. The two treatment groups were combined for the prenatal analysis. Only the second treatment group was followed for postnatal outcomes.
Comparison conditions The study included two comparison groups. The first comparison group received taxicab transportation for prenatal care appointments. The second comparison group received the transportation plus developmental screening and referral to services when the children were 6, 12, and 24 months old. The two comparison groups were combined for the prenatal analysis. Only the second group was followed for postnatal outcomes.
Staff characteristics and training All home visitors were nurses. No other information on training is provided.
Funding sources The National Institute of Mental Health (1-R01-MH61428-01); the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (8R01 HD43492); and the Department of Justice (2005-MU-mu-001).
Author affiliation David L. Olds, a study author, is a developer of this model.

Findings details

Child development and school readiness
Rating Outcome measure Effect Sample Timing of follow-up Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
High Achievement tests (reading and math, grades 1 – 3)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers with low psychological resources – Nurse visited during infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 333 children Adjusted mean = 44.89 Adjusted mean = 35.72 Mean difference = 9.17 Study reported = 0.33 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01
High GPA (reading and math, grades 1 – 3)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers with low psychological resources – Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 333 children Adjusted mean = 2.68 Adjusted mean = 2.44 Mean difference = 0.24 Study reported = 0.22 Statistically significant,
p = 0.02
High Conduct grades (grades 1 – 3)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers with low psychological resources – Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 333 children Adjusted mean = 2.68 Adjusted mean = 2.65 Mean difference = 0.03 Study reported = 0.03 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.75
High Teacher-reported academically focused behavior (grade 3)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers with low psychological resources – Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 333 children Adjusted mean = 99.59 Adjusted mean = 98.70 Mean difference = 0.89 Study reported = 0.09 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.47
High Teacher-reported antisocial behavior (grade 3)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers with low psychological resources – Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 333 children Adjusted mean = 100.18 Adjusted mean = 100.17 Mean difference = 0.01 Study reported = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.99
High Teacher-reported peer affiliation (grade 3)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Mothers with low psychological resources – Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9 year follow-up 333 children Adjusted mean = 99.56 Adjusted mean = 99.37 Mean difference = 0.19 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.88
High GPA (reading and math, grades 1–3)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 604 children Adjusted mean = 2.69 Adjusted mean = 2.59 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 0.09 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.20

footnote2

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Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

High Achievement tests (reading and math, grades 1–3)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 570 children Adjusted mean = 44.61 Adjusted mean = 41.63 Mean difference = 2.98 Study reported = 0.11 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.17

footnote2

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Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

High Any academic failures (grades 1–3)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 604 children = 0.07 = 0.05 Mean difference = 2.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.20 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.37

footnote2

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Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

High Conduct grades (grades 1–3 )
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 604 children Adjusted mean = 2.71 Adjusted mean = 2.68 Mean difference = 0.03 Study reported = 0.03 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.67

footnote2

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Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

High Count of conduct failures, (grades 1–3)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 604 children Adjusted mean = 0.06 Adjusted mean = 0.10 Mean difference = -0.04 Not available Not statistically significant,
p = 0.09

footnote2

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Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

High Count of depressive and anxiety disorders
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 604 children Adjusted mean = 0.12 Adjusted mean = 0.19 Mean difference = -0.07 Not available Not statistically significant,
p = 0.12

footnote4

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Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculation of incidence ratio.

High Count of disruptive behavior disorders (with impairment)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 604 children Adjusted mean = 0.36 Adjusted mean = 0.31 Mean difference = -0.05 Not available Not statistically significant,
p = 0.42

footnote4

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Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculation of incidence ratio.

High Ever placed in special education (grades 1–3)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 604 children = 0.02 = 0.02 Mean difference = 0.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.03 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.97

footnote2

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Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

High Ever retained (grades 1–3)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 604 children = 0.16 = 0.12 Mean difference = 4.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.18 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.25

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

High Teacher reported peer affiliation (grade 3)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 558 children Adjusted mean = 100.35 Adjusted mean = 99.92 Mean difference = 0.43 Study reported = 0.04 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.64

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

High Teacher-reported academically focused behavior (grade 3)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 558 children Adjusted mean = 100.10 Adjusted mean = 100.08 Mean difference = 0.02 Study reported = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.98

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

High Teacher-reported antisocial behavior (grade 3)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 558 children Adjusted mean = 99.77 Adjusted mean = 100.08 Mean difference = -0.31 Study reported = -0.03 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.74

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

Child health
Rating Outcome measure Effect Sample Timing of follow-up Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
High Number of infant and childhood deaths among firstborn children (birth–9 years)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers 4.50 per 1,000 = 4.50 20.08 per 1,000 = 20.08 OR = 0.22 Not available Not statistically significant,
p = 0.80

footnote2

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Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

High Number of subsequent low birth weight newborns (0–9 years postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.18 Adjusted mean = 0.27 Mean difference = -0.09 Not available Not statistically significant,
p = 0.07

footnote4

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculation of incidence ratio.

Family economic self-sufficiency
Rating Outcome measure Effect Sample Timing of follow-up Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
High Number of months employed per year (2–9 years postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 3.84 Adjusted mean = 3.86 Mean difference = -0.02 Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.93
High Number of months employed per year (6–9 years postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 6.86 Adjusted mean = 7.39 Mean difference = -0.53 Study reported = -0.15 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.13
High Number of months on /TANF per year (0–9 years postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 5.21 Adjusted mean = 5.92 Mean difference = -0.71 Study reported = -0.14 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01
High Number of months on TANF(6–9 years postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 3.39 Adjusted mean = 4.01 Mean difference = -0.62 Study reported = -0.12 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.12
High Number of months on food stamps per year (0–9 years postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 6.98 Adjusted mean = 7.80 Mean difference = -0.82 Study reported = -0.17 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01
High Number of months on food stamps per year (6–9 years postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 4.89 Adjusted mean = 5.92 Mean difference = -1.03 Study reported = -0.21 Statistically significant,
p = 0.02
High Number of months on Medicaid per year (0–9 years postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 9.71 Adjusted mean = 10.07 Mean difference = -0.36 Study reported = -0.09 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.12
High Number of months on Medicaid per year (6–9 years postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 8.79 Adjusted mean = 8.74 Mean difference = 0.05 Study reported = 0.01 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.89
Maternal health
Rating Outcome measure Effect Sample Timing of follow-up Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
High Cumulative subsequent live births per year (0–9 yr postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.81 Adjusted mean = 0.93 Mean difference = -0.12 Study reported = -0.14 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05

footnote2

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Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

High Maternal depression (CES-D) (9 years postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.71 Adjusted mean = 1.72 Mean difference = 0.01 Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.87

footnote2

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Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

High Number of months between birth of first and second child
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 40.73 Adjusted mean = 34.09 Mean difference = 6.64 Study reported = 0.29 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

High Number of subsequent abortions
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.14 Adjusted mean = 0.20 Mean difference = -0.06 Not available Not statistically significant,
p = 0.15

footnote4

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Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculation of incidence ratio.

High Number of subsequent miscarriages (0–9 years postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.24 Adjusted mean = 0.24 Mean difference = 0.00 Not available Not statistically significant,
p = 1.00

footnote4

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Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculation of incidence ratio.

High Number of substances used (moderate/heavy alcohol, marijuana, cocaine) since last interview
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.10 Adjusted mean = 0.17 Mean difference = -0.07 Not available Not statistically significant,
p = 0.08

footnote4

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculation of incidence ratio.

High Pearlin Mastery Scale (9 years postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 100.79 Adjusted mean = 99.75 Mean difference = 1.04 Study reported = 0.10 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.20

footnote2

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Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

High Pearlin Mastery Scale (6 months–9 years postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 101.00 Adjusted mean = 99.50 Mean difference = 1.53 Study reported = 0.15 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

High Subsequent still birth (0–9 years postpartum), percentage
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers % (adjusted) = 1.00 Adjusted mean % = 2.00 Mean difference = -1.00 Study reported = 1.00 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.36

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

High Cumulative subsequent live birth per year (6–9 years postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy during infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.40 Adjusted mean = 1.53 Mean difference = -0.13 Study reported = -0.16 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.17

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

Reductions in juvenile delinquency, family violence, and crime
Rating Outcome measure Effect Sample Timing of follow-up Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
High Any domestic violence (6–9 years postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers = 0.21 = 0.24 OR = 0.81 HomeVEE calculated = -0.11 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.37

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

High Mother jailed (6–9 years postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers = 0.04 = 0.03 OR = 1.46 HomeVEE calculated = 0.25 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.46

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

High Number of maternal arrests (6–9 years postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers Mean = 0.41 Mean = 0.30 Mean difference = 0.11 Study reported = 1.35 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.16

Outcome measure summary

Child development and school readiness
Outcome measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure

GPA

Grades received in math and reading during grades 1 to 3

Review of school records

Not reported by author

Achievement tests

Scores received on achievement tests (primarily the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program Achievement Test) during grades 1 to 3

Review of school records

Not reported by author

Any academic failures (grades 1–3)

Percentage of children who had any academic failures during grades 1 to 3 Review of school records

Not reported by author

Conduct grades

Ratings of the child’s conduct at school during grades 1 to 3

Review of school records

Not reported by author

Count of conduct failures

Counts of conduct failures at the end of each school year during grades 1 to 3 Review of school records

Not reported by author

Count of depressive and anxiety disorders

Counts of depressive and anxiety disorders reported in the past year (major depression, dysthymia, generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and social phobia) with actual values ranging between 0 and 5 Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Count of disruptive behavior disorders (with impairment)

Counts of disruptive behavior disorders reported in the past year (either oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, and attention-deficit disorder of any type), with actual values ranging between 0 and 2 Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Ever placed in special education (grades 1–3)

Percentage of children who had ever been placed in special education Review of school records

Not reported by author

Ever retained (grades 1–3)

Percentage of children who had ever been retained during grades 1 to 3 Review of school records

Not reported by author

Teacher-reported academically focused behavior

Reports of children’s behavior in the classroom over the previous year from the Social Competence Scale, Social Health Profile, and the Teacher Observation of Child Adjustment Revised were subjected to principal axis analysis. Three scales were formed: (1) antisocial behavior, (2) academically focused behavior, and (3) peer affiliation.

Teacher report

Cronbach’s α = 0.95

Teacher-reported antisocial behavior

Reports of children’s behavior in the classroom over the previous year from the Social Competence Scale, Social Health Profile, and the Teacher Observation of Child Adjustment Revised were subjected to principal axis analysis. Three scales were formed: (1) antisocial behavior, (2) academically focused behavior, and (3) peer affiliation.

Teacher report

Cronbach’s α = 0.95

Teacher-reported peer affiliation

Reports of children’s behavior in the classroom over the previous year from the Social Competence Scale, Social Health Profile, and the Teacher Observation of Child Adjustment Revised were subjected to principal axis analysis. Three scales were formed: (1) antisocial behavior, (2) academically focused behavior, and (3) peer affiliation.

Teacher report

Cronbach’s α = 0.80

Child health
Outcome measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure

Number of infant and childhood deaths among firstborn children

Number of deaths that occurred among firstborn children over the period birth to age 9 Parent/caregiver report and review of National Death Index (NDI) records for parents/caregivers that were not interviewed.

Not applicable

Number of subsequent low birth weight newborns

Number of low birth weight newborns the mother experienced since the birth of the study’s focal child Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Family economic self-sufficiency
Outcome measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure

Number of months employed per year

Counts of the number of months the mother was employed per year Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Number of months on AFDC/TANF per year

Counts of the number of months per year the mother received AFDC or TANF Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Number of months on food stamps per year

Counts of the number of months per year the mother received food stamps Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Number of months on Medicaid per year

Counts of the number of months per year the mother received Medicaid Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Number of months with current partner

Counts of the number of months the mother had been in a relationship with her current partner Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Maternal health
Outcome measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure

CES-D: Maternal depression

The CES-D is a 20-item assessment of depressive symptoms. Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Cumulative subsequent live births  per year

Rate of subsequent births per year experienced by the mothers Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Number of months between birth of first and second child

Number of months that passed between the birth of the mother’s first and second child Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Number of subsequent abortions

Number of subsequent abortions experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Number of subsequent miscarriages

Number of subsequent miscarriages experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Number of substances used

A count of substances used that included at least three drinks of alcohol at least three times per, month in the past year, use of marijuana, and use of cocaine since the child was age 6 Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Pearlin Mastery Scale

The Pearlin Mastery Scale assesses the degree to which a person has a sense of mastery or control over their life. Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Subsequent stillbirth

Percentage of mothers who experienced a subsequent stillbirth Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Reductions in juvenile delinquency, family violence, and crime
Outcome measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure

Any domestic violence

Whether the mother had experienced physical violence from any of her partners during 6 through 9 years postpartum Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Mother jailed

Counts of the number of days the mother was jailed 6 to 9 years postpartum Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Number of maternal arrests

Counts of the number of times the mother was arrested 6 to 9 years postpartum Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable