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Roggman, L., Boyce, L. K., & Cook, G. (2009). Keeping kids on track: Impacts of a parenting-focused Early Head Start program on attachment security and cognitive development. Early Education & Development, 20(6) 920-941

Model(s) Reviewed: Early Head Start Home-Based Option
Manuscript screening details
Screening decision Screening conclusion
Passes screens Eligible for review
Study design details
Rating Design Attrition Baseline equivalence Reassignment Confounding factors
Moderate Randomized controlled trial High Established on race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status None None
Study characteristics
Study participants This study relies on data from a randomized controlled trial of 17 Early Head Start (EHS) programs that began in 1995, and focuses specifically on the outcomes of families in one of the 17 programs, located in Utah. This program served clients through a home-based option (EHS-HBO). The study randomly assigned 201 families either to receive EHS-HBO or a comparison condition. For this group, attachment security data were available for 160 children (83 in EHS-HBO and 77 in the comparison group). Among the parents of these children, 22 percent were racial or ethnic minorities, 20 percent had less than a high school education, 22 percent were employed, and 27 percent were receiving public assistance.
Setting Bear River Early Head Start–Home-Based Option provided services to families in three rural counties in northern Utah and southern Idaho.
Intervention services EHS-HBO services are intended to be delivered to study families via weekly home visits.
Comparison conditions Control group families could not receive EHS-HBO services, but could receive other services available in their community.
Staff characteristics and training Not specified
Funding sources Funder(s) not listed.
Author affiliation None of the study authors are developers of this model.

Findings details

Child development and school readiness
Rating Outcome measure Effect Sample Timing of follow-up Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
Moderate BSID MDI
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study (Utah) 24 months 161 children Not reported Not reported Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Moderate BSID MDI
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study (Utah) 36 months 161 children Not reported Not reported β = 0.19 Not available Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Moderate Attachment security
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
EHS-HBO impact study (Utah) 18 months 161 children Not reported Not reported &beta; = 0.17 Not available Statistically significant,
p < 0.05

Outcome measure summary

Child development and school readiness
Outcome measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure

BSID, MDI

The MDI of the BSID assesses the cognitive functioning of young children. Child assessment

Cronbach’s α = 0.79 at age 14 months, Cronbach’s α = 0.85 at age 24 months, Cronbach’s α = 0.99 at age 36 months

Attachment Q-Sort scale

The Attachment Q-Sort assesses security of attachment and dependency in young children. Each of the 90 items is a description of a specific behavior. Items are sorted by the mother/caregiver into nine piles of 10 cards each based on how likely or unlikely the item matches the behavior of her child. Parent/caregiver report with the assistance of a trained interviewer

r = 0.64