Manuscript Detail

View Revisions

McKelvey, L., Schiffman, R. F., Brophy-Herb, H. E., Bocknek, E. L., Fitzgerald, H. E., Reischl, T. M., Hawver, S., & DeLuca, M. C. (2015). Examining long-term effects of an infant mental health home-based Early Head Start Program on family strengths and resilience. Infant Mental Health Journal, 36(4), 353-365.

Model(s) Reviewed: IMH-HB EHS
Manuscript screening details
Screening decision Screening conclusion
Passes screens Eligible for review
Study design details
Rating Design Attrition Baseline equivalence Reassignment Confounding factors
Moderate Randomized controlled trial Low Not established on race; established on SES; not established on outcome measures assessable at baseline. None None
Study characteristics
Study participants This study used data from one of 17 sites that were part of a national randomized controlled trial (the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project). This site, called the Pathways Project, implemented an infant mental health home-based services (IMH-HB) version of Early Head Start. The site randomly assigned 98 families to the treatment condition and 98 to the control condition. The analysis sample included 152 families who participated in three waves of data collection when the child was 3, 5, and 7 years old. The median household income at baseline data collection was $7,714 [1998 dollars], and approximately half (45 percent) of parents had less than a high school degree. The majority of parents were Caucasian (75 percent), 17 percent were African American, and the remainder (8 percent) identified as another race/ethnicity.
Setting The study examined outcomes for participants in Jackson, Michigan. Jackson was one of 17 sites that participated in a larger study of Early Head Start.
Intervention services Families enrolled in the program participated for an average of 21 months with an average of 71 completed home visits. The home visits included activities focused on the child, the family, and staff-family relationship building.
Comparison conditions Families in the comparison condition were not enrolled in Early Head Start but could access similar services in their communities, including home visiting services. Seventy percent of families in the comparison condition accessed home visiting services, including those provided by Medicaid enhanced prenatal care programs.
Staff characteristics and training The program was staffed with 10 registered social workers with expertise in child development, families, and family development issues.
Funding sources 90YF0010: Pathways Project: Research into Directions for Family Health and Service Use, from the Administration on Children, Youth, and Families, Department of Health and Human Services, Rachel F. Schiffman, Ph.D., R.N., Principal Investigator, Michigan State University.
Author affiliation The authors are members of the Early Head Start Research Consortium, and the research is part of an independent research conducted by Michigan State University.
Study Registration:
Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: None found. Study registration was assessed by HomVEE beginning with the 2014 review.

Findings details

Maternal health
Rating Outcome measure Effect Sample Timing of follow-up Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
Moderate Pearlin Mastery, age 7
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
0 Age 7 152 Not reported Not reported Not Reported Not available Statistically significant, p<0.05

footnote237

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

IMH-HB <abbr title="Early Head Start">EHS</abbr> group showed higher levels of perceived mastery. P-value reported by the author was based on an F-test of repeated measure analysis.

Moderate PSI: parent-child dysfunctional interaction
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Full sample Pooled (ages 3 and 7) 152 Not reported Not reported Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Moderate PSI: parental distress
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Full sample Pooled (ages 3 and 7) 152 Not reported Not reported Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Moderate F-COPES: cognitive reframing
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Full sample Pooled (ages 3, 5, and 7) 152 Not reported Not reported Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p >0.10
Moderate F-COPES: seeking support from family and friends
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Full sample Pooled (ages 3, 5, and 7) 152 Not reported Not reported Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p >0.10
Moderate F-COPES: seeking support from neighbors
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Full sample Pooled (ages 3, 5, and 7) 152 Not reported Not reported Not Reported Not available Statistically significant, p<0.05

footnote234

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Comparison group was more likely to seek neighbor support. P-value reported by the author was based on an F-test of repeated measure analysis.

Moderate F-COPES: seeking support from service providers
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Full sample Pooled (ages 3, 5, and 7) 152 Not reported Not reported Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p >0.10
Moderate F-COPES: spiritual coping
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Full sample Pooled (ages 3, 5, and 7) 152 Not reported Not reported Not Reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.10
Moderate McMaster FAD: healthy functioning
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Full sample Pooled (ages 3, 5, and 7) 152 Not reported Not reported Not Reported Not available Statistically significant, p<0.01

footnote235

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

IMH-HB <abbr title="Early Head Start">EHS</abbr> group had higher scores on healthy functioning. P-value reported by the author was based on an F-test of repeated measure analysis.

Moderate McMaster FAD: unhealthy functioning
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Full sample Pooled (ages 3, 5, and 7) 152 Not reported Not reported Not Reported Not available Statistically significant, p<0.01

footnote236

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

IMH-HB <abbr title="Early Head Start">EHS</abbr> group had lower scores on unhealthy functioning. P-value reported by the author was based on an F-test of repeated measure analysis.

Moderate PES: attitudes
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Full sample Pooled (ages 3, 5, and 7) 152 Not reported Not reported Not Reported Not available Statistically significant, p<0.01

footnote232

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

IMH-HB <abbr title="Early Head Start">EHS</abbr> group had higher levels of empowerment based on reported attitudes. P-value reported by the author was based on an F-test of repeated measure analysis.

Moderate PES: skills & knowledge
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Full sample Pooled (ages 3, 5, and 7) 152 Not reported Not reported Not Reported Not available Statistically significant, p<0.01

footnote233

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

IMH-HB <abbr title="Early Head Start">EHS</abbr> group had higher levels of empowerment based on reported knowledge and skills. P-value reported by the author was based on an F-test of repeated measure analysis.

Outcome measure summary

Maternal health
Outcome measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure

PSI: parent-child dysfunctional interaction

This subscale from the PSI measures parents’ perception of parent-child interaction not meeting the parent's expectations.

Parent/caregiver report

The parent-child dysfunctional interaction subscale had Cronbach's alphas of .79 and .78 for the study sample at ages 3 and 7, respectively.

PSI: parental distress

This subscale from the PSI measures the level of distress parents feel in their role because of personal factors.

Parent/caregiver report

The authors report that the parental distress subscale was associated with stress associated with parenting demands and with depressive symptomatology. The subscale had Cronbach's alphas of .83 and .82 for the study sample at ages 3 and 7, respectively.

F-COPES: cognitive reframing

The F-COPES measures behaviors and attitudes that families use to respond to problems.

Parent/caregiver report

The reframing subscale had Cronbach's alphas of .72, .68, and .68 for the study sample at ages 3, 5, and 7, respectively.

F-COPES: seeking support from family and friends

The F-COPES measures behaviors and attitudes that families use to respond to problems.

Parent/caregiver report

The seeking support from family and friends subscale had Cronbach's alphas of .81, .83, and .80 for the study sample at ages 3, 5, and 7, respectively.

F-COPES: seeking support from neighbors

The F-COPES measures behaviors and attitudes that families use to respond to problems.

Parent/caregiver report

The seeking support from neighbors subscale had Cronbach's alphas of .72, .79, and .69 for the study samples at ages 3, 5, and 7, respectively.

F-COPES: seeking support from service providers

The F-COPES measures behaviors and attitudes that families use to respond to problems.

Parent/caregiver report

The seeking support from service providers subscale had Cronbach's alphas of .60, .61, and .74 for the study sample at ages 3, 5, and 7, respectively.

F-COPES: spiritual coping

The F-COPES measures behaviors and attitudes that families use to respond to problems.

Parent/caregiver report

The spiritual coping subscale had Cronbach's alphas of .85, .82, and .85 for the study sample at ages 3, 5, and 7, respectively.

McMaster FAD: healthy functioning

The McMaster FAD healthy functioning subscale assesses emotional supportiveness between family members.

Parent/caregiver report

The healthy functioning subscale had Cronbach's alphas of .85, .76, and .86 for the study sample at ages 3, 5, and 7, respectively.

McMaster FAD: unhealthy functioning

The McMaster FAD unhealthy functioning subscale assesses lack of family cohesion.

Parent/caregiver report

The unhealthy functioning subscale had Cronbach's alphas of .78, .80, and .84 for the study sample at ages 3, 5, and 7, respectively.

Pearlin Mastery, age 7

The Pearlin Mastery Scale assesses the degree to which a person has a sense of mastery or control over their life.

Parent/caregiver report

The Pearlin Mastery Scale had a Cronbach's alpha of .69 for the study sample at age 7.

PES: attitudes

The PES measures psychological empowerment for parents of children with a disability.

Parent/caregiver report

The attitudes subscale had Cronbach's alphas of .83 and .86 for the study samples at ages 3 and 5, respectively.

PES: skills & knowledge

The PES measures psychological empowerment for parents of children with a disability.

Parent/caregiver report

The skills and knowledge subscale had a Cronbach's alpha of .77 for the study sample at both ages 3 and 5.