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Lowell, D. I., Carter, A. S., Godoy, L., Paulicin, B., & Briggs‐Gowan, M. J. (2011). A randomized controlled trial of Child FIRST: A comprehensive home‐based intervention translating research into early childhood practice. Child development82(1), 193-208.

Model(s) Reviewed: Child First
Manuscript screening details
Screening decision Screening conclusion
Passes screens Eligible for review
Study design details
Rating Design Attrition Baseline equivalence Reassignment Confounding factors
High Randomized controlled trial Low Not Applicable None None
Notes:

In 2020, HomVEE updated this review to remove family involvement with CPS findings from the Reductions in Child Maltreatment domain because some cases in the abuse complaint may be unsubstantiated. In this domain HomVEE reviews only outcomes focused on substantiated cases of abuse and neglect.

Study characteristics
Study participants Children were eligible if they were between 6 and 36 months of age; had a positive screening for social-emotional/behavioral problems on the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) and/or the parent screened high for psychosocial risk; and lived in a permanent caregiving environment in Bridgeport, Connecticut. Of 642 families completing screens, 464 passed the screening, 254 consented to the study, and 157 were randomized (stratified by age, BITSEA score, and family psychosocial risk). There were 78 children in the Child FIRST intervention group and 79 in the usual care comparison group at baseline, 64 (intervention) and 67 (comparison) at the six-month follow-up, and 58 (intervention) and 59 (comparison) at the 12-month follow-up. Fifty-nine percent of mothers in the study were Hispanic, 30 percent were African American, 8 percent were Caucasian, and 4 percent were of another race/ethnicity.
Setting This study took place in Bridgeport, Connecticut.
Intervention services The Child FIRST model has two core components. The first is a connection to a “system of care,” a community-based, comprehensive, coordinated set of services, including early education, health care, and other social services. Second, the program offers a psychotherapeutic approach to promote nurturing caregiving. Services were offered in the home. Two staff members, a clinician and care coordinator, were assigned to each family. The clinician was responsible for therapeutic assessment and intervention with the child and parent and the care coordinator facilitated family engagement in community services. Weekly visits lasting 45 to 90 minutes were made jointly or individually, as needed by the family.
Comparison conditions Comparison families (the usual-care group) continued to receive usual care from the study’s recruitment sites: the Bridgeport Hospital Pediatric Primary Care Center and the Supplementary Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children.
Staff characteristics and training The clinical team assigned to each family included a master’s-level developmental/mental health clinician and an associate’s- or bachelor’s-level care coordinator/case manager. The care coordinator/case manager typically had the same racial or ethnic background as the family and spoke the family’s chosen language.
Funding sources Starting Early Starting Smart Prototype (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 9886); Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (60068)
Author affiliation Darcy I. Lowell, a study author, is the founder and executive director of Child FIRST.

Findings details

Child development and school readiness
Rating Outcome measure Effect Sample Timing of follow-up Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
High ITSEA dysregulation
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 6 months 117 families Mean = 18.40 Mean = 21.40 Mean difference = -3.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.22 p > 0.05
High ITSEA dysregulation
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families Mean = 16.40 Mean = 20.70 Mean difference = -4.30 HomeVEE calculated = 0.36 p > 0.05
High ITSEA dysregulation (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 6 months 117 families % (adjusted) = 7.00 Adjusted mean % = 15.90 Difference = -8.90 HomeVEE calculated = -0.56 p > 0.05
High ITSEA dysregulation (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families % (adjusted) = 11.30 Adjusted mean % = 12.70 Difference = -1.40 HomeVEE calculated = -0.08 p > 0.05
High ITSEA externalizing
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 6 months 117 families Mean = 15.40 Mean = 18.40 Mean difference = -3.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.30 p > 0.05
High ITSEA externalizing
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families Mean = 13.80 Mean = 18.40 Mean difference = -4.60 HomeVEE calculated = 0.49 p < 0.05
High ITSEA externalizing (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 6 months 117 families % (adjusted) = 22.80 Adjusted mean % = 36.50 Difference = -13.70 HomeVEE calculated = -0.40 p > 0.05
High ITSEA externalizing (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families % (adjusted) = 17.00 Adjusted mean % = 29.10 Difference = 12.10 HomeVEE calculated = -0.42 p < 0.05
High ITSEA internalizing
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 6 months 117 families Mean = 15.40 Mean = 15.80 Mean difference = -0.40 HomeVEE calculated = 0.13 p > 0.05
High ITSEA internalizing
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families Mean = 13.10 Mean = 14.60 Mean difference = -1.50 HomeVEE calculated = 0.19 p > 0.05
High ITSEA internalizing (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 6 months 117 families % (adjusted) = 3.50 Adjusted mean % = 1.60 Difference = 1.90 HomeVEE calculated = 0.49 p > 0.05
High ITSEA internalizing (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families % (adjusted) = 1.90 Adjusted mean % = 1.80 Difference = 0.10 HomeVEE calculated = 0.03 p > 0.05
High Any ITSEA domain (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 6 months 117 families % (adjusted) = 26.30 Adjusted mean % = 44.40 Difference = -18.10 HomeVEE calculated = -0.49 p > 0.05
High Any ITSEA domain (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families % (adjusted) = 26.40 Adjusted mean % = 36.40 Difference = -10.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.28 p < 0.05

footnote124

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

HomVEE-calculated p-value is greater than 0.05, indicating that this result is not significant.

High Child language (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 6 months 117 families % (adjusted) = 16.90 Adjusted mean % = 30.30 OR = 3.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.46 p < 0.05
High Child language (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families % (adjusted) = 10.50 Adjusted mean % = 33.30 OR = 4.40 HomeVEE calculated = -0.88 p < 0.05
Linkages and referrals
Rating Outcome measure Effect Sample Timing of follow-up Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
High Percentage of desired services received that were received, child development
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families % = 99.00 % = 14.00 Difference = 85.00 HomeVEE calculated = 3.89 p < 0.001
High Percentage of desired services that were received
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 6 months 117 families % = 88.10 % = 31.80 Difference = 56.30 HomeVEE calculated = 3.79 p < 0.001
High Percentage of desired services that were received
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families % = 91.20 % = 33.20 Difference = 58.00 HomeVEE calculated = 3.93 p < 0.001
High Percentage of desired services that were received—child mental health
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families % = 93.00 % = 2.00 Difference = 91.00 HomeVEE calculated = 3.93 p < 0.001
High Percentage of desired services that were received, early education
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families % = 88.00 % = 26.00 Difference = 62.00 HomeVEE calculated = 1.84 p < 0.001
High Percentage of desired services that were received, adult education
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families % = 62.00 % = 9.00 Difference = 53.00 HomeVEE calculated = 1.70 p < 0.001
High Percentage of desired services that were received, adult mental health
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families % = 92.00 % = 7.00 Difference = 85.00 HomeVEE calculated = 3.05 p < 0.001
High Percentage of desired services that were received, concrete needs
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families % = 89.00 % = 16.00 Difference = 73.00 HomeVEE calculated = 2.27 p < 0.001
High Percentage of desired services that were received, family support
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families % = 83.00 % = 9.00 Difference = 74.00 HomeVEE calculated = 2.36 p < 0.001
High Percentage of desired services that were received, medical services
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families % = 98.00 % = 78.00 Difference = 20.00 HomeVEE calculated = 1.59 p < 0.001
High Percentage of desired services that were received, social services
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families % = 93.00 % = 56.00 Difference = 37.00 HomeVEE calculated = 1.42 p < 0.001
Maternal health
Rating Outcome measure Effect Sample Timing of follow-up Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
High BSI
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families Mean = 21.00 Mean = 35.10 Mean difference = -14.10 HomeVEE calculated = 0.56 p < 0.01
High BSI
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 6 months 117 families Mean = 32.70 Mean = 33.00 Mean difference = -0.30 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 p > 0.05
High BSI (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families % (adjusted) = 14.00 Adjusted mean % = 39.00 Difference = -25.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.83 p < 0.05
High BSI (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 6 months 117 families % (adjusted) = 25.80 Adjusted mean % = 31.80 Difference = -6.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.18 p > 0.05
High CES-D
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families Mean = 13.50 Mean = 17.40 Mean difference = -3.90 HomeVEE calculated = 0.45 p < 0.05
High CES-D
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 6 months 117 families Mean = 16.90 Mean = 18.50 Mean difference = -1.60 HomeVEE calculated = 0.20 p > 0.05
High CES-D (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families % (adjusted) = 33.30 Adjusted mean % = 37.90 Difference = -4.60 HomeVEE calculated = -0.12 p > 0.05
High CES-D (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 6 months 117 families % (adjusted) = 46.00 Adjusted mean % = 40.80 Difference = 5.20 HomeVEE calculated = 0.13 p > 0.05
High PSI difficult child
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 6 months 117 families Mean = 23.50 Mean = 26.50 Mean difference = -3.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.47 p < 0.05
High PSI difficult child
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families Mean = 24.90 Mean = 25.90 Mean difference = -1.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.28 p > 0.05
High PSI difficult child (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 6 months 117 families % (adjusted) = 4.80 Adjusted mean % = 19.70 Difference = -14.90 HomeVEE calculated = -0.96 p < 0.05
High PSI difficult child (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families % (adjusted) = 7.10 Adjusted mean % = 11.90 Difference = -4.80 HomeVEE calculated = -0.35 p > 0.05
High PSI parent distress
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 6 months 117 families Mean = 30.30 Mean = 33.60 Mean difference = -3.30 HomeVEE calculated = 0.47 p < 0.05
High PSI parent distress
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families Mean = 29.70 Mean = 30.40 Mean difference = -0.70 HomeVEE calculated = 0.23 p > 0.05
High PSI parent distress (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 6 months 117 families % (adjusted) = 31.80 Adjusted mean % = 45.50 Difference = -13.70 HomeVEE calculated = -0.35 p < 0.05

footnote124

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

HomVEE-calculated p-value is greater than 0.05, indicating that this result is not significant.

High PSI parent distress (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families % (adjusted) = 21.40 Adjusted mean % = 28.80 Difference = -7.40 HomeVEE calculated = -0.24 p > 0.05
High PSI parent-child dysfunction
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 6 months 117 families Mean = 20.40 Mean = 21.90 Mean difference = -1.50 HomeVEE calculated = 0.27 p > 0.05
High PSI parent-child dysfunction
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families Mean = 21.60 Mean = 20.60 Mean difference = 1.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 p > 0.05
High PSI parent-child dysfunction (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families % (adjusted) = 21.40 Adjusted mean % = 17.40 Difference = 4.40 HomeVEE calculated = 0.17 p > 0.05
High PSI parent-child dysfunction (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 6 months 117 families % (adjusted) = 19.10 Adjusted mean % = 22.70 Difference = -3.60 HomeVEE calculated = -0.13 p > 0.05
High PSI total score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families Mean = 76.30 Mean = 76.90 Mean difference = -0.60 HomeVEE calculated = 0.20 p > 0.05
High PSI total score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 6 months 117 families Mean = 74.20 Mean = 81.90 Mean difference = -7.70 HomeVEE calculated = 0.49 p < 0.05
High PSI total score (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 6 months 117 families % (adjusted) = 20.60 Adjusted mean % = 34.90 Difference = -14.30 HomeVEE calculated = -0.44 p < 0.05
High PSI total score (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families % (adjusted) = 19.60 Adjusted mean % = 22.00 Difference = -2.40 HomeVEE calculated = -0.09 p > 0.05
High Any PSI scale (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families % (adjusted) = 32.70 Adjusted mean % = 44.10 Difference = -11.40 HomeVEE calculated = -0.29 p < 0.05

footnote124

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

HomVEE-calculated p-value is greater than 0.05, indicating that this result is not significant.

High Any PSI scale (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Bridgeport, CT 6 months 117 families % (adjusted) = 38.10 Adjusted mean % = 57.60 Difference = -19.50 HomeVEE calculated = -0.48 p < 0.05

Outcome measure summary

Child development and school readiness
Outcome measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure

ITSEA dysregulation

Child social-emotional /behavioral problems were assessed with the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA). The ITSEA is composed of Internalizing, Externalizing, and Dysregulation (sleep, eating, sensory sensitivities, and negative emotionality) domains. Items are rated on a 3-point scale from not true (1), rarely to very true (2), and often (3).

Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

ITSEA dysregulation (proportion with clinically concerning problems)

Child social-emotional /behavioral problems were assessed with the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA). The ITSEA is composed of Internalizing, Externalizing, and Dysregulation (sleep, eating, sensory sensitivities, and negative emotionality) domains. Items are rated on a 3-point scale from not true (1), rarely to very true (2), and often (3). Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

ITSEA externalizing

Child social-emotional /behavioral problems were assessed with the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA). The ITSEA is composed of Internalizing, Externalizing, and Dysregulation (sleep, eating, sensory sensitivities, and negative emotionality) domains. Items are rated on a 3-point scale from not true (1), rarely to very true (2), and often (3).

Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

ITSEA externalizing (proportion with clinically concerning problems)

Child social-emotional /behavioral problems were assessed with the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA). The ITSEA is composed of Internalizing, Externalizing, and Dysregulation (sleep, eating, sensory sensitivities, and negative emotionality) domains. Items are rated on a 3-point scale from not true (1), rarely to very true (2), and often (3).

Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

ITSEA internalizing

Child social-emotional /behavioral problems were assessed with the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA). The ITSEA is composed of Internalizing, Externalizing, and Dysregulation (sleep, eating, sensory sensitivities, and negative emotionality) domains. Items are rated on a 3-point scale from not true (1), rarely to very true (2), and often (3).

Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

ITSEA internalizing (proportion with clinically concerning problems)

Child social-emotional /behavioral problems were assessed with the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA). The ITSEA is composed of Internalizing, Externalizing, and Dysregulation (sleep, eating, sensory sensitivities, and negative emotionality) domains. Items are rated on a 3-point scale from not true (1), rarely to very true (2), and often (3).

Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Any ITSEA domain (proportion with clinically concerning problems)

Child social-emotional /behavioral problems were assessed with the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA). The ITSEA is composed of Internalizing, Externalizing, and Dysregulation (sleep, eating, sensory sensitivities, and negative emotionality) domains. Items are rated on a 3-point scale from not true (1), rarely to very true (2), and often (3).

Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Child language (proportion with clinically concerning problems)

Child language status was assessed using the Infant-Toddler Developmental Assessment (IDA) administered by a trained assessor. The authors reported the percentage of students that fell below the assessments ‘‘Of concern’’ cut-points which are derived from a standardization sample. Child assessment

Not reported by the author

Linkages and referrals
Outcome measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure

Percentage of desired services received that were received, child development

Percentage of families receiving desired child development services. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Percentage of desired services that were received

Percentage of families whose wanted service needswere met. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Percentage of desired services that were received, early education

Percentage of families receiving desired early education services. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Percentage of desired services that were received, adult education

Percentage of families receiving desired adult education services.

Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Percentage of desired services that were received, adult mental health

Percentage of families receiving desired adult mental health services. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Percentage of desired services that were received, concrete needs

Percentage of families receiving assistance with their assessed concrete needs Parent/caregiver report

Not reported

Percentage of desired services that were received, family support

Percentage of families receiving desired famly support services. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Percentage of desired services that were received, medical services

Percentage of families receiving desired medical services. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Percentage of desired services that were received, social services

Percentage of families receiving desired social services. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Percentage of desired services that were received—child mental health

Percentage of families receiving desired child mental health services. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Maternal health
Outcome measure Description of measure Data collection method Properties of measure

BSI

The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) is designed to assess global psychiatric symptoms. Items are rated on a 5-point scale from not at all to extremely. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

BSI (proportion with clinically concerning problems)

The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) is designed to assess global psychiatric symptoms. Items are rated on a 5-point scale from not at all to extremely. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

CES-D

Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES–D; Radloff, 1977). Items are rated on a 4-point scale from rarely or none of the time to most or all of the time. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

CES-D (proportion with clinically concerning problems)

Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES–D; Radloff, 1977). Items are rated on a 4-point scale from rarely or none of the time to most or all of the time. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

PSI difficult child

Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form is designed to identify parent-child systems that are under stress and are at risk for dysfunction parenting practices. The PSI includes three domains (Parent Distress, Difficult Child,and Parent–Child Dysfunctional) and items are rated on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

PSI difficult child (proportion with clinically concerning problems)

Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form is designed to identify parent-child systems that are under stress and are at risk for dysfunction parenting practices. The PSI includes three domains (Parent Distress, Difficult Child,and Parent–Child Dysfunctional) and items are rated on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

PSI parent distress

Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form is designed to identify parent-child systems that are under stress and are at risk for dysfunction parenting practices. The PSI includes three domains (Parent Distress, Difficult Child,and Parent–Child Dysfunctional) and items are rated on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

PSI parent distress (proportion with clinically concerning problems)

Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form is designed to identify parent-child systems that are under stress and are at risk for dysfunction parenting practices. The PSI includes three domains (Parent Distress, Difficult Child,and Parent–Child Dysfunctional) and items are rated on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

PSI parent-child dysfunction

Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form is designed to identify parent-child systems that are under stress and are at risk for dysfunction parenting practices. The PSI includes three domains (Parent Distress, Difficult Child,and Parent–Child Dysfunctional) and items are rated on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

PSI parent-child dysfunction (proportion with clinically concerning problems)

Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form is designed to identify parent-child systems that are under stress and are at risk for dysfunction parenting practices. The PSI includes three domains (Parent Distress, Difficult Child,and Parent–Child Dysfunctional) and items are rated on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

PSI total score

Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form is designed to identify parent-child systems that are under stress and are at risk for dysfunction parenting practices. The PSI includes three domains (Parent Distress, Difficult Child,and Parent–Child Dysfunctional) and items are rated on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

PSI total score (proportion with clinically concerning problems)

Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form is designed to identify parent-child systems that are under stress and are at risk for dysfunction parenting practices. The PSI includes three domains (Parent Distress, Difficult Child,and Parent–Child Dysfunctional) and items are rated on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Any PSI scale (proportion with clinically concerning problems)

Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form is designed to identify parent-child systems that are under stress and are at risk for dysfunction parenting practices. The PSI includes three domains (Parent Distress, Difficult Child,and Parent–Child Dysfunctional) and items are rated on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author