Linkages and Referrals

In Brief

Coordination with and referrals for other community resources and supports is a possible outcome of some the home visiting models, even if such coordination and referrals are not an explicit model goal. For example, program staff may directly refer participating families to places in their community where they can receive additional financial, in-kind, medical, or social support services. If programs do not provide direct referral, frequent exposure to home visiting staff may have the indirect result of educating or motivating participating families to seek these services on their own.

For this domain only, we include outcomes measured at the provider level, as well as the family level. For example, we will include the number of referrals that a home visitor or other service provider gave to families. This is consistent with the benchmark areas in the MIECHV legislation, which include coordination and referrals for other community resources and supports.

Overview

These measures assess whether the home visiting model has referred a family to services such as early intervention, child care, or public benefit programs. Primary outcome measures in this domain include reviews of home visitor, medical, or school records for indications that the child or family had received a referral to other services in the community. Secondary outcome measures include parent reports of receiving a referral and parent reports of awareness about other services in the community.

Measurement Considerations

The HomVEE review examined the research on 50 home visiting models with studies published between 1979 and 2018. (More information is available on literature search and prioritizing models for review.) Of the 8 models with high- or moderate-quality studies that measured outcomes in this domain, 2 had favorable impacts on a primary outcome measure and 6 had favorable impacts on a secondary outcome measure.

Review of Studies

The effects shown in the research are grouped into four categories: (1) favorable, (2) no effect, (3) unfavorable or ambiguous, and (4) not measured. Results for models that do not have studies with a high or moderate rating are listed as “not applicable.” For more information on these categories, please read Describing Effects. Only results from studies that meet the standards for the high or moderate ratings are considered below. This table includes links to more information on the model’s effectiveness, implementation, and details on outcomes in this domain.

Effects Shown in Research — Linkages and Referrals

Summary of Findings

Summary of findings across models for the linkages and referrals outcome domain
Model Meets HHS Criteria Outcome measures For more information

Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-Up (ABC) Intervention

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

Child First

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Outcome measures
Primary:
Favorable: 0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
Secondary:
Favorable: 11
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

Child Parent Enrichment Project (CPEP)

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS)

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

Computer-Assisted Motivational Intervention (CAMI)

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

Early Head Start–Home-Based Option (EHS-HBO)

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Outcome measures
Primary:
Favorable: 0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
Secondary:
Favorable: 8
No effect: 8
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

Early Intervention Program for Adolescent Mothers

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

Early Start (New Zealand)

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

Early Steps to School Success™—Home Visiting

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

Even Start-Home Visiting (Birth to Age 5)

Implementation support is not currently available for the model as reviewed.

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Outcome measures
Not applicable
For more information

Family Check-Up® For Children

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

Family Connections (Birth to Age 5)

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Outcome measures
Not applicable
For more information

Family Connects

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Outcome measures
Primary:
Favorable: 0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
Secondary:
Favorable: 1
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

Family Spirit®

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

Following Baby Back Home (FBBH)

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

Health Access Nurturing Development Services (HANDS) Program

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

HealthConnect One's® Community-Based Doula Program

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

Healthy Beginnings

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

Healthy Families America (HFA)®

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Outcome measures
Primary:
Favorable: 1
No effect: 16
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 1
Secondary:
Favorable: 1
No effect: 1
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

Healthy Start-Home Visiting

HHS has determined that Healthy Start is not eligible for review by HomVEE because it is a federal grant program and not a home visiting model. Information on Healthy Start has been removed from the website.

Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

Healthy Steps (National Evaluation 1996 Protocol)

This report focuses on Healthy Steps as implemented in the 1996 evaluation. HHS has determined that home visiting is not the primary service delivery strategy and the model does not meet current requirements for MIECHV program implementation.

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY)®

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

Home-Start

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

HOMEBUILDERS (Birth to Age 5)®

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Outcome measures
Not applicable
For more information

Maternal Early Childhood Sustained Home-Visiting Program (MECSH)

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

Maternal Infant Health Outreach Worker (MIHOW)®

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Outcome measures
Primary:
Favorable: 0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
Secondary:
Favorable: 1
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

Maternal Infant Health Program (MIHP)

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

Minding the Baby®

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

MOM Program

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Outcome measures
Primary:
Favorable: 0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
Secondary:
Favorable: 4
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

Mothers’ Advocates in the Community (MOSAIC)

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

North Carolina Baby Love Maternal Outreach Workers Program

Implementation support is not currently available for the model as reviewed.

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)®

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Outcome measures
Primary:
Favorable: 0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
Secondary:
Favorable: 0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 1
For more information

Nurses for Newborns®

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

Nurturing Parenting Programs (Birth to Age 5)

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

Oklahoma’s Community-Based Family Resource and Support (CBFRS) Program

Implementation support is not currently available for the model as reviewed.

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

Parent-Child Assistance Program (PCAP)

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

ParentChild+® Core Model

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

Parents as Teachers (PAT)®

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

Philani Outreach Programme

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

Play and Learning Strategies (PALS)

Entries in this row combine information across all versions of PALS except for PALS Infant. The main version of PALS has no high- or moderate-quality impact studies. Some other versions of PALS have at least one such study, but no version of the model other than PALS Infant meets HHS criteria for an evidence-based home visiting model.

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Outcome measures
Not applicable
For more information

Play and Learning Strategies (PALS) Infant

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

Pride in Parenting (PIP)

Implementation support is not currently available for the model as reviewed.

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

Promoting First Relationships®—Home Visiting Option

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

Promoting Parental Skills and Enhancing Attachment in Early Childhood (CAPEDP) Trial

Implementation support is not currently available for the model as reviewed.

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

Resource Mothers Program

Implementation support is not currently available for the model as reviewed.

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

Resources, Education, and Care in the Home (REACH)

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

REST Routine

Implementation support is not currently available for the model as reviewed.

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

SafeCare®

Entries in this row combine information across all versions of SafeCare except for SafeCare Augmented. The main version of SafeCare has no high- or moderate-quality impact studies. Some other versions of SafeCare have at least one such study, but no version of the model other than SafeCare Augmented meets HHS criteria for an evidence-based home visiting model. Planned Activities Training (a SafeCare module) and Cellular Phone Enhanced Planned Activities Training (a SafeCare module with an add-on) show evidence of effectiveness.

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

SafeCare Augmented

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Outcome measures
Primary:
Favorable: 0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
Secondary:
Favorable: 0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

Seattle-King County Healthy Homes Project

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Outcome measures
Not applicable
For more information

Triple P - Positive Parenting Program®—Variants suitable for home visiting

No Triple P intervention is exclusively delivered in the home with families with children from birth through age 5. This profile is based on (1) studies of programs that provided Triple P services in the home to families with children from birth through age 5, and (2) developer input on the Triple P interventions suitable for delivery in the home with families with children from birth through age 5.

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information

Video-Feedback Intervention to Promote Positive Parenting-Sensitive Discipline® (VIPP-SD)

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Outcome measures
Not measured
For more information