Positive parenting practices

In brief

Overview

Most early childhood home visiting models included in the HomVEE review are designed to promote positive parenting practices. Parenting education is often provided, either through didactic or experiential approaches. Some models use a structured curriculum to provide these services; others take a more flexible approach by addressing specific parenting needs identified during home visits. To a lesser extent, early childhood home visiting models integrate parenting interventions that have been found to improve specific parenting behaviors (for example, responsive interactions and positive behavioral support). In addition, home visitors may provide information to parents about child development or safety practices in the home.

Measurement considerations

Outcomes in this domain include knowledge of child development, safety practices, supportive behavior and engagement with the child, promotion of learning and child development, disciplinary practices, and general parenting practices such as bedtime routines. Outcome measures in this domain include observational measures of parent-child interactions or the home environment. For some measures, parent-child interactions are videotaped and then coded at a later time. For others, live coding is completed during an observation of the parent and child in the home environment. Many studies also use outcome measures based on parent self-reports of parenting attitudes and practices.

Categorizing attachment measures. Attachment between parent and child is a dyadic concept that does not map precisely to one single outcome domain HomVEE focuses on, as specified in statute. Therefore, HomVEE places attachment measures that examine caregiver behavior (such as sensitivity and nurturance), as well as measures that are truly dyadic (such as the Dyadic Coercive Interactions measure in the Relationship Affect Coding System), in the positive parenting practices domain. In contrast, if a measure of attachment examines child behavior, HomVEE places it in the child development and school readiness domain. Examples include attachment to the caregiver during infancy, engagement in a difficult task during toddler years, problem behaviors, and inhibitory control.

Review of research

The HomVEE review examined the research on 50 early childhood home visiting models with manuscripts published in 1979 through 2020. (HomVEE counts related versions, commonly referred to as adaptations, together in this section and in the table below. More information is available in the procedures and standards handbook.) Of the 24 models with manuscripts about high- or moderate-quality studies that measured outcomes in this domain, 21 had favorable effects.

Summary of findings

The effects shown in the research are grouped into four categories: (1) favorable, (2) no effect, (3) unfavorable or ambiguous, and (4) not measured. Results for models that only have low-rated research are listed as “not applicable.” For more information on these categories please read the procedures and standards handbook. Only results from manuscripts that receive a moderate or high rating are considered below. This table includes manuscripts links to more information on the model’s effectiveness, implementation, and details on findings in this domain.

Effects shown in research — Positive parenting practices domain

Summary of findings across models for the positive parenting practices outcome domain
Model Meets HHS criteria Findings For more information

Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-Up (ABC) -Infant

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Favorable: 11
No effect: 12
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

Child First

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Not measured
For more information

Child Parent Enrichment Project (CPEP)

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not measured
For more information

Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS)

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Favorable: 3
No effect: 3
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

Computer-Assisted Motivational Intervention (CAMI)

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not measured
For more information

Early Head Start Home-Based Option

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Favorable: 9
No effect: 55
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

Early Intervention Program for Adolescent Mothers

Implementation support is not currently available for the model as reviewed.

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Favorable: 0
No effect: 9
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

Early Start (New Zealand)

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Favorable: 3
No effect: 1
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

Early Steps to School Success™—Home Visiting

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not measured
For more information

Even Start-Home Visiting (Birth to Age 5)

Implementation support is not currently available for the model as reviewed.

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not applicable
For more information

Family Check-Up® For Children

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Favorable: 18
No effect: 8
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 1
For more information

Family Connections (Birth to Age 5)

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not applicable
For more information

Family Connects

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Favorable: 1
No effect: 4
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

Family Spirit®

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Favorable: 7
No effect: 11
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

Following Baby Back Home (FBBH)

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not measured
For more information

Health Access Nurturing Development Services (HANDS) Program

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Not measured
For more information

HealthConnect One's® Community-Based Doula Program

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not measured
For more information

Healthy Beginnings

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Favorable: 5
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

Healthy Families America (HFA)®

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Favorable: 28
No effect: 102
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 1
For more information

Healthy Start-Home Visiting

HHS has determined that Healthy Start is not eligible for review by HomVEE because it is a federal grant program and not a home visiting model. Information on Healthy Start has been removed from the website.

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not measured
For more information

Healthy Steps (National Evaluation 1996 Protocol)

This report focuses on Healthy Steps as implemented in the 1996 evaluation. HHS has determined that home visiting is not the primary service delivery strategy and the model does not meet current requirements for MIECHV program implementation.

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Favorable: 3
No effect: 32
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 3
For more information

Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY)®

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Favorable: 1
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

Home-Start

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not measured
For more information

HOMEBUILDERS (Birth to Age 5)®

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not applicable
For more information

Maternal Early Childhood Sustained Home-Visiting Program (MECSH)

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Favorable: 1
No effect: 6
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

Maternal Infant Health Outreach Worker (MIHOW)®

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Favorable: 21
No effect: 1
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

Maternal Infant Health Program (MIHP)

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Not measured
For more information

Minding the Baby® Home Visiting (MTB-HV)

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Favorable: 0
No effect: 1
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

MOM Program

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not measured
For more information

Mothers’ Advocates in the Community (MOSAIC)

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not measured
For more information

North Carolina Baby Love Maternal Outreach Workers Program

Implementation support is not currently available for the model as reviewed.

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not measured
For more information

Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)®

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Favorable: 8
No effect: 33
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

Nurses for Newborns®

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not measured
For more information

Nurturing Parenting Programs (Birth to Age 5)

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not measured
For more information

Oklahoma’s Community-Based Family Resource and Support (CBFRS) Program

Implementation support is not currently available for the model as reviewed.

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Favorable: 2
No effect: 5
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

Parent-Child Assistance Program (P-CAP)

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not measured
For more information

ParentChild+® Core Model

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Favorable: 1
No effect: 2
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

Parents as Teachers (PAT)®

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Favorable: 5
No effect: 99
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 4
For more information

Philani Outreach Programme

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not measured
For more information

Play and Learning Strategies (PALS)

Entries in this row combine information across all versions of PALS. Only PALS Infant meets HHS criteria for an evidence-based home visiting model. Some other versions of PALS have at least one manuscript about a high- or moderate-quality impact study, but no version of the model other than PALS Infant meets HHS criteria for an evidence-based home visiting model.

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Favorable: 5
No effect: 23
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

Play and Learning Strategies (PALS) Infant

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Favorable: 11
No effect: 12
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 1
For more information

Pride in Parenting (PIP)

Implementation support is not currently available for the model as reviewed.

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not measured
For more information

Promoting First Relationships®—Home Visiting Options

Entries in this row combine information across all versions of Promoting First Relationships that are used with parents in the home.

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Favorable: 11
No effect: 14
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

Promoting Parental Skills and Enhancing Attachment in Early Childhood (CAPEDP) Trial

Implementation support is not currently available for the model as reviewed.

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not measured
For more information

Resource Mothers Program

Implementation support is not currently available for the model as reviewed.

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not measured
For more information

Resources, Education, and Care in the Home (REACH)

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not measured
For more information

REST Routine

Implementation support is not currently available for the model as reviewed.

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not measured
For more information

SafeCare®

Entries in this row combine information across all versions of SafeCare. Only SafeCare Augmented meets HHS criteria for an evidence-based home visiting model. For SafeCare itself, there are no manuscripts about high- or moderate-quality impact studies. Some other versions of SafeCare have at least one such manuscript. Planned Activities Training (a SafeCare module) and Cellular Phone Enhanced Planned Activities Training (a SafeCare module with an add-on) show evidence of effectiveness.

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Favorable: 13
No effect: 24
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

SafeCare Augmented

Meets HHS criteria?
Yes
Findings
Not measured
For more information

Seattle-King County Healthy Homes Project

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Not applicable
For more information

Triple P - Positive Parenting Program®—Variants suitable for home visiting

No Triple P intervention is exclusively delivered in the home with families with children from birth through age 5. This profile is based on (1) studies of programs that provided Triple P services in the home to families with children from birth through age 5, and (2) developer input on the Triple P interventions suitable for delivery in the home with families with children from birth through age 5.

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Favorable: 0
No effect: 6
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information

Video-Feedback Intervention to Promote Positive Parenting-Sensitive Discipline® (VIPP-SD)

Meets HHS criteria?
No
Findings
Favorable: 5
No effect: 5
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0
For more information