Pride in Parenting (PIP) Target Population

PIP targeted mothers who received late or inadequate prenatal care, which is associated with later insufficient use of preventative pediatric services after birth. Inadequate prenatal care was defined as (1) five or fewer prenatal visits, or (2) prenatal visits initiated during the third trimester. PIP recruited women with newborn infants in the immediate postpartum period from four hospitals in Washington, DC.