Pride in Parenting (PIP) Theoretical Model

PIP targeted infant health, parenting behaviors, parental coping skills, and parental social support systems for mothers who received late or inadequate prenatal care.

The developers of PIP chose to use paraprofessional home visitors based on the theory that community-based lay home visitors with a shared racial and/or ethnic background would be better able to foster trusting and communicative relationships with program participants.