Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)® Meets HHS Criteria

Last updated: October 2019

Effects Shown in Research & Outcome Measure Details

Maternal Health

Outcomes Rated High

Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)®
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
Parent feeling average
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
8-10 weeks Tribal community two, Washington State 5 mothers Not applicable Not applicable Not reported Not applicable Not applicable Secondary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links
Parent feeling average

Average score based on answers to several questions about feelings experienced over the past 24 hours.

Participant report

Not reported Secondary
Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)®
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes

Mental health - Anxiety: Mental Health Inventory (MHI)

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

15 years

Nurse-visited group 4 vs. comparison groups 1 and 2, Elmira sample

300 mothers Unadjusted mean = 2.56 Unadjusted mean = 2.56 MD = 0.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00

Not statistically significant, p = 1.00

Secondary

Mental health - Depression: Mental Health Inventory (MHI)

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

15 years

Nurse-visited group 4 vs. comparison groups 1 and 2, Elmira sample

300 mothers Unadjusted mean = 2.01 Unadjusted mean = 2.02 MD = -0.01 HomeVEE calculated = -0.01

Not statistically significant, p = 0.95

Secondary

Mental health - Emotional stability: Mental Health Inventory (MHI)

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

15 years

Nurse-visited group 4 vs. comparison groups 1 and 2, Elmira sample

300 mothers Unadjusted mean = 3.75 Unadjusted mean = 3.74 MD = 0.01 HomeVEE calculated = 0.02

Not statistically significant, p = 0.90

Secondary

Mental health - Positive well-being: Mental Health Inventory (MHI)

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

15 years

Nurse-visited group 4 vs. comparison groups 1 and 2, Elmira sample

300 mothers Unadjusted mean = 3.78 Unadjusted mean = 3.79 MD = -0.01 HomeVEE calculated = -0.02

Not statistically significant, p = 0.90

Secondary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Mental health - Anxiety: Mental Health Inventory (MHI)

The RAND Mental Health Inventory (MHI) Survey consists of 37 measures of respondent core functioning and well-being.

Parent report

Properties not reported by author.

Secondary

Mental health - Depression: Mental Health Inventory (MHI)

The RAND Mental Health Inventory (MHI) Survey consists of 37 measures of respondent core functioning and well-being.

Parent report

Properties not reported by author.

Secondary

Mental health - Emotional stability: Mental Health Inventory (MHI)

The RAND Mental Health Inventory (MHI) Survey consists of 37 measures of respondent core functioning and well-being.

Parent report

Properties not reported by author.

Secondary

Mental health - Positive well-being: Mental Health Inventory (MHI)

The RAND Mental Health Inventory (MHI) Survey consists of 37 measures of respondent core functioning and well-being.

Parent report

Properties not reported by author.

Secondary
Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)®
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Anxiety (MHI), 24 months postpartum, standardized
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 years postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 671 mothers Adjusted mean = 99.10 Adjusted mean = 100.30 Mean difference = -1.20 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Depression (MHI), 24 months postpartum, standardized
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 years postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 671 mothers Adjusted mean = 99.50 Adjusted mean = 100.10 Mean difference = -0.06 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Diastolic blood pressure
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36th week of pregnancy Full (Memphis) 916 mothers Adjusted mean = 66.80 Adjusted mean = 67.50 Mean difference = -0.70 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary

footnote9

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

This mean difference, calculated by <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr>, is within |0.01| of the difference reported by the authors, with the discrepancy likely due to rounding error.

Gestational weight gain
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36th week of pregnancy Full (Memphis) 916 mothers Adjusted mean = 14.60 Adjusted mean = 14.90 Mean difference = -0.30 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Number of Gardnerella infections
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36th week of pregnancy Full (Memphis) 916 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.06 Adjusted mean = 0.07 Mean difference = -0.01 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary

footnote1

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the log-incidence difference.

Number of hospitalizations during pregnancy
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36th week of pregnancy Full (Memphis) 916 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.15 Adjusted mean = 0.13 Mean difference = 0.02 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary

footnote1

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the log-incidence difference.

Number of sexually transmitted diseases
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36th week of pregnancy Full (Memphis) 916 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.22 Adjusted mean = 0.21 Mean difference = 0.01 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary

footnote1

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the log-incidence difference.

Number of yeast infections
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36th week of pregnancy Full (Memphis) 916 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.14 Adjusted mean = 0.19 Mean difference = -0.05 Not available Statistically significant,
p ≤ 0.05
Primary

footnote1

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the log-incidence difference.

Obstetrical evaluation visits (total)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36th week of pregnancy Full (Memphis) 916 mothers Adjusted mean = 2.80 Adjusted mean = 2.80 Mean difference = 0.00 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary

footnote9

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

This mean difference, calculated by <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr>, is within |0.01| of the difference reported by the authors, with the discrepancy likely due to rounding error.

Pearlin Mastery, 24 months postpartum, standardized
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 years postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 671 mothers Adjusted mean = 101.60 Adjusted mean = 99.40 Mean difference = 2.20 Not available Statistically significant,
p < 0.01
Secondary
Pregnancy-induced hypertension (percentage)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36th week of pregnancy Full (Memphis) 916 mothers % (adjusted) = 13.00 Adjusted mean % = 20.00 OR = 0.60 HomeVEE calculated = -0.31 Statistically significant,
p ≤ 0.01
Primary

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

,

footnote6

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

The odds ratio compares the nurse-visited group to the comparison.

Spontaneous abortion, 0–24 months postpartum (percentage)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 years postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 671 mothers % (adjusted) = 5.00 Adjusted mean % = 3.00 OR = 1.50 HomeVEE calculated = 0.32 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote6

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

The odds ratio compares the nurse-visited group to the comparison.

Standard prenatal care visits (total)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36th week of pregnancy Full (Memphis) 916 mothers Adjusted mean = 6.20 Adjusted mean = 6.50 Mean difference = -0.30 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Subsequent live birth, 0–24 months postpartum (percentage)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 years postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 671 mothers % (adjusted) = 22.00 Adjusted mean % = 31.00 OR = 0.60 HomeVEE calculated = -0.28 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01
Secondary

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

,

footnote6

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

The odds ratio compares the nurse-visited group to the comparison.

Subsequent pregnancy, 0-24 months postpartum (percentage)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 years postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 671 mothers % (adjusted) = 36.00 Adjusted mean % = 47.00 OR = 0.60 HomeVEE calculated = -0.28 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01
Secondary

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

,

footnote6

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

The odds ratio compares the nurse-visited group to the comparison.

Systolic blood pressure
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36th week of pregnancy Full (Memphis) 916 mothers Adjusted mean = 111.70 Adjusted mean = 112.60 Mean difference = -0.90 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Therapeutic abortion, 0–24 months postpartum (percentage)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 years postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 671 mothers % (adjusted) = 2.00 Adjusted mean % = 4.00 OR = 0.50 HomeVEE calculated = -0.43 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote6

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

The odds ratio compares the nurse-visited group to the comparison.

Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

MHI: Anxiety MHI: Depression

The MHI assesses mental health in the areas of anxiety, depression, behavior, positive affect, and general distress. The researchers used the assessment to examine anxiety and depression in the sample. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary

Diastolic blood pressure

The mother’s diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) upon admission for labor Review of medical records

Not applicable

Primary

Gestational weight gain

The amount of weight the mother gained over the course of her pregnancy in kilograms Review of medical records

Not applicable

Primary

Number of Gardnerella infections

The number of diagnosed Gardnerella infections after the mother was randomized to a treatment condition Review of medical records

Not applicable

Primary

Number of hospitalizations during pregnancy

The number of mother hospitalizations that occurred during pregnancy Review of medical records

Not applicable

Primary

Number of sexually transmitted diseases

The number of diagnosed sexually transmitted diseases after the mother was randomized to a treatment condition. The count includes diagnoses of Neisseria gonorrheas, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis. Parent/caregiver medical examination

Not applicable

Primary

Number of yeast infections

The number of diagnosed yeast infections after the mother was randomized to a treatment condition Review of medical records

Not applicable

Primary

Obstetrical evaluation visits

The total number of obstetrical evaluation visits the mother received Review of medical records

Not applicable

Primary

Pearlin Mastery Scale

The Pearlin Mastery Scale assesses the degree to which a person has a sense of mastery or control over their life. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary

Pregnancy-induced hypertension

Percentage of mothers with pregnancy-induced hypertension. The outcome includes cases of preeclampsia, eclampsia, toxemia, and pregnancy-induced hypertension. Review of medical records

Not applicable

Primary

Spontaneous abortion

Percentage of mothers who had a spontaneous abortion 0–24 months postpartum Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Standard prenatal care visits

The total number of standard prenatal care visits the mother received Review of medical records

Not applicable

Primary

Subsequent live birth

Percentage of mothers who had a subsequent live birth 0–24 months postpartum Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Subsequent pregnancy

Percentage of mothers who had a subsequent pregnancy 0–24 months postpartum Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Systolic blood pressure

The mother’s systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) upon admission for labor Review of medical records

Not applicable

Primary

Therapeutic abortion

Percentage of mothers who had a therapeutic abortion 0–24 months postpartum Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)®
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Number of months between birth or first and second child
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 646 mothers Adjusted mean = 30.25 Adjusted mean = 26.60 Mean difference = 3.65 Not available Statistically significant,
p ≤ 0.01
Secondary
Number of subsequent live births
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 646 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.85 Adjusted mean = 0.96 Mean difference = -0.11 Not available Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
Secondary
Number of subsequent pregnancies
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 646 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.15 Adjusted mean = 1.34 Mean difference = -0.19 Not available Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Secondary
Number of subsequent pregnancies with short intervals (< 6 months from previous delivery or termination)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 646 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.22 Adjusted mean = 0.32 Mean difference = -0.10 Not available Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Secondary

footnote1

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the log-incidence difference.

Number of subsequent spontaneous abortions
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 646 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.10 Adjusted mean = 0.12 Mean difference = -0.12 Not available Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
Secondary

footnote1

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the log-incidence difference.

Number of subsequent still births
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 646 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.01 Adjusted mean = 0.02 Mean difference = -0.01 Not available Not statistically significant
p ≥ 0.05
Secondary

footnote1

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the log-incidence difference.

Number of subsequent therapeutic abortions
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 646 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.05 Adjusted mean = 0.10 Mean difference = -0.05 Not available Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
Secondary

footnote3

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors report the difference in this outcome to be statistically significant, p < 0.10, which is greater than the acceptable alpha for this review (&alpha; = 0.05).

Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Number of months between birth of first and second child

Number of months that passed between the birth of the mother’s first and second child Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Number of subsequent live births

The number of subsequent live births experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Number of subsequent pregnancies

The number of subsequent pregnancies experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Number of subsequent pregnancies with short intervals

The number of pregnancies where conception occurred less than 6 months from the previous delivery or termination Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Number of subsequent spontaneous abortions

Number of subsequent spontaneous abortions experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Number of subsequent stillbirths

Number of subsequent stillbirths experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Number of subsequent therapeutic abortions

Number of subsequent therapeutic abortions experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)®
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Average weight gain (pounds)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Prepregnancy to last prenatal visit Full (Elmira) 289 mothers Mean = 35.71 Mean = 32.78 Mean difference = 2.93 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Bladder infection (percentage)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Enrollment to delivery Full (Elmira) 306 mothers Mean % = 10.00 Mean % = 6.00 Mean difference = 4.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.34 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Change in average adequacy of diet (percentage RDA)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Enrollment to week 32 Full (Elmira) 253 mothers Mean = 4.14 Mean = -0.33 Mean difference = 3.81 Not available Statistically significant,
p ≤ 0.05
Secondary
Change in blood pressure
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Enrollment to last prenatal visit Full (Elmira) 295 mothers Mean = 7.60 Mean = 7.13 Mean difference = -0.47 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Change in percentage experienced bleeding
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
First to third trimester Full (Elmira) 295 mothers = 0.00 = 0.05 Mean difference = 5.00 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary

footnote150

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

High score equals unfavorable.

Change in percentage experienced spotting
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
First to third trimester Full (Elmira) 308 mothers = -0.03 = -0.06 Mean difference = -3.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.40 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Edema (percentage)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Enrollment to delivery Full (Elmira) 308 mothers Mean % = 62.00 Mean % = 58.00 Mean difference = 0.04 HomeVEE calculated = 0.10 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Hematocrit (percentage, last before delivery)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Enrollment to delivery Full (Elmira) 308 mothers Mean % = 36.76 Mean % = 36.67 Mean difference = 0.09 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (percentage)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Enrollment to delivery Full (Elmira) 308 mothers Mean % = 4.00 Mean % = 7.00 Mean difference = -3.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.36 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Kidney infection (percentage)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Enrollment to delivery Full (Elmira) 306 mothers Mean % = 0.00 Mean % = 3.00 Mean difference = -3.00 Not available Statistically significant,
p ≤ 0.01
Primary
Number alcoholic drinks per week (average change)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Enrollment to week 32 Full (Elmira) 293 mothers Mean = -0.04 Mean = -0.06 Mean difference = -0.02 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Number of antepartum visits
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
32 weeks Full (Elmira) 292 mothers Mean = 10.49 Mean = 10.50 Mean difference = -0.01 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Number of calls to physician/clinic
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
32 weeks Full (Elmira) 292 mothers Mean = 1.43 Mean = 1.72 Mean difference = -0.29 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Proteinuria (≥ 2+, percentage)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Enrollment to delivery Full (Elmira) 308 mothers Mean % = 5.00 Mean % = 3.00 Mean difference = 2.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.32 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Average weight gain

The change in reported weight (pounds) from early to late pregnancy Review of medical records

Not applicable

Primary

Bladder infection

Percentage of mothers who had diagnosed bladder infections, including urinary tract infections not identified specifically as kidney infections Review of medical records

Not applicable

Primary

Change in average adequacy of diet

The change from early to late pregnancy in the reported average percentage of RDAs consumed by mothers Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Change in blood pressure

The change in reported blood pressure (diastolic mm Hg) from early to late pregnancy Review of medical records

Not applicable

Primary

Change in percentage experienced bleeding

The percentage change from early to late pregnancy in the proportion of women reporting that they experienced bleeding Review of medical records

Not applicable

Primary

Change in percentage experienced spotting

The percentage change from early to late pregnancy in the proportion of women reporting that they experienced spotting Review of medical records

Not applicable

Primary

Edema

Percentage of mothers who had an edema Review of medical records

Not applicable

Primary

Hematocrit

The percentage of blood volume that is populated by red blood cells as measured prior to delivery Review of medical records

Not applicable

Primary

Hypertensive disorder of pregnancy

Percentage of mothers diagnosed with hypertensive disorder of pregnancy Review of medical records

Not applicable

Primary

Kidney infection

Percentage of mothers who had diagnosed kidney infections Review of medical records

Not applicable

Primary

Number alcoholic drinks per week

The average change from early to late pregnancy in the number of drinks mothers reported consuming per week Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Number of antepartum visits

Number of antepartum visits to a physician Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Number of calls to physician/clinic

Number of antepartum calls to a physician or clinic Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Proteinuria

The proportion of respondents with a score greater than or equal to 2+ on a test assessing the presence of proteins in the mother’s urine. Protein is measured on a 6-point scale, with a range of values from 0 to 4+. Review of medical records

Not applicable

Primary
Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)®
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
Alcohol or other drug use
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
12-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and development screening comparison (Memphis) 594 mothers %(adjusted) = 10.00 Adjusted mean % = 10.00 OR = 0.91 HomeVEE calculated = -0.05 Not statistically significant, p > .05 Secondary
Cumulative subsequent births
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
0 to 12 years Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and development screening comparison (Memphis) 594 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.07 Adjusted mean = 1.15 Mean difference = -0.08 HomeVEE calculated = -1.69 Not statistically significant, p > .05 Secondary
Cumulative subsequent births
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
10 to 12 years Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and development screening comparison (Memphis) 594 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.80 Adjusted mean = 1.83 Mean difference = -0.03 HomeVEE calculated = -0.42 Not statistically significant, p > .05 Secondary
Pearlin Mastery Scale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
12-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and development screening comparison (Memphis) 594 mothers Adjusted mean = 101.07 Adjusted mean = 99.56 Mean difference = 1.51 HomeVEE calculated = 2.80 Not statistically significant, p > .05 Secondary
Pearlin Mastery Scale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6 months to 12 years Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and development screening comparison (Memphis) 594 mothers Adjusted mean = 101.04 Adjusted mean = 99.60 Mean difference = 1.44 HomeVEE calculated = 4.30 Statistically significant, p < .05 Secondary
Role impairment due to alcohol or drug use
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
12-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and development screening comparison (Memphis) 594 mothers %(adjusted) = 0.00 Adjusted mean % = 3.00 Difference = -0.03 Not available Statistically significant, p < .05 Secondary
Symptoms of psychological distress (borderline/clinical vs. normal)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
12-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and development screening comparison (Memphis) 594 mothers %(adjusted) = 18.00 Adjusted mean % = 17.00 OR = 1.09 HomeVEE calculated = 0.05 Not statistically significant, p > .05 Secondary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Alcohol or other drug use

Percentage of mothers that had consumed 3 or more alcoholic drinks 3 or more times per month in the last year or used marijuana or cocaine since the last interview at age 9 years of the child Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Cumulative subsequent births

An index that reflects the number and timing of subsequent births Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary

Pearlin Mastery Scale

Mother’s sense of mastery reported from child age 6 months to 12 years. The Pearlin Mastery Scale assesses the degree to which a person has a sense of mastery or control over their life. Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Role impairment due to alcohol or drug use

Percentage of mothers that experienced any impairment in role functioning (at work, with friends, or with family members) due to use of alcohol and other drugs since the last interview at child age 9 years Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable 

Secondary

Symptoms of psychological distress (borderline/clinical vs. normal)

Mother’s symptoms of psychological distress (borderline or clinical vs. normal) Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable 

Secondary
Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)®
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
MHI
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 641 mothers Adjusted mean = 100.18 Adjusted mean = 99.92 Mean difference = 0.26 Study reported = 0.03 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.76
Secondary
Behavioral problems attributable to substance abuse
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 641 mothers % (adjusted) = 4.00 Adjusted mean % = 4.00 OR = 0.94 HomeVEE calculated = -0.03 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.88
Secondary

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

Currently uses marijuana
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 641 mothers % (adjusted) = 5.00 Adjusted mean % = 3.00 OR = 1.37 HomeVEE calculated = 0.19 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.47
Secondary

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

Moderate/heavy drinker (= 3 drinks = 3 times per month)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 641 mothers % (adjusted) = 5.00 Adjusted mean % = 3.00 OR = 2.03 HomeVEE calculated = 0.44 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.11
Secondary

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

Months between births of first and second children
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 641 mothers Adjusted mean = 34.38 Adjusted mean = 30.23 Mean difference = 4.15 Study reported = 0.26 Statistically significant,
p = 0.01
Secondary
Number of subsequent children (birth to 72 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 641 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.08 Adjusted mean = 1.28 Mean difference = -0.20 Study reported = -0.22 Statistically significant,
p = 0.01
Secondary
Number of subsequent pregnancies (birth to 72 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 641 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.16 Adjusted mean = 1.38 Mean difference = -0.22 Study reported = -0.22 Statistically significant,
p = 0.01
Secondary
Pearlin Mastery Scale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 641 mothers Adjusted mean = 100.46 Adjusted mean = 99.79 Mean difference = 0.67 Study reported = 0.07 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.43
Secondary
Subsequent abortion (rate per subsequent pregnancy)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 641 mothers % (adjusted) = 4.00 Adjusted mean % = 5.00 OR = 0.70 HomeVEE calculated = -0.23 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.42
Secondary

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

Subsequent miscarriage (rate per subsequent pregnancy)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 641 mothers % (adjusted) = 3.00 Adjusted mean % = 5.00 OR = 0.75 HomeVEE calculated = -0.27 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.50
Secondary

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

MHI

The MHI assesses mental health in the areas of anxiety, depression, behavior, positive affect, and general distress. Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Behavioral problems attributable to substance abuse

Percentage of mothers who had behavioral problems, such as traffic violations, poor performance at work, or compromised care of the child, that were attributable to the use of substances Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Currently uses marijuana

Percentage of mothers who currently used marijuana Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Moderate/heavy drinker

Percentage of mothers who had at least three drinks at a time at least three times per month Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Months between births of first and second children

Number of months that passed between the birth of the mother’s first and second child Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Number of subsequent children

The number of subsequent children born to the mother Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Number of subsequent pregnancies

The number of subsequent pregnancies experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Pearlin Mastery Scale

The Pearlin Mastery Scale assesses the degree to which a person has a sense of mastery or control over their life. Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Subsequent abortion

Rate of abortion per subsequent pregnancy experienced by the mothers Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Subsequent miscarriage

Rate of miscarriage per subsequent pregnancy experienced by the mothers Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)®
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Cumulative subsequent live birth per year (6–9 years postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
9-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy during infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.40 Adjusted mean = 1.53 Mean difference = -0.13 Study reported = -0.16 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.17
Secondary

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

Cumulative subsequent live births per year (0–9 yr postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
9-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.81 Adjusted mean = 0.93 Mean difference = -0.12 Study reported = -0.14 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Secondary

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

Maternal depression (CES-D) (9 years postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
9-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.71 Adjusted mean = 1.72 Mean difference = 0.01 Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.87
Secondary

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

Number of months between birth of first and second child
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
9-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 40.73 Adjusted mean = 34.09 Mean difference = 6.64 Study reported = 0.29 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01
Secondary

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

Number of subsequent abortions
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
9-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.14 Adjusted mean = 0.20 Mean difference = -0.06 Not available Not statistically significant,
p = 0.15
Secondary

footnote4

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculation of incidence ratio.

Number of subsequent miscarriages (0–9 years postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
9-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.24 Adjusted mean = 0.24 Mean difference = 0.00 Not available Not statistically significant,
p = 1.00
Secondary

footnote4

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculation of incidence ratio.

Number of substances used (moderate/heavy alcohol, marijuana, cocaine) since last interview
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
9-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.10 Adjusted mean = 0.17 Mean difference = -0.07 Not available Not statistically significant,
p = 0.08
Secondary

footnote4

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculation of incidence ratio.

Pearlin Mastery Scale (9 years postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
9-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 100.79 Adjusted mean = 99.75 Mean difference = 1.04 Study reported = 0.10 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.20
Secondary

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

Pearlin Mastery Scale (6 months–9 years postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
9-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 101.00 Adjusted mean = 99.50 Mean difference = 1.53 Study reported = 0.15 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01
Secondary

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

Subsequent still birth (0–9 years postpartum), percentage
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
9-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 627 mothers % (adjusted) = 1.00 Adjusted mean % = 2.00 Mean difference = -1.00 Study reported = 1.00 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.36
Secondary

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

CES-D: Maternal depression

The CES-D is a 20-item assessment of depressive symptoms. Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Cumulative subsequent live births  per year

Rate of subsequent births per year experienced by the mothers Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Number of months between birth of first and second child

Number of months that passed between the birth of the mother’s first and second child Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Number of subsequent abortions

Number of subsequent abortions experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Number of subsequent miscarriages

Number of subsequent miscarriages experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Number of substances used

A count of substances used that included at least three drinks of alcohol at least three times per, month in the past year, use of marijuana, and use of cocaine since the child was age 6 Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Pearlin Mastery Scale

The Pearlin Mastery Scale assesses the degree to which a person has a sense of mastery or control over their life. Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Subsequent stillbirth

Percentage of mothers who experienced a subsequent stillbirth Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)®
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
Subsequent birth (24 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 436 mothers % (adjusted) = 12.00 Adjusted mean % = 19.00 OR = 0.58 HomeVEE calculated = -0.33 Statistically significant,
p ≤ 0.05
Secondary
Subsequent pregnancy (24 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 436 mothers % (adjusted) = 29.00 Adjusted mean % = 41.00 OR = 0.60 HomeVEE calculated = -0.32 Statistically significant,
p ≤ 0.05
Secondary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Subsequent births

The number of subsequent births experienced by the mother

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Subsequent pregnancy

The number of subsequent pregnancies experienced by the mother

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Use of emergency services

A summary variable of the families’ use of emergency services, including emergency housing and emergency food banks

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Use of preventative services

A summary variable of the families’ use of ancillary preventative services, including mental health, legal aid, drug/alcohol treatment, childbirth classes, rent and utility assistance, education, and employment

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)®
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
MHI
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-year follow-up Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 424 mothers Adjusted mean = 99.82 Adjusted mean = 99.16 Mean difference = 0.66 Study reported = 0.04 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.49
Secondary
Behavioral problems attributable to substance use
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-year follow-up Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 424 mothers = 0.15 = 0.12 OR = 1.27 HomeVEE calculated = 0.15 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.41
Secondary
Currently using marijuana
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-year follow-up Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 424 mothers = 0.08 = 0.09 OR = 0.86 HomeVEE calculated = -0.09 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.67
Secondary
Moderate/heavy drinker (= 3 drinks, = 3 times in 14 days)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-year follow-up Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 424 mothers = 0.04 = 0.04 OR = 1.09 HomeVEE calculated = 0.06 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.84
Secondary
Months between births of first and second children
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-year follow-up Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 424 mothers Adjusted mean = 24.51 Adjusted mean = 20.39 Mean difference = 4.12 Study reported = 0.32 Statistically significant,
p = 0.01
Secondary
Number of subsequent live births
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-year follow-up Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 424 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.48 Adjusted mean = 0.57 Mean difference = -0.09 Study reported = -0.13 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.18
Secondary
Number of subsequent pregnancies
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-year follow-up Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 424 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.85 Adjusted mean = 0.88 Mean difference = -0.03 Study reported = -0.04 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.72
Secondary
Pearlin Mastery Scale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-year follow-up Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 424 mothers Adjusted mean = 99.41 Adjusted mean = 99.31 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 0.12 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.91
Secondary
Subsequent abortion
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-year follow-up Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 424 mothers = 0.05 = 0.05 OR = 0.94 HomeVEE calculated = -0.04 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.89
Secondary
Subsequent miscarriage
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-year follow-up Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 424 mothers = 0.09 = 0.12 OR = 0.73 HomeVEE calculated = -0.19 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.31
Secondary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

MHI

The MHI assesses mental health in the areas of anxiety, depression, behavior, positive affect, and general distress. Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Behavioral problems attributable to substance use

A measure of the extent to which use of alcohol and drugs interfered with the mother’s daily functioning Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Currently using marijuana

Percentage of mothers who were currently using marijuana Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Moderate/heavy drinker (= 3 drinks, = 3 times in 14 days)

Percentage of mothers who had at least three drinks at a time at least three times in the previous 14 days Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Months between births of first and second children

Number of months that passed between the birth of the mother’s first and second child Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Number of subsequent live births

The number of subsequent births experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Number of subsequent pregnancies

The number of subsequent pregnancies experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Pearlin Mastery Scale

The Pearlin Mastery Scale assesses the degree to which a person has a sense of mastery or control over their life. Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Subsequent abortion

Rate of abortion per subsequent pregnancy experienced by the mothers Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Subsequent miscarriage

Rate of miscarriage per subsequent pregnancy experienced by the mothers Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)®
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Incidence of substance use impairments
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
15-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 245 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.34 Adjusted mean = 0.43 Mean difference = -0.09 Not available Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
Secondary

footnote1

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the log-incidence difference.

Months between birth of first and second child
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
15-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 227 mothers Adjusted mean = 39.80 Adjusted mean = 37.30 Mean difference = 2.50 Not available Statistical significance not reported Secondary
Months between birth of first and second child
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
15-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 245 mothers Adjusted mean = 41.70 Adjusted mean = 37.30 Mean difference = 4.40 Not available Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
Secondary
Subsequent births
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
15-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 245 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.30 Adjusted mean = 1.60 Mean difference = -0.30 Not available Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
Secondary
Subsequent births
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
15-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 227 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.40 Adjusted mean = 1.60 Mean difference = -0.20 Not available Statistical significance not reported Secondary
Subsequent pregnancies
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
15-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 245 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.70 Adjusted mean = 2.10 Mean difference = -0.40 Not available Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
Secondary
Subsequent pregnancies
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
15-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 227 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.90 Adjusted mean = 2.10 Mean difference = -0.20 Not available Statistical significance not reported Secondary
Substance use impairments since birth of first child
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
15-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 227 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.45 Adjusted mean = 0.43 Mean difference = 0.02 Not available Statistical significance not reported Secondary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Incidence of substance use impairments

A scale summarizing the counts of behavioral impairments (e.g., missing work, motor vehicle crash) reported by women resulting from their use of alcohol and illegal drugs. The researchers examined both the total score from the scale and the incidence of impairments in the sample. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary

Months between birth of first and second child

Number of months that passed between the birth of the mother’s first and second child Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Subsequent births

The number of subsequent births experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Subsequent pregnancies

The number of subsequent pregnancies experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Substance use impairments since birth of first child

A scale summarizing the counts of behavioral impairments (e.g., missing work, motor vehicle crash) reported by women resulting from their use of alcohol and illegal drugs. The researchers examined both the total score from the scale and the incidence of impairments in the sample. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary
Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)®
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Number of births including first born (0–46 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
46 months, postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 216 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.65 Adjusted mean = 1.85 Mean difference = -0.20 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote1

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the log-incidence difference.

Number of births including first born (0–46 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
46 months, postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 203 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.77 Adjusted mean = 1.85 Mean difference = -0.08 Not available Statistical significance not reported Secondary
Number of months between first and second child (0–46 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
46 months, postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 216 mothers Adjusted mean = 40.76 Adjusted mean = 37.11 Mean difference = 3.65 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote1

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the log-incidence difference.

Number of months between first and second child (0–46 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
46 months, postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 203 mothers Adjusted mean = 41.58 Adjusted mean = 37.11 Mean difference = 4.47 Not available Statistical significance not reported Secondary
Number of pregnancies (0–22 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
22 months postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 188 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.31 Adjusted mean = 0.44 Mean difference = -0.13 Not available Statistical significance not reported Secondary
Number of pregnancies (0–22 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
22 months, postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 196 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.38 Adjusted mean = 0.44 Mean difference = -0.06 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote1

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the log-incidence difference.

Number of pregnancies (0–46 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
46 months, postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 205 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.82 Adjusted mean = 1.06 Mean difference = -0.24 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote1

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the log-incidence difference.

Number of pregnancies (0–46 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
46 months, postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 194 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.90 Adjusted mean = 1.06 Mean difference = -0.16 Not available Statistical significance not reported Secondary
Number of spontaneous abortions (0–46 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
46 months, postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 194 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.12 Adjusted mean = 0.13 Mean difference = -0.01 Not available Statistical significance not reported Secondary
Number of spontaneous abortions (0–46 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
46 months, postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 205 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.10 Adjusted mean = 0.13 Mean difference = -0.03 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote1

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the log-incidence difference.

Number of therapeutic abortions (0–46 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
46 months, postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 194 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.05 Adjusted mean = 0.04 Mean difference = 0.01 Not available Statistical significance not reported Secondary
Number of therapeutic abortions (0–46 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
46 months, postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 205 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.05 Adjusted mean = 0.04 Mean difference = 0.01 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote1

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the log-incidence difference.

Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Number of births, including firstborn

The number of births experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Number of months between first and second child

Number of months that passed between the birth of the mother’s first and second child Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Number of pregnancies

The number of subsequent pregnancies experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Number of spontaneous abortions

The number of spontaneous abortions experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Number of therapeutic abortions

The number of therapeutic abortions experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
NFP with Paraprofessional Home Visitors
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Subsequent birth (24 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 417 mothers % (adjusted) = 13.00 Adjusted mean % = 19.00 OR = 0.63 HomeVEE calculated = -0.27 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote3

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors report the difference in this outcome to be statistically significant, p < 0.10, which is greater than the acceptable alpha for this review (&alpha; = 0.05).

Subsequent pregnancy (24 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 417 mothers % (adjusted) = 33.00 Adjusted mean % = 41.00 OR = 0.70 HomeVEE calculated = -0.21 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote3

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors report the difference in this outcome to be statistically significant, p < 0.10, which is greater than the acceptable alpha for this review (&alpha; = 0.05).

Use of emergency services
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 weeks (prenatal) Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 344 mothers % (adjusted) = 9.00 Adjusted mean % = 9.00 OR = 1.01 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Use of preventative services
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 weeks (prenatal) Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 344 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.67 Adjusted mean = 0.69 Mean difference = -0.02 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Subsequent births

The number of subsequent births experienced by the mother

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Subsequent pregnancy

The number of subsequent pregnancies experienced by the mother

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Use of emergency services

A summary variable of the families’ use of emergency services, including emergency housing and emergency food banks

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Use of preventative services

A summary variable of the families’ use of ancillary preventative services, including mental health, legal aid, drug/alcohol treatment, childbirth classes, rent and utility assistance, education, and employment

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Outcomes Rated Moderate

Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)®
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
Overall stress
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
8-10 weeks Tribal community two, Washington State 5 mothers Not applicable Not applicable Not reported Not applicable Not applicable Secondary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links
Overall stress

Participant's overall stress level in the past 24 hours.

Participant report

Not reported Secondary
Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)®
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Alcohol impairment score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
15 years Nurse-visited group 4 vs. comparison groups 1 and 2, Elmira sample 300 mothers Unadjusted mean = 0.35 Unadjusted mean = 0.37 MD = -0.02 HomeVEE calculated = -0.02 Not statistically significant, p = 0.87 Secondary
Substance use - # cigarettes smoked per day
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
15 years Nurse-visited group 4 vs. comparison groups 1 and 2, Elmira sample 300 mothers Unadjusted mean = 8.32 Unadjusted mean = 10.56 MD = -2.24 HomeVEE calculated = -0.21 Not statistically significant, p = 0.11 Secondary
Substance use - binge drinking: # days had 5+ drinks in the past year
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
15 years Nurse-visited group 4 vs. comparison groups 1 and 2, Elmira sample 300 mothers Unadjusted mean = 11.70 Unadjusted mean = 9.27 MD = 2.43 HomeVEE calculated = 0.06 Not statistically significant, p = 0.65 Secondary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links
Alcohol impairment score

Not reported

Not reported

Properties not reported by author. Secondary

Substance use - # cigarettes smoked per day

Mothers in the study were asked to report the number of cigarettes they smoked per day in the past year.

Parent report

Properties not reported by author.

Secondary

Substance use - binge drinking: # days had 5+ drinks in the past year

Mothers in the study were asked to report how many times in the past year they'd consumed at least five drinks in a single drinking episode.

Parent report

Properties not reported by author.

Secondary
Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)®
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
Use of emergency services
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 weeks (prenatal) Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 353 mothers % (adjusted) = 6.00 Adjusted mean % = 9.00 OR = 0.64 HomeVEE calculated = -0.27 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Use of preventative services
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 weeks (prenatal) Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 353 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.80 Adjusted mean = 0.69 Mean difference = 0.11 HomeVEE calculated = 0.09 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Use of emergency services

A summary variable of the families’ use of emergency services, including emergency housing and emergency food banks Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Use of preventative services

A summary variable of the families’ use of ancillary preventative services, including mental health, legal aid, drug/alcohol treatment, childbirth classes, rent and utility assistance, education, and employment Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)®
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
21 year maternal mortality rate - all causes (Nurse home visits during pregnancy and infancy vs. transport to prenatal appointment comparison)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
21 years Nurse home visits during pregnancy and infancy vs. transport to prenatal appointment comparison (Memphis) 1138 mother/child dyads Unadjusted mean = 0.01 Unadjusted mean = 0.04 Mean difference = -0.03 HomeVEE calculated = -0.69 Statistically significant, p = 0.01 Primary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

21 year maternal mortality rate - all causes (Nurse home visits during pregnancy and infancy vs. transport to prenatal appointment comparison)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
21 years Nurse home visits during pregnancy and infancy vs. transport to prenatal appointment comparison (Memphis) 1138 mother/child dyads Unadjusted mean = 0.01 Unadjusted mean = 0.04 Mean difference = -0.03 HomeVEE calculated = -0.69 Statistically significant, p = 0.01 Primary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

21 year maternal mortality rate - all causes (Nurse home visits during pregnancy plus 2 postpartum visits vs. transport to prenatal appointment comparison)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
21 years Nurse home visits during pregnancy plus 2 postpartum visits vs. transport to prenatal appointment comparison (Memphis) 910 mother/child dyads Unadjusted mean = 0.00 Unadjusted mean = 0.04 Mean difference = -0.04 HomeVEE calculated = -1.41 Statistically significant, p = 0.01 Primary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

21 year maternal mortality rate - external cause (Nurse home visits during pregnancy and infancy vs. transport to prenatal appointment comparison)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
21 years Nurse home visits during pregnancy and infancy vs. transport to prenatal appointment comparison (Memphis) 1138 mother/child dyads Unadjusted mean = 0.00 Unadjusted mean = 0.02 Mean difference = -0.01 HomeVEE calculated = -1.22 Statistically significant, p = 0.02 Primary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

21 year maternal mortality rate - external cause (Nurse home visits during pregnancy and infancy vs. transport to prenatal appointment comparison)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
21 years Nurse home visits during pregnancy and infancy vs. transport to prenatal appointment comparison (Memphis) 1138 mother/child dyads Unadjusted mean = 0.00 Unadjusted mean = 0.02 Mean difference = -0.01 HomeVEE calculated = -1.22 Statistically significant, p = 0.02 Primary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

21 year maternal mortality rate - external cause (Nurse home visits during pregnancy plus 2 postpartum visits vs. transport to prenatal appointment comparison)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
21 years Nurse home visits during pregnancy plus 2 postpartum visits vs. transport to prenatal appointment comparison (Memphis) 910 mother/child dyads Unadjusted mean = 0.00 Unadjusted mean = 0.02 Mean difference = -0.02 Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.05 Primary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

21 year maternal mortality rate - all causes (Nurse home visits during pregnancy and infancy vs. transport to prenatal appointment comparison)

Percentage of mothers dying from any cause Administrative records (National Death Index)

Not applicable

Primary

21 year maternal mortality rate - external cause (Nurse home visits during pregnancy and infancy vs. transport to prenatal appointment comparison)

Percentage of mothers dying from external causes (including drug overdose, suicide, unintentional injuries, and homicide) Administrative records (National Death Index)

Not applicable

Primary
NFP with Paraprofessional Home Visitors
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
MHI
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-year follow-up Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 431 mothers Adjusted mean = 101.20 Adjusted mean = 99.16 Mean difference = 0.66 Study reported = -0.03 Statistically significant,
p = 0.03
Secondary
Behavioral problems attributable to substance use
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-year follow-up Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 431 mothers = 0.10 = 0.12 OR = 0.82 HomeVEE calculated = -0.12 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.52
Secondary
Currently using marijuana
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-year follow-up Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison, (Denver) 431 mothers = 0.09 = 0.09 OR = 0.94 HomeVEE calculated = -0.04 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.87
Secondary
Moderate/heavy drinker (= 3 drinks, = 3 times in 14 days)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-year follow-up Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 431 mothers = 0.03 = 0.04 OR = 0.74 HomeVEE calculated = -0.21 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.54
Secondary
Months between births of first and second children
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-year follow-up Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 431 mothers Adjusted mean = 22.20 Adjusted mean = 20.39 Mean difference = 1.81 Study reported = 0.14 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.27
Secondary
Number of subsequent live births
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-year follow-up Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 431 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.53 Adjusted mean = 0.57 Mean difference = -0.04 Study reported = -0.06 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.57
Secondary
Number of subsequent pregnancies
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-year follow-up Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 431 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.88 Adjusted mean = 0.88 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p = 1.00
Secondary
Pearlin Mastery Scale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-year follow-up Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 431 mothers Adjusted mean = 101.20 Adjusted mean = 99.31 Mean difference = 1.94 Study reported = 0.20 Statistically significant,
p = 0.03
Secondary
Subsequent abortion
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-year follow-up Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 431 mothers = 0.06 = 0.05 OR = 1.19 HomeVEE calculated = 0.10 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.67
Secondary
Subsequent miscarriage
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-year follow-up Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 431 mothers = 0.07 = 0.12 OR = 0.50 HomeVEE calculated = -0.42 Statistically significant,
p = 0.04
Secondary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

MHI

The MHI assesses mental health in the areas of anxiety, depression, behavior, positive affect, and general distress.

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Behavioral problems attributable to substance use

A measure of the extent to which use of alcohol and drugs interfered with the mother’s daily functioning

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Currently using marijuana

Percentage of mothers who were currently using marijuana

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Moderate/heavy drinker (= 3 drinks, = 3 times in 14 days)

Percentage of mothers who had at least three drinks at a time at least three times in the previous 14 days

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Months between births of first and second children

Number of months that passed between the birth of the mother’s first and second child

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Number of subsequent live births

The number of subsequent births experienced by the mother

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Number of subsequent pregnancies

The number of subsequent pregnancies experienced by the mother

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Pearlin Mastery Scale

The Pearlin Mastery Scale assesses the degree to which a person has a sense of mastery or control over their life.

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Subsequent abortion

Rate of abortion per subsequent pregnancy experienced by the mothers

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Subsequent miscarriage

Rate of miscarriage per subsequent pregnancy experienced by the mothers

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
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