Implementing Video-Feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting-Sensitive Discipline® (VIPP-SD)

Model implementation summary last updated: 2019

The information in this implementation report reflects feedback, if provided, from this model’s developer as of the above date. The description of the implementation of the model(s) here may differ from how the model(s) was implemented in the manuscripts reviewed to determine this model’s evidence of effectiveness. Inclusion in the implementation report does not mean the practices described meet the HHS criteria for evidence of effectiveness. Please see the Effectiveness button on the left for more information about any research on the effectiveness of the model, including any version(s) of the model with effectiveness research. Versions of the model that are described in the Adaptations and enhancements section of this implementation report may include (1) versions that were identified by the model’s developer and (2) versions that have been implemented by researchers and have manuscripts that HomVEE rated high or moderate, but that are not supported by the model’s developer.

Model overview

Theoretical approach

Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline (VIPP-SD) is a home visiting model theoretically grounded in attachment theory, developed by John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth, and coercion theory, developed by Gerald Patterson. Attachment theory emphasizes the importance of sensitive responsiveness, which refers to a caregiver accurately perceiving and responding to a child’s signals. Coercion theory states that children are more likely to exhibit negative behavior when caregivers use ineffective discipline techniques. VIPP-SD blends the two theories by encouraging caregivers to take into account the child’s perspective and signals when providing discipline.

VIPP-SD has been adapted for specific target populations, including families with infants, families with children who have autism, children in foster care, and second-generation Turkish families (described in Adaptations and Enhancements). Another adaptation of the model, Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting adapted to Child Care, serves teaching staff in child care settings (and, because it is not delivered by home visits, that adaptation was excluded from the HomVEE review). This profile is based on versions of VIPP-SD that use home visiting as the primary service delivery method.

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Implementation support

VIPP-SD was developed by the Centre for Child and Family Studies at Leiden University in the Netherlands. The VIPP Training and Research Centre, part of the Centre for Child and Family Studies, administers and oversees the model’s implementation.

No information is available on whether the model offers support for implementation in the United States.

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Intended population

VIPP-SD serves caregivers with children ages 1 through 6 years old who have an increased risk of behavioral problems. For the purpose of the HomVEE review, the only studies of VIPP-SD included were those of sites that included families with children ages 1 through 5.
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Targeted outcomes

VIPP-SD aims to promote sensitive responsiveness and sensitive discipline by increasing caregivers (1) knowledge of child development, (2) skill in observing and responding to their children’s signals, (3) capacity to empathize with their children, and (4) use of appropriate discipline strategies.
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Model services

VIPP-SD consists of visits conducted in the caregiver’s home while one child is present. During the first visit, the home visitor introduces the caregiver to the VIPP-SD model and answers any questions. The home visitor also records a video of the caregiver and child interacting. After the visit, the home visitor views the recording, selects clips of the video to share with the caregiver, and prepares feedback on the selected clips. During subsequent home visits, the home visitor begins by recording another round of caregiver–child interactions, and then the home visitor and caregiver discuss the prepared video clips from the previous visit. The home visitor provides feedback and tips on the following topics:

Parental sensitivity, which involves the following:

  • Attending to the child’s subtle signals and expressions
  • Appropriately reacting to a child’s signals
  • Sharing positive and negative emotions

Sensitive discipline, which involves the following:

  • Using consistent discipline strategies and setting limits
  • Using distraction and noncoercive responses to challenging child behavior
  • Providing positive reinforcement by praising the child’s positive behavior and ignoring attention-seeking behavior
  • Providing time-outs to de-escalate temper tantrums
  • Empathizing with the child

Although the intervention manual specifies the general content of each visit, the home visitor tailors feedback to each family based on the home visitor’s observations.

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Model intensity and length

VIPP-SD consists of seven home visits that last about two hours each. Visits typically occur once or twice a month.
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VIPP-SD is being implemented in more than 15 countries.
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Adaptations and enhancements

The model has been adapted for specific target populations. The following adaptations are designed for delivery in the home:

  • Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting (VIPP) is the precursor to VIPP-SD. VIPP, developed for families with infants from newborn to 12 months, focused on fostering a positive attachment between the infant and caregiver. VIPP-SD was subsequently created to extend VIPP to families with children ages 1 through 6 years old and add a focus on supporting positive discipline. VIPP-SD is now the core model, and VIPP is considered a version of VIPP-SD. VIPP consists of seven home visits. The VIPP-SD training covers training on how to implement VIPP.
  • Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting adapted to Autism (VIPP-AUTI) serves caregivers of children from birth through age 6 who are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. VIPP-AUTI consists of six home visits focused on helping caregivers understand their children’s behavior and enhancing caregiver–child interactions. Home visitors must complete the VIPP-SD training before enrolling in the VIPP-AUTI course. The VIPP-AUTI training costs €650 (2019 euros) or $737 (2019 USD) per person and includes two full-day, in-person training sessions, three post-training coaching sessions, and a certificate.
  • Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting adapted to Foster Care (VIPP-FC) serves parents with a foster child from birth through age 6. This adaptation consists of seven visits and uses the same model components as VIPP-SD. The home visitor tailors feedback to the needs of the parents and the specific behavioral characteristics of foster children. No further information is available on the VIPP-FC training.
  • Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting adapted to Turkish Minority Mothers (VIPP-TM) serves second-generation Turkish mothers with a child ages 1 through 6. This adaptation consists of seven visits and uses the same strategies as VIPP-SD to improve parental sensitivity and discipline with additional attention paid to the cultural background of the family.
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Implementation notes

The information contained on this page was last updated in May 2019. Recommended further reading lists the sources for this information.

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