In one study, the Parents as Teachers curriculum was supplemented with materials to make Parents as Teachers more engaging for teenage parents and to strengthen the model’s prenatal component. In addition, a group of program participants received the standard Parents as Teachers model as well as intensive case management in order to provide additional support for the teen mothers. The case management support helped them deal with challenges such as finishing school, creating a positive living environment, and becoming good parents.
Six studies reported on a New Zealand adaptation to Parents as Teachers, known as Parents as First Teachers (PAFT)*. Four of the studies focused on the pilot phase and two on post-pilot implementation. According to one study, PAFT preserved the core Parents as Teachers components but modified the curriculum to integrate PAFT within New Zealand’s existing services, added a liaison position to facilitate cultural awareness of and communication with native communities, and according to another study, added a Māori component to the curriculum following the pilot to emphasize traditional Māori childbearing and childrearing beliefs and practices. One study of the pilot implementation reported that materials were available in English only, which presented a challenge; a later study reported that materials were available in Māori and six Pacifika languages.
Mothers were 26 years old on average (one study). Another indicated PAFT enrolled families from a range of native and non-native ethnic groups; three additional studies reported that 17 to 31 percent of participants were Māori. Most mothers lived with their partners (86 to 91 percent) (two studies); 6 to 28 percent of caregivers were single (four studies). Twenty-seven to 35 percent of families had low incomes or earned less than the average income (three studies).
Parent educators who delivered home visits had a degree or equivalent experience in early childhood education, childhood nursing, health, or social work (four studies). According to one study, parent educators received two weeks of pre-service training and one week annually of ongoing training. Two studies about the pilot phase reported that most parents (92 to 98 percent) received the minimum recommended number of home visits over the three-year period; in a post-pilot study, parents overall received fewer than the minimum recommended number of visits, on average. Nearly 75 percent of home visits lasted one hour and 25 percent were longer than an hour (one study).
*As of 2016, implementation support is no longer available for PAFT (New Zealand).