Implementing Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)® Meets HHS Criteria

Implementation last updated: 2019

The information in this profile reflects feedback, if provided, from this model’s developer as of the above date. The description of the implementation of the model(s) here may differ from how the model(s) was implemented in the research reviewed to determine this model’s evidence of effectiveness. Inclusion in the implementation report does not mean the practices described meet the HHS criteria for evidence of effectiveness. Similarly, models described here may not all have impact studies, and those with impact studies may vary in their effectiveness. Please see the Effectiveness button on the left for more information about research on the effectiveness of the models discussed here.

Model overview

Theoretical approach

Attachment theory, human ecology theory, and social-cognitive or self-efficacy theory shape NFP. The model is client-centered, and client-identified goals drive it. NFP nurse home visitors use input from parents, nursing experience, nursing practice, and model-specific resources – coupled with the principles of motivational interviewing – to promote low-income, first-time mothers’ health during pregnancy, care of their child, and own personal growth and development.
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Implementation support

Nurse-Family Partnership® (NFP) is a home visiting model supported by the Nurse-Family Partnership National Service Office (NSO), a Denver, Colorado-based national nonprofit organization. The NSO helps states and communities implement and sustain NFP.

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Intended population

NFP is designed for first-time, low-income mothers and their children. Mothers may invite fathers and other family members to participate in home visits.

NFP requires a client to be enrolled in the program early in her pregnancy and to receive a first home visit no later than the end of the woman’s 28th week of pregnancy. Services are delivered until the child is 2 years old.

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Targeted outcomes

NFP is designed to (1) improve prenatal and maternal health and birth outcomes, (2) improve child health and development, and (3) improve families’ economic self-sufficiency and/or maternal life course development.
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Model services

The NFP model includes one-on-one home visits between a registered nurse educated in the NFP model and the client. The NFP nurse home visitor visits the client in her home (permanent or temporary), as defined by the client, or in a location of her choice.
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Model intensity and length

NFP nurses partner with their clients to determine the content and frequency of visits. NFP nurses assess their clients using the NFP Strengths and Risks Framework at every visit and consolidate the data into the data collection system at the following intervals: (1) at enrollment, (2) before delivery (about 36 weeks gestation), (3) after the child’s birth (about 8 weeks postpartum), (4) at child age 12 months, and (5) at child age 18 months. Visit frequency is flexible and content is adapted to meet the needs of the client based on the client’s strengths, risks, and preferences. Home visits typically last 60 to 75 minutes.

The NFP program begins as early as possible in pregnancy, but not later than the end of the 28th week of pregnancy. Clients complete the program when the child turns 2 years old.

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Location

There are NFP programs in 41 states, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and several tribal communities.
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Adaptations and enhancements

With input from tribal communities, NFP has modified its outreach materials for tribal communities to reflect tribal members. In addition, NFP nurses participate in a community of practice with an internal consultant with expertise working with tribal communities.

Model developer Dr. David Olds at the Prevention Research Center at the University of Colorado oversees adaptations to the model in collaboration with the NSO. Two adaptations are available. Implementing agencies may request to (1) enroll clients after the 28th week of gestation, and (2) serve clients who have had a previous live birth. Dr. Olds and the Prevention Research Center also manage requests for enhancements to the model.

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Implementation notes

The information contained on this page was last updated in October 2019. Recommended Further Reading lists the sources for this information. In addition, the information contained in this profile was reviewed for accuracy by the Nurse-Family Partnership National Service Office on October 28, 2019. HomVEE reserves the right to edit the profile for clarity and consistency.

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