Implementing Family Spirit® Meets HHS Criteria Meets HHS criteria for an evidenced based model in tribal populations

Implementation last updated: 2020

The information in this profile reflects feedback, if provided, from this model’s developer as of the above date. The description of the implementation of the model(s) here may differ from how the model(s) was implemented in the research reviewed to determine this model’s evidence of effectiveness. Inclusion in the implementation report does not mean the practices described meet the HHS criteria for evidence of effectiveness. Similarly, models described here may not all have impact studies, and those with impact studies may vary in their effectiveness. Please see the Effectiveness button on the left for more information about research on the effectiveness of the models discussed here.

More information about the model

Where to find out more

Allison Ingalls
Program Manager
Phone: (716) 406-3376
Email: or

View Revisions

Recommended further reading

The following references were sources for the implementation profile or were recommended by the developer for further reading.

Barlow, A., Mullany, B., Neault, N., Davis, Y., Billy, T., Hastings, R., … Walkup, J. T. (2010). Examining correlates of methamphetamine and other drug use in pregnant American Indian adolescents. American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research: The Journal of the National Center, 17(1), 1-24.

Bullock, A. (2015). Getting to the roots: Early life intervention and adult health. American Journal of Psychiatry, 172(2), 108-110.

Family Spirit. Family Spirit. Retrieved March 23, 2016, from

Haroz, E.E., Ingalls, A., Kee, C., Goklish, N., Neault, N., Begay, M., & Barlow, A. (2019). Informing precision home-visiting: Identifying meaningful subgroups of families who benefit most from Family Spirit. Prevention Science.

Novins, D. K. (2009). Participatory research brings knowledge and hope to American Indian communities. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48(6), 585-586.

Patterson, G. R., DeBaryshe, B. D., & Ramsey, E. (1989). A developmental perspective on antisocial behavior. American Psychologist, 44(2), 329-335.

View Revisions