EHS-HBO staff included home visitors who worked with families in their homes (17 studies), supervisors (nine studies), and program managers or directors (three studies).
Additional staff supported EHS-HBO programs, including nurses or health care specialists (four studies); family support specialists or advocates (four studies); psychologists or other mental health professionals (three studies); male involvement specialists (three studies); child development specialists (two studies); and speech and language specialists (two studies). A national survey of EHS-HBO reported that some programs also included disability, literacy, and nutrition specialists (one study).
Most programs required that staff had at least an associate’s degree, and some programs preferred a bachelor’s degree or higher (nine studies). Other programs only required a high school diploma (two studies). Home visitors had educational backgrounds in human services fields including child development, nursing, counseling, and other disciplines (seven studies). Some programs required that home visitors had experience conducting home visits with infants and toddlers or with low-income populations (five studies); others required a child development associate credential (two studies).
Four studies described pre-service training that included (1) general pre-service orientation (two studies), (2) a one-week training for key program staff, and/or (3) a two-week intensive training for staff (three studies). Pre-service training often consisted of two or more of these training types for any given program.
Seven studies described in-service training, which consisted of (1) ongoing trainings on EHS-relevant topics such as child development and nutrition (five studies), (2) individual observation and feedback (two studies), and/or (3) annual trainings at training institutes (two studies). In-service training often consisted of two or more of these training types for any given program.
Supervision activities included (1) individual meetings with supervisors (two studies), (2) staff meetings or group sessions (two studies), (3) in-field observations of home visits (one study), (4) case reviews (two studies), (5) reflective supervision sessions (four studies), and/or (6) performance reviews (two studies). The ratio of home visitors to supervisors ranged from four to seven home visitors for every supervisor (three studies).
Home visiting staff’s caseloads ranged from 6 to 24 families (six studies).