Video-Feedback Intervention to Promote Positive Parenting-Sensitive Discipline® (VIPP-SD)
Model effectiveness research report last updated: 2019
Theoretical approachVIPP-SD is theoretically grounded in attachment theory, developed by John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth, and coercion theory, developed by Gerald Patterson. Attachment theory emphasizes the importance of sensitive responsiveness, which refers to a caregiver accurately perceiving and responding to a child’s signals. Coercion theory states that children are more likely to exhibit negative behavior when caregivers use ineffective discipline techniques. VIPP-SD blends the two theories by encouraging caregivers to take into account the child’s perspective and signals when providing discipline.
VIPP-SD has been adapted for specific target populations, including families with infants, families with children who have autism, children in foster care, and second-generation Turkish families (described in Adaptations and Enhancements). Another adaptation of the model, Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting adapted to Child Care, serves teaching staff in child care settings (and, because it is not delivered by home visits, that adaptation was excluded from the HomVEE review). This profile is based on versions of VIPP-SD that use home visiting as the primary service delivery method.
VIPP-SD consists of visits conducted in the caregiver’s home while one child is present. During the first visit, the home visitor introduces the caregiver to the VIPP-SD model and answers any questions. The home visitor also records a video of the caregiver and child interacting. After the visit, the home visitor views the recording, selects clips of the video to share with the caregiver, and prepares feedback on the selected clips. During subsequent home visits, the home visitor begins by recording another round of caregiver–child interactions, and then the home visitor and caregiver discuss the prepared video clips from the previous visit. The home visitor provides feedback and tips on the following topics:
Parental sensitivity, which involves the following:
- Attending to the child’s subtle signals and expressions
- Appropriately reacting to a child’s signals
- Sharing positive and negative emotions
Sensitive discipline, which involves the following:
- Using consistent discipline strategies and setting limits
- Using distraction and noncoercive responses to challenging child behavior
- Providing positive reinforcement by praising the child’s positive behavior and ignoring attention-seeking behavior
- Providing time-outs to de-escalate temper tantrums
- Empathizing with the child
Although the intervention manual specifies the general content of each visit, the home visitor tailors feedback to each family based on the home visitor’s observations.