Entries in this row combine information across all versions of SafeCare except for SafeCare Augmented. The main version of SafeCare has no high- or moderate-quality impact studies. Some other versions of SafeCare have at least one such study, but no version of the model other than SafeCare Augmented meets HHS criteria for an evidence-based home visiting model. Planned Activities Training (a SafeCare module) and Cellular Phone Enhanced Planned Activities Training (a SafeCare module with an add-on) show evidence of effectiveness.
Last updated: July 2018
Evidence of Model Effectiveness
An adaptation of SafeCare, called SafeCare Augmented, meets the criteria established by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) for an "evidence-based early childhood home visiting service delivery model" for the general population, but it does not meet the criteria for tribal populations because the research on the adaptation did not report findings by ethnicity/tribal community affiliation, so HomVEE could not determine the evidence of effectiveness of SafeCare Augmented with tribal participants. In addition, a module of SafeCare, Planned Activities Training, and a module with an add-on, Cellular Phone Enhanced Planned Activities Training, demonstrate evidence of effectiveness.
SafeCare does not meet the HHS criteria for the general population or for tribal populations because there are no high- or moderate-rated effectiveness studies of the core model.
SafeCare aims to prevent and address factors associated with child abuse and neglect among the clients served. Eligible clients include families with a history of child maltreatment or families at risk for child maltreatment. SafeCare is an adaption of Project 12-Ways. SafeCare was developed to offer a more streamlined and easy-to-disseminate intervention based on three key modules of Project 12-Ways.
SafeCare typically provides 18 to 22 weeks of training to parents with children from birth to age 5. Trained SafeCare providers conduct 50- to 90-minute weekly or biweekly home visits involving three modules: (1) Planned Activities Training, which focuses on parent-child/parent-infant interactions, (2) infant and child health, and (3) home safety. Each of the three SafeCare modules typically includes a baseline assessment and observations of parental knowledge and skills, four parent training sessions, and a follow-up assessment to monitor change. During the parent training sessions, SafeCare providers explain the rationale for a particular concept, model the concept, have the parent practice the steps, and then provide feedback. SafeCare providers are not required to meet specific education requirements.
Project 12-Ways, the precursor to SafeCare, offers training in twelve key topic areas: (1) parent-child interaction, (2) stress reduction for parents, (3) basic skills training for children, (4) money management, (5) social support, (6) home safety, (7) multi-setting behavior management, (8) infant and child health and nutrition, (9) problem solving, (10) marital discord counseling, (11) alcohol abuse referral, and (12) pre- and post-natal prevention services for young and unwed mothers. Direct services are delivered to families in their homes by highly-trained counselors, most of whom are advanced graduate students with specialized training.
This report includes reviews of two adaptations of SafeCare: (1) SafeCare Augmented and (2) an Australian adaptation of a version of SafeCare, the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Parent-Child Health and Wellness Project. SafeCare Augmented adds Motivational Interviewing—a technique that explores and builds on an individual’s motivation to change—and additional training of providers on the identification and response to imminent child maltreatment and risk factors, such as substance use and depression. SafeCare Augmented was adapted for high-risk, rural communities. The Australian adaptation of the UCLA Parent-Child Health and Wellness Project adapted the UCLA Health and Safety interventions (created collaboratively with the SafeCare model developer, with identical goals and methods) for the Australian context (e.g., language was changed to reflect Australian usage). The goal of the intervention is to equip parents of young children with the knowledge and skills necessary for managing home dangers, accidents, and childhood illnesses. The intervention consists of 10 lessons over a 10- to 12-week period.
This report also includes reviews of a module of SafeCare, Planned Activities Training, and a module with an add-on, Cellular Phone Enhanced Planned Activities Training. The Planned Activities Training module of SafeCare focuses on skills such as engaging in positive interactions and establishing rules and limits, and is administered to mothers during five home visiting sessions. Cellular Phone Enhanced Planned Activities Training is an add-on to the Planned Activities Training module that adds encouragement and skill reinforcement via text messages and phone calls between in-home Planned Activities Training parent training sessions.
For more information, please read the Model Overview.
Extent of Evidence
Summary of Findings
Please read Describing Effects for more information on these categories. Only results from studies that meet the standards for the high or moderate ratings are included above.
Criteria Established by the Department of Health and Human Services
Please read the HHS Criteria for Evidence-Based Models for more information.