Promoting First Relationships®—Home Visiting Options

Entries in this row combine information across all versions of Promoting First Relationships that are used with parents in the home.

Model effectiveness research report last updated: 2021

Effects shown in research & outcome measure details

Child development and school readiness

Findings rated high

Promoting First Relationships®—Home Visiting Intervention Model
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes

Difficultness

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

12 months of age

PFR vs. comparison, Washington 2015-2020, full sample

225 infants Unadjusted mean = 2.23 Unadjusted mean = 2.71 Mean difference = -0.48 = -0.22

Not statistically significant, p = 0.11

,

Unadjusted mean.

Difficultness

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

12 months of age

PFR vs. comparison, Washington 2015-2020, full sample

252 infants Adjusted mean = 2.23 Adjusted mean = 2.71 Difference = -0.49 Study reported = -0.16

Not statistically significant, p= 0.09

Adjusted to control for preferred language and baseline measure.

Dysregulation

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

12 months of age

PFR vs. comparison, Washington 2015-2020, full sample

243 infants Unadjusted mean = 54.82 Unadjusted mean = 55.33 Mean difference = -0.51 = -0.04

Not statistically significant, p = 0.77

,

Unadjusted mean.

Dysregulation

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

12 months of age

PFR vs. comparison, Washington 2015-2020, full sample

252 infants Adjusted mean = 54.82 Adjusted mean = 55.33 Difference = -0.56 Study reported = -0.04

Not statistically significant, p= 0.75

Adjusted to control for preferred language.

Externalizing behavior

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

12 months of age

PFR vs. comparison, Washington 2015-2020, full sample

243 infants Unadjusted mean = 59.24 Unadjusted mean = 62.54 Mean difference = -3.30 = -0.28

Statistically significant, p = 0.03

,

Unadjusted mean.

Externalizing behavior

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

12 months of age

PFR vs. comparison, Washington 2015-2020, full sample

252 infants Adjusted mean = 59.24 Adjusted mean = 62.54 Difference = -3.27 Study reported = -0.28

Statistically significant, p= 0.03

Adjusted to control for preferred language.

Internalizing behavior

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

12 months of age

PFR vs. comparison, Washington 2015-2020, full sample

243 infants Unadjusted mean = 53.64 Unadjusted mean = 54.93 Mean difference = -1.29 = -0.12

Not statistically significant, p = 0.37

,

Unadjusted mean.

Internalizing behavior

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

12 months of age

PFR vs. comparison, Washington 2015-2020, full sample

252 infants Adjusted mean = 53.64 Adjusted mean = 54.93 Difference = -1.22 Study reported = -0.11

Not statistically significant, p= 0.39

Adjusted to control for preferred language.

Show outcome measure summary
Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties

Difficultness

The Infant CARE-Index (ICI) assesses parent-infant interaction during play on one dyadic scale, three parent scales, and four child scales.

Videotaped parent-child interaction

Intraclass correlation = 0.55

Dysregulation

Subscale from 126-item normed assessment of child behaviors, the Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (ITSEA).

Caregiver report

Cronbach's α = 0.80

Externalizing behavior

Subscale from 126-item normed assessment of child behaviors, the Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (ITSEA).

Caregiver report

Cronbach's α = 0.81

Internalizing behavior

Subscale from 126-item normed assessment of child behaviors, the Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (ITSEA).

Caregiver report

Cronbach's α = 0.68

Promoting First Relationships®—Home Visiting Intervention Model
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes

Attachment security: Toddler Attachment Sort-45 (TAS45, modified version of Attachment Q-Sort, using trilemmas)

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

Post-intervention

PFR vs. EES, one county in Washington state, 2007-2010, full sample

175 children Adjusted mean = 0.58 Adjusted mean = 0.54 Mean difference = 0.04 Study reported = 0.16

Not statistically significant, p= 0.41

Attachment security: Toddler Attachment Sort-45 (TAS45, modified version of Attachment Q-Sort, using trilemmas)

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

Post-intervention

PFR vs. EES, one county in Washington state, 2007-2010, full sample

175 children Not reported Not reported Not reported Not available

Not statistically significant, p= >0.10

Finding estimated with hierarchical linear model (HLM).

Competence: Brief Infant Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA, 11 item subscale)

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

Post-intervention

PFR vs. EES, one county in Washington state, 2007-2010, full sample

163 children Adjusted mean = 17.35 Adjusted mean = 16.38 Mean difference = 0.97 Study reported = 0.42

Statistically significant, p= 0.03

Competence: Brief Infant Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA, 11 item subscale)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

Post-intervention

PFR vs. EES, one county in Washington state, 2007-2010, full sample

175 children Not reported Not reported Not reported Not available

Not statistically significant, p= >0.10

Finding estimated with hierarchical linear model (HLM).

Problem behavior: Brief Infant Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA, 31 item subscale)

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

Post-intervention

PFR vs. EES, one county in Washington state, 2007-2010, full sample

163 children Adjusted mean = 10.81 Adjusted mean = 10.72 Mean difference = 0.09 Study reported = -0.02

Not statistically significant, p= 0.92

Problem behavior: Brief Infant Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA, 31 item subscale)

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

Post-intervention

PFR vs. EES, one county in Washington state, 2007-2010, full sample 175 children Not reported Not reported Not reported Not available

Not statistically significant, p= >0.10

Negative effect is favorable to the intervention. Finding estimated with hierarchical linear model (HLM).

Show outcome measure summary
Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties

Attachment security: Toddler Attachment Sort-45 (TAS45, modified version of Attachment Q-Sort, using trilemmas)

The TAS45 is a modified version of the Attachment Q-Sort, a standard attachment measure, and measures child attachment behaviors.

Observations scored by two trained observers

Interrater reliability: r = 0.66 at baseline, r = 0.80 at post-intervention, and r = 0.96 at 6-month follow-up

Competence: Brief Infant Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA, 11 item subscale)

The BITSEA assesses children's social or emotional behavior problems and competencies based on the Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (ITSEA).

Self-administered survey of caregivers

Cronbach's α: 0.69 at baseline and post-intervention and 0.70 at 6-month follow-up

Problem behavior: Brief Infant Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA, 31 item subscale)

The BITSEA assesses children's social or emotional behavior problems and competencies based on the Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (ITSEA).

Self-administered survey of caregivers

Cronbach's α: 0.79 at baseline, 0.75 at post-intervention, and 0.77 at 6-month follow-up

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