Play and Learning Strategies (PALS)

Entries in this row combine information across all versions of PALS. Only PALS Infant meets HHS criteria for an evidence-based home visiting model. Some other versions of PALS have at least one manuscript about a high- or moderate-quality impact study, but no version of the model other than PALS Infant meets HHS criteria for an evidence-based home visiting model.

Model effectiveness research report last updated: 2019

Effects shown in research & outcome measure details

Positive parenting practices

Findings rated high

PALS Toddler/Preschooler
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
Contingent responsiveness
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.52 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Maintaining child foci
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.03 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Positive affect (of mother with child)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.15 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Redirecting child foci
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.42 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Verbal encouragement
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.41 Not applicable Not reported Study reported = 0.25 Statistically significant, p =.01

footnote143

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative coefficient values favor the intervention group.

Verbal scaffolding
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.13 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Warm sensitivity
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.37 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Show outcome measure summary
Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties

Contingent responsiveness

The degree to which a mother responded promptly and appropriately to her infant's cues, rated on a five-point scale.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.74

Maintaining child foci

The frequency with which the mother's behavior helped to sustain her child's current activity.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.81

Positive affect (of mother with child)

The degree to which the mother smiled and laughed during the interaction, rated on a five-point scale.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.74

Redirecting child foci

The frequency with which the mother's interaction was unrelated to her child's current activity in an attempt to redirect the child's attention.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.77

Verbal encouragement

The frequency with which the mother praised her infant's efforts.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Verbal scaffolding

The frequency with which the mother provided verbal hints and prompts.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.64

Warm sensitivity

The degree to which the mother was warm and sensitive in her interactions with her infant (e.g., accepting of the infant's needs and interests), rated on a five-point scale.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.74

PALS Toddler/Preschooler
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance
Comments
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = -0.24 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.98
General verbal support
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = -0.77 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.96
Language facilitation
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = -0.47 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.13
Open prompts
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = -0.53 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.27
Percent time only reading text
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = 0.44 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.07
Praise and encourage
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = 0.19 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.46
Responsiveness
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = -0.53 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.22
Show outcome measure summary
Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties

Comments

The frequency with which the child comments on a book. Responses were coded as (1) orients mother's attention without use of label, (2) labels or describes a picture, or (3) makes a connection involving elements of the story.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.76

General verbal support

The frequency with which the mother used hints and prompts to help her child make connections.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.57

Language facilitation

The frequency with which the mother used verbal strategies to facilitate her child's cognitive-linguistic development. These strategies included expansion, assists, and lead-ins.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.68

Open prompts

The frequency with which the mother asked open-ended questions or made requests that required the child to think more generally about what was happening in the story.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.84

Percent time only reading text

The length of time during which the mother just read the text of the book.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.72

Praise and encourage

The frequency with which the mother praised or encouraged her infant's efforts.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.83

Responsiveness

The degree to which the mother responded promptly and appropriately to her infant's cues and expressed enthusiasm during the book reading interaction, rated on a five-point scale from almost always to almost never.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.70

PALS Infant + Toddler/Preschooler
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
Contingent responsiveness
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.64 Not applicable Not reported Study reported = 0.51 Statistically significant, p = 0.02
Maintaining child foci
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.00 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Positive affect (of mother with child)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.26 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Redirecting child foci
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.61 Not applicable Not reported Study reported = 0.39 Statistically significant, p = 0.01

footnote145

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative coefficient values indicate a favorable outcome.

Verbal encouragement
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.08 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Verbal scaffolding
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.06 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Warm sensitivity
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.34 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Show outcome measure summary
Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties

Contingent responsiveness

The degree to which a mother responded promptly and appropriately to her infant's cues, rated on a five-point scale.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.74

Maintaining child foci

The frequency with which the mother's behavior helped to sustain her child's current activity.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.81

Positive affect (of mother with child)

The degree to which the mother smiled and laughed during the interaction, rated on a five-point scale.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.74

Redirecting child foci

The frequency with which the mother's interaction was unrelated to her child's current activity in an attempt to redirect the child's attention.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.77

Verbal encouragement

The frequency with which the mother praised her infant's efforts.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Verbal scaffolding

The frequency with which the mother provided verbal hints and prompts.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.64

Warm sensitivity

The degree to which the mother was warm and sensitive in her interactions with her infant (e.g., accepting of the infant's needs and interests), rated on a five-point scale.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.74

PALS Infant + Toddler/Preschooler
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance
Comments
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I*PALS II 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = -0.14 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.87
General verbal support
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I*PALS II 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = 0.44 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.89
Language facilitation
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I*PALS II 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = 0.10 Not applicable Not reported Not available Statistically significant, p = 0.03
Open prompts
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I*PALS II 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = 0.24 Not applicable Not reported Study reported = 0.38 Statistically significant, p = 0.03
Percent time only reading text
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I*PALS II 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = 0.12 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.26
Praise and encourage
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I*PALS II 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = -0.14 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05
Responsiveness
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I*PALS II 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = 0.24 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.08
Show outcome measure summary
Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties

Comments

The frequency with which the child comments on a book. Responses were coded as (1) orients mother's attention without use of label, (2) labels or describes a picture, or (3) makes a connection involving elements of the story.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.76

General verbal support

The frequency with which the mother used hints and prompts to help her child make connections.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.57

Language facilitation

The frequency with which the mother used verbal strategies to facilitate her child's cognitive-linguistic development. These strategies included expansion, assists, and lead-ins.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.68

Open prompts

The frequency with which the mother asked open-ended questions or made requests that required the child to think more generally about what was happening in the story.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.84

Percent time only reading text

The length of time during which the mother just read the text of the book.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.72

Praise and encourage

The frequency with which the mother praised or encouraged her infant's efforts.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.83

Responsiveness

The degree to which the mother responded promptly and appropriately to her infant's cues and expressed enthusiasm during the book reading interaction, rated on a five-point scale from almost always to almost never.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.70

Play and Learning Strategies (PALS) Infant
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
Contingent responsiveness
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.51 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Maintaining child foci
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.06 Not applicable Not reported Study reported = 0.32 Statistically significant, p = 0.04

footnote143

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative coefficient values favor the intervention group.

Positive affect (of mother with child)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.34 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Redirecting child foci
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.52 Not applicable Not reported Not available Statistically significant, p < 0.05

footnote144

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Positive coefficient values indicate an unfavorable outcome.

Verbal encouragement
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.60 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Verbal scaffolding
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.10 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Warm sensitivity
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.35 Not applicable Not reported Study reported = 0.29 Statistically significant, p = 0.02

footnote143

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative coefficient values favor the intervention group.

Show outcome measure summary
Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties

Contingent responsiveness

The degree to which a mother responded promptly and appropriately to her infant's cues, rated on a five-point scale.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.74

Maintaining child foci

The frequency with which the mother's behavior helped to sustain her child's current activity.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.81

Positive affect (of mother with child)

The degree to which the mother smiled and laughed during the interaction, rated on a five-point scale.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.74

Redirecting child foci

The frequency with which the mother's interaction was unrelated to her child's current activity in an attempt to redirect the child's attention.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.77

Verbal encouragement

The frequency with which the mother praised her infant's efforts.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Verbal scaffolding

The frequency with which the mother provided verbal hints and prompts.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.64

Warm sensitivity

The degree to which the mother was warm and sensitive in her interactions with her infant (e.g., accepting of the infant's needs and interests), rated on a five-point scale.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.74

Play and Learning Strategies (PALS) Infant
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance
Comments
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = -0.23 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.51
General verbal support
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = -0.48 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.59
Language facilitation
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = -0.11 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.41
Open prompts
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = 0.02 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.87
Percent time only reading text
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = 0.30 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.26
Praise and encourage
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = -0.12 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.51
Responsiveness
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = 0.02 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.35
Show outcome measure summary
Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties

Comments

The frequency with which the child comments on a book. Responses were coded as (1) orients mother's attention without use of label, (2) labels or describes a picture, or (3) makes a connection involving elements of the story.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.76

General verbal support

The frequency with which the mother used hints and prompts to help her child make connections.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.57

Language facilitation

The frequency with which the mother used verbal strategies to facilitate her child's cognitive-linguistic development. These strategies included expansion, assists, and lead-ins.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.68

Open prompts

The frequency with which the mother asked open-ended questions or made requests that required the child to think more generally about what was happening in the story.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.84

Percent time only reading text

The length of time during which the mother just read the text of the book.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.72

Praise and encourage

The frequency with which the mother praised or encouraged her infant's efforts.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.83

Responsiveness

The degree to which the mother responded promptly and appropriately to her infant's cues and expressed enthusiasm during the book reading interaction, rated on a five-point scale from almost always to almost never.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.70

Play and Learning Strategies (PALS) Infant
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
Contingent Responsiveness
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
12 months PALS I vs. DAS 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = 0.77 Coefficient = 0.99 Not reported Study reported = 0.93 Statistically significant, p < 0.01

footnote141

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Lower parameter value indicates a better score. The p-values are study reported.

Harshness of Voice Tone
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
12 months PALS I vs. DAS 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = 0.07 Coefficient = 0.12 Not reported Study reported = 0.28 Statistically significant, p = 0.02

footnote141

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Lower parameter value indicates a better score. The p-values are study reported.

Labeling Actions
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
12 months PALS I vs. DAS 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = -8.94 Coefficient = -9.20 Not reported Study reported = 0.63 Statistically significant, p < 0.01

footnote141

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Lower parameter value indicates a better score. The p-values are study reported.

Labeling Objects
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
12 months PALS I vs. DAS 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = -5.47 Coefficient = -5.86 Not reported Study reported = 0.71 Statistically significant, p < 0.01

footnote141

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Lower parameter value indicates a better score. The p-values are study reported.

Maintaining Infant Foci of Attention
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
12 months PALS I vs. DAS 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = 13.21 Coefficient = 12.40 Not reported Study reported = 0.36 Not statistically significant, p = 0.08

footnote142

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

The p-values are study reported.

Physical Intrusiveness
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
12 months PALS I vs. DAS 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = 0.44 Coefficient = 0.51 Not reported Study reported = 0.50 Statistically significant, p = 0.01

footnote141

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Lower parameter value indicates a better score. The p-values are study reported.

Redirecting Infant Foci of Attention
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
12 months PALS I vs. DAS 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = 1.14 Coefficient = 1.57 Not reported Study reported = 1.31 Statistically significant, p < 0.01

footnote141

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Lower parameter value indicates a better score. The p-values are study reported.

Verbal Encouragement
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
12 months PALS I vs. DAS 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = 0.67 Coefficient = 0.24 Not reported Study reported = 0.71 Statistically significant, p < 0.01

footnote142

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

The p-values are study reported.

Verbal Scaffolding
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
12 months PALS I vs. DAS 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = 0.41 Coefficient = -0.08 Not reported Study reported = 0.79 Statistically significant, p < 0.01

footnote142

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

The p-values are study reported.

Warm Sensitivity
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
12 months PALS I vs. DAS 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = 0.74 Coefficient = 0.90 Not reported Study reported = 0.49 Statistically significant, p < 0.01

footnote141

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Lower parameter value indicates a better score. The p-values are study reported.

Show outcome measure summary
Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties

Contingent Responsiveness

The degree to which a mother responded promptly and appropriately to her infant's cues was rated on a five-point scale. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.74

Harshness of Voice Tone

The degree to which the mother used a harsh and/or impatient tone with her infant, rated on a five-point scale. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.70

Labeling Actions

The frequency with which a mother provided the specific names of actions during the interaction. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.70 for the labeling one action and 0.75 for the labeling of more than one action

Labeling Objects

The frequency with which a mother provided the specific names of objects during the interaction. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.77 for both the labeling of one object and the labeling of more than one object

Maintaining Infant Foci of Attention

The frequency with which the mother's behavior helped to sustain her child's current activity. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.81

Physical Intrusiveness

The degree of abruptness in physical interactions such as moving the infant, and physical expressions of impatience. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.45

Redirecting Infant Foci of Attention

The frequency with which the mother's interaction was unrelated to her child's current activity in an attempt to redirect the child's attention. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.77

Verbal Encouragement

The frequency with which a mother praised her infant's efforts. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Verbal Scaffolding

The frequency with which a mother provided verbal hints and prompts. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.64

Warm Sensitivity

The degree to which the mother was warm and sensitive in her interactions with her infant (e.g., accepting of the infant's needs and interests), rated on a five-point scale. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.74

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