Play and Learning Strategies (PALS)

Entries in this row combine information across all versions of PALS. Only PALS Infant meets HHS criteria for an evidence-based home visiting model. Some other versions of PALS have at least one manuscript about a high- or moderate-quality impact study, but no version of the model other than PALS Infant meets HHS criteria for an evidence-based home visiting model.

Last updated: 2019

Effects shown in research & outcome measure details

Child development and school readiness

Findings rated high

PALS Toddler/Preschooler
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
PPVT-III receptive vocabulary
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.37 Not applicable Not reported Study reported = 0.36 Statistically significant, p < .05

footnote143

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative coefficient values favor the intervention group.

PLS: auditory comprehension
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -1.56 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
PLS: expressive comprehension
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.92 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Cooperation
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.38 Not applicable Not reported Study reported = 0.30 Statistically significant, p = .04

footnote143

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative coefficient values favor the intervention group.

Coordinating attention and words
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.09 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Positive affect (of child with mother)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.17 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Social engagement
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.44 Not applicable Not reported Study reported = 0.32 Statistically significant, p < .01

footnote143

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative coefficient values favor the intervention group.

Use of words
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.42 Not applicable Not reported Study reported = 0.37 Statistically significant, p < .01

footnote143

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative coefficient values favor the intervention group.

Show outcome measure summary
Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties Operations links

PPVT-III receptive vocabulary

The PPVT -III assesses individual's receptive language skill. Raw scores were used in the analysis.

Child assessment

Not reported by author

PLS: auditory comprehension

The PLS assesses receptive and expressive language development.

Child assessment

Not reported by author

PLS: expressive comprehension

The PLS assesses receptive and expressive language development.

Child assessment

Not reported by author

Cooperation

The frequency with which the child attempted to respond to his/her mother's request for an action or verbalization.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.62

Coordinating attention and words

The frequency with which the child was able to direct his/her mother's attention to an object using words.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.68

Positive affect (of child with mother)

The frequency with which the child displayed smiles or laughter during the interaction with his/her mother.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.85

Social engagement

The degree to which the child tried to positively engage his/her mother using verbal and non-verbal communication. The interaction was coded on a 5-point scale.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.65

Use of words

The frequency with which the child communicated verbally with his/her mother during the interaction. Communication included single utterance sound, babbling with sentence like intonation, word approximation-single words, two- to three-word phrases, four- to five-word phrases, and six or more word phrases.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.68

PALS Toddler/Preschooler
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
Behavioral responses
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = -0.07 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.28
Comments
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = 0.12 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.10
Coordination of gestures and verbalizations
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = -0.14 Not applicable Not reported Not available Statistically significant, p < .01
Engagement in activity
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = 0.08 Not applicable Not reported Not available Statistically significant, p = .04

footnote146

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Positive coefficient values favors the comparison group.

Questions and requests
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = -0.57 Not applicable Not reported Study reported = 0.16 Statistically significant, p = .01

footnote143

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative coefficient values favor the intervention group.

Verbal responses
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = -0.17 Not applicable Not reported Study reported = 0.30 Not statistically significant, p = 0.06
Show outcome measure summary
Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties Operations links

Behavioral responses

Frequency of child's behavioral responses to maternal requests. The responses were coded as (1) ignore/refuse, (2) passive or incorrect attempt, or (3) correct response.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.81

Coordination of gestures and verbalizations

Whether or not children engaged in nonverbal behaviors indicating recognition of appropriate book reading activities in conjunction with verbal responses.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Engagement in activity

The amount of time in which a child actively participated in the book reading activity.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Questions and requests

The frequency with which the child requested his/her mother identify a picture or asked his/her mother a more sophisticated question such as, "What is he doing?"

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.77

Verbal responses

Frequency of child's verbal responses to maternal requests. The responses were coded as (1) attempt to respond verbally but incorrect, (2) correct verbal response, or (3) more complex verbalization including explanations, excuses, and/or alternatives.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

PALS Infant + Toddler/Preschooler
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance
PPVT-III receptive vocabulary
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.28 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
PLS: auditory comprehension
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.94 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
PLS: expressive comprehension
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.30 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Cooperation
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.21 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Coordinating attention and words
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.13 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Positive affect (of child with mother)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.19 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Social engagement
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.25 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Use of words
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.15 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Show outcome measure summary
Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties Operations links

PPVT-III receptive vocabulary

The PPVT -III assesses individual's receptive language skill. Raw scores were used in the analysis.

Child assessment

Not reported by author

PLS: auditory comprehension

The PLS assesses receptive and expressive language development.

Child assessment

Not reported by author

PLS: expressive comprehension

The PLS assesses receptive and expressive language development.

Child assessment

Not reported by author

Cooperation

The frequency with which the child attempted to respond to his/her mother's request for an action or verbalization.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.62

Coordinating attention and words

The frequency with which the child was able to direct his/her mother's attention to an object using words.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.68

Positive affect (of child with mother)

The frequency with which the child displayed smiles or laughter during the interaction with his/her mother.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.85

Social engagement

The degree to which the child tried to positively engage his/her mother using verbal and non-verbal communication. The interaction was coded on a 5-point scale.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.65

Use of words

The frequency with which the child communicated verbally with his/her mother during the interaction. Communication included single utterance sound, babbling with sentence like intonation, word approximation-single words, two- to three-word phrases, four- to five-word phrases, and six or more word phrases.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.68

PALS Infant + Toddler/Preschooler
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance
Behavioral responses
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I*PALS II 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = -0.26 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.88
Comments
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I*PALS II 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = -0.30 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.42
Coordination of gestures and verbalizations
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I*PALS II 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = -0.42 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.50
Engagement in activity
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I*PALS II 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = -1.68 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = .63
Questions and requests
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I*PALS II 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = -0.34 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.38
Verbal responses
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I*PALS II 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = -0.04 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.50
Show outcome measure summary
Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties Operations links

Behavioral responses

Frequency of child's behavioral responses to maternal requests. The responses were coded as (1) ignore/refuse, (2) passive or incorrect attempt, or (3) correct response.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.81

Coordination of gestures and verbalizations

Whether or not children engaged in nonverbal behaviors indicating recognition of appropriate book reading activities in conjunction with verbal responses.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Engagement in activity

The amount of time in which a child actively participated in the book reading activity.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Questions and requests

The frequency with which the child requested his/her mother identify a picture or asked his/her mother a more sophisticated question such as, "What is he doing?"

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.77

Verbal responses

Frequency of child's verbal responses to maternal requests. The responses were coded as (1) attempt to respond verbally but incorrect, (2) correct verbal response, or (3) more complex verbalization including explanations, excuses, and/or alternatives.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Play and Learning Strategies (PALS) Infant
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance
PPVT-III receptive vocabulary
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.18 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
PLS: auditory comprehension
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.12 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
PLS: expressive comprehension
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 1.21 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Cooperation
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.09 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Coordinating attention and words
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.26 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Positive affect (of child with mother)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.18 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Social engagement
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.18 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Use of words
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.08 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Show outcome measure summary
Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties Operations links

PPVT-III receptive vocabulary

The PPVT -III assesses individual's receptive language skill. Raw scores were used in the analysis.

Child assessment

Not reported by author

PLS: auditory comprehension

The PLS assesses receptive and expressive language development.

Child assessment

Not reported by author

PLS: expressive comprehension

The PLS assesses receptive and expressive language development.

Child assessment

Not reported by author

Cooperation

The frequency with which the child attempted to respond to his/her mother's request for an action or verbalization.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.62

Coordinating attention and words

The frequency with which the child was able to direct his/her mother's attention to an object using words.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.68

Positive affect (of child with mother)

The frequency with which the child displayed smiles or laughter during the interaction with his/her mother.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.85

Social engagement

The degree to which the child tried to positively engage his/her mother using verbal and non-verbal communication. The interaction was coded on a 5-point scale.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.65

Use of words

The frequency with which the child communicated verbally with his/her mother during the interaction. Communication included single utterance sound, babbling with sentence like intonation, word approximation-single words, two- to three-word phrases, four- to five-word phrases, and six or more word phrases.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.68

Play and Learning Strategies (PALS) Infant
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance
Behavioral responses
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = -0.43 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.28
Comments
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = -0.12 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.97
Coordination of gestures and verbalizations
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = 0.01 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.95
Engagement in activity
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = 0.43 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.81
Questions and requests
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = 0.01 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.26
Verbal responses
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coefficient = -0.07 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.20
Show outcome measure summary
Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties Operations links

Behavioral responses

Frequency of child's behavioral responses to maternal requests. The responses were coded as (1) ignore/refuse, (2) passive or incorrect attempt, or (3) correct response.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.81

Coordination of gestures and verbalizations

Whether or not children engaged in nonverbal behaviors indicating recognition of appropriate book reading activities in conjunction with verbal responses.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Engagement in activity

The amount of time in which a child actively participated in the book reading activity.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Questions and requests

The frequency with which the child requested his/her mother identify a picture or asked his/her mother a more sophisticated question such as, "What is he doing?"

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.77

Verbal responses

Frequency of child's verbal responses to maternal requests. The responses were coded as (1) attempt to respond verbally but incorrect, (2) correct verbal response, or (3) more complex verbalization including explanations, excuses, and/or alternatives.

Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Play and Learning Strategies (PALS) Infant
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
Negative Affect (With Examiner)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
12 months PALS I vs. DAS 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = -0.07 Coefficient = 0.28 Not reported Study reported = 0.70 Statistically significant, p < 0.01

footnote142

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

The <em>p</em>-values are study reported.

Social Skills: Cooperation
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
12 months PALS I vs. DAS 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = 5.56 Coefficient = 5.16 Not reported Study reported = 0.39 Not statistically significant, p = 0.08

footnote142

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

The <em>p</em>-values are study reported.

Show outcome measure summary
Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties Operations links

Negative Affect (With Examiner)

The frequency with which an infant displayed signs of irritation such as whining, fussing, and crying when interacting with the examiner. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.76

Social Skills: Cooperation

The frequency with which an infant attempted to respond to his/her mother's request for an action or verbalization. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.62

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