Play and Learning Strategies (PALS)

Entries in this row combine information across all versions of PALS except for PALS Infant. Some other versions of PALS have at least one high- or moderate-quality impact study, but no version of the model other than PALS Infant meets HHS criteria for an evidence-based home visiting model.

Last updated: October 2019

Effects Shown in Research & Outcome Measure Details

Child Development and School Readiness

Outcomes Rated High

PALS Toddler/Preschooler
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
PPVT-III receptive vocabulary
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.37 Not applicable Not reported Study reported = 0.36 Statistically significant, p < .05 Primary

footnote143

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative coefficient values favor the intervention group.

PLS: auditory comprehension
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -1.56 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
PLS: expressive comprehension
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.92 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Cooperation
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.38 Not applicable Not reported Study reported = 0.30 Statistically significant, p = .04 Primary

footnote143

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative coefficient values favor the intervention group.

Coordinating attention and words
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.09 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Positive affect (of child with mother)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.17 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Social engagement
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.44 Not applicable Not reported Study reported = 0.32 Statistically significant, p < .01 Primary

footnote143

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative coefficient values favor the intervention group.

Use of words
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.42 Not applicable Not reported Study reported = 0.37 Statistically significant, p < .01 Primary

footnote143

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative coefficient values favor the intervention group.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
PALS Toddler/Preschooler
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
Behavioral responses
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.07 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.28 Primary
Comments
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = 0.12 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.10 Primary
Coordination of gestures and verbalizations
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.14 Not applicable Not reported Not available Statistically significant, p < .01 Primary
Engagement in activity
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = 0.08 Not applicable Not reported Not available Statistically significant, p = .04 Primary

footnote146

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Positive coefficient values favors the comparison group.

Questions and requests
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.57 Not applicable Not reported Study reported = 0.16 Statistically significant, p = .01 Primary

footnote143

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative coefficient values favor the intervention group.

Verbal responses
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.17 Not applicable Not reported Study reported = 0.30 Not statistically significant, p = 0.06 Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
PALS Infant + Toddler/Preschooler
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
PPVT-III receptive vocabulary
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.28 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
PLS: auditory comprehension
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.94 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
PLS: expressive comprehension
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.30 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Cooperation
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.21 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Coordinating attention and words
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.13 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Positive affect (of child with mother)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.19 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Social engagement
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.25 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Use of words
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.15 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
PALS Infant + Toddler/Preschooler
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Behavioral responses
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I*PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.26 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.88 Primary
Comments
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I*PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.30 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.42 Primary
Coordination of gestures and verbalizations
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I*PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.42 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.50 Primary
Engagement in activity
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I*PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -1.68 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = .63 Primary
Questions and requests
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I*PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.34 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.38 Primary
Verbal responses
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I*PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.04 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.50 Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Play and Learning Strategies (PALS) Infant
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
PPVT-III receptive vocabulary
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.18 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
PLS: auditory comprehension
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.12 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
PLS: expressive comprehension
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 1.21 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Cooperation
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.09 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Coordinating attention and words
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.26 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Positive affect (of child with mother)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.18 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Social engagement
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.18 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Use of words
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.08 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

PPVT-III receptive vocabulary

The PPVT -III assesses individual's receptive language skill. Raw scores were used in the analysis. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

PPVT-III receptive vocabulary

The PPVT -III assesses individual's receptive language skill. Raw scores were used in the analysis. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

PPVT-III receptive vocabulary

The PPVT -III assesses individual's receptive language skill. Raw scores were used in the analysis. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

PLS: auditory comprehension

The PLS assesses receptive and expressive language development. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

PLS: auditory comprehension

The PLS assesses receptive and expressive language development. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

PLS: auditory comprehension

The PLS assesses receptive and expressive language development. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

PLS: expressive comprehension

The PLS assesses receptive and expressive language development. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

PLS: expressive comprehension

The PLS assesses receptive and expressive language development. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

Cooperation

The frequency with which the child attempted to respond to his/her mother's request for an action or verbalization. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.62

Primary

Cooperation

The frequency with which the child attempted to respond to his/her mother's request for an action or verbalization. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.62

Primary

Cooperation

The frequency with which the child attempted to respond to his/her mother's request for an action or verbalization. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.62

Primary

Coordinating attention and words

The frequency with which the child was able to direct his/her mother's attention to an object using words. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.68

Primary

Coordinating attention and words

The frequency with which the child was able to direct his/her mother's attention to an object using words. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.68

Primary

Coordinating attention and words

The frequency with which the child was able to direct his/her mother's attention to an object using words. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.68

Primary

Positive affect (of child with mother)

The frequency with which the child displayed smiles or laughter during the interaction with his/her mother. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.85

Primary

Positive affect (of child with mother)

The frequency with which the child displayed smiles or laughter during the interaction with his/her mother. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.85

Primary

Positive affect (of child with mother)

The frequency with which the child displayed smiles or laughter during the interaction with his/her mother. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.85

Primary

Social engagement

The degree to which the child tried to positively engage his/her mother using verbal and non-verbal communication. The interaction was coded on a 5-point scale. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.65

Primary

Social engagement

The degree to which the child tried to positively engage his/her mother using verbal and non-verbal communication. The interaction was coded on a 5-point scale. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.65

Primary

Social engagement

The degree to which the child tried to positively engage his/her mother using verbal and non-verbal communication. The interaction was coded on a 5-point scale. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.65

Primary

Use of words

The frequency with which the child communicated verbally with his/her mother during the interaction. Communication included single utterance sound, babbling with sentence like intonation, word approximation-single words, two- to three-word phrases, four- to five-word phrases, and six or more word phrases. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.68

Primary

Use of words

The frequency with which the child communicated verbally with his/her mother during the interaction. Communication included single utterance sound, babbling with sentence like intonation, word approximation-single words, two- to three-word phrases, four- to five-word phrases, and six or more word phrases. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.68

Primary

Use of words

The frequency with which the child communicated verbally with his/her mother during the interaction. Communication included single utterance sound, babbling with sentence like intonation, word approximation-single words, two- to three-word phrases, four- to five-word phrases, and six or more word phrases. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.68

Primary
Play and Learning Strategies (PALS) Infant
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Behavioral responses
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.43 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.28 Primary
Comments
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.12 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.97 Primary
Coordination of gestures and verbalizations
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = 0.01 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.95 Primary
Engagement in activity
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = 0.43 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.81 Primary
Questions and requests
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = 0.01 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.26 Primary
Verbal responses
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.07 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.20 Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Behavioral responses

Frequency of child's behavioral responses to maternal requests. The responses were coded as (1) ignore/refuse, (2) passive or incorrect attempt, or (3) correct response. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.81

Primary

Behavioral responses

Frequency of child's behavioral responses to maternal requests. The responses were coded as (1) ignore/refuse, (2) passive or incorrect attempt, or (3) correct response. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.81

Primary

Behavioral responses

Frequency of child's behavioral responses to maternal requests. The responses were coded as (1) ignore/refuse, (2) passive or incorrect attempt, or (3) correct response. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.81

Primary

Comments

The frequency with which the child comments on a book. Responses were coded as (1) orients mother's attention without use of label, (2) labels or describes a picture, or (3) makes a connection involving elements of the story. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.76

Primary

Comments

The frequency with which the child comments on a book. Responses were coded as (1) orients mother's attention without use of label, (2) labels or describes a picture, or (3) makes a connection involving elements of the story. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.76

Primary

Comments

The frequency with which the child comments on a book. Responses were coded as (1) orients mother's attention without use of label, (2) labels or describes a picture, or (3) makes a connection involving elements of the story. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.76

Primary

Coordination of gestures and verbalizations

Whether or not children engaged in nonverbal behaviors indicating recognition of appropriate book reading activities in conjunction with verbal responses. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Primary

Coordination of gestures and verbalizations

Whether or not children engaged in nonverbal behaviors indicating recognition of appropriate book reading activities in conjunction with verbal responses. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Primary

Coordination of gestures and verbalizations

Whether or not children engaged in nonverbal behaviors indicating recognition of appropriate book reading activities in conjunction with verbal responses. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Primary

Engagement in activity

The amount of time in which a child actively participated in the book reading activity. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Primary

Engagement in activity

The amount of time in which a child actively participated in the book reading activity. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Primary

Engagement in activity

The amount of time in which a child actively participated in the book reading activity. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Primary

Questions and requests

The frequency with which the child requested his/her mother identify a picture or asked his/her mother a more sophisticated question such as, "What is he doing?" Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.77

Primary

Questions and requests

The frequency with which the child requested his/her mother identify a picture or asked his/her mother a more sophisticated question such as, "What is he doing?" Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.77

Primary

Questions and requests

The frequency with which the child requested his/her mother identify a picture or asked his/her mother a more sophisticated question such as, "What is he doing?" Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.77

Primary

Verbal responses

Frequency of child's verbal responses to maternal requests. The responses were coded as (1) attempt to respond verbally but incorrect, (2) correct verbal response, or (3) more complex verbalization including explanations, excuses, and/or alternatives. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Primary

Verbal responses

Frequency of child's verbal responses to maternal requests. The responses were coded as (1) attempt to respond verbally but incorrect, (2) correct verbal response, or (3) more complex verbalization including explanations, excuses, and/or alternatives. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Primary

Verbal responses

Frequency of child's verbal responses to maternal requests. The responses were coded as (1) attempt to respond verbally but incorrect, (2) correct verbal response, or (3) more complex verbalization including explanations, excuses, and/or alternatives. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Primary
Play and Learning Strategies (PALS) Infant
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
Negative Affect (With Examiner)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months PALS I vs. DAS 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = -0.07 Coefficient = 0.28 Not reported Study reported = 0.70 Statistically significant, p < 0.01 Primary

footnote142

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

The <em>p</em>-values are study reported.

Social Skills: Cooperation
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months PALS I vs. DAS 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = 5.56 Coefficient = 5.16 Not reported Study reported = 0.39 Not statistically significant, p = 0.08 Primary

footnote142

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

The <em>p</em>-values are study reported.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Negative Affect (With Examiner)

The frequency with which an infant displayed signs of irritation such as whining, fussing, and crying when interacting with the examiner. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.76

Primary

Social Skills: Cooperation

The frequency with which an infant attempted to respond to his/her mother's request for an action or verbalization. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.62

Primary
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