Play and Learning Strategies (PALS)

Entries in this row combine information across all versions of PALS except for PALS Infant. Some other versions of PALS have at least one high- or moderate-quality impact study, but no version of the model other than PALS Infant meets HHS criteria for an evidence-based home visiting model.

Last updated: October 2019

Effects Shown in Research & Outcome Measure Details

Summary of Findings

Please read Describing Effects for more information on these categories. Only results from studies that meet the standards for the high or moderate ratings are included above.

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Child Development and School Readiness

Outcomes Rated High

PALS Toddler/Preschooler
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
PPVT-III receptive vocabulary
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.37 Not applicable Not reported Study reported = 0.36 Statistically significant, p < .05 Primary

footnote143

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative coefficient values favor the intervention group.

PLS: auditory comprehension
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -1.56 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
PLS: expressive comprehension
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.92 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Cooperation
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.38 Not applicable Not reported Study reported = 0.30 Statistically significant, p = .04 Primary

footnote143

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative coefficient values favor the intervention group.

Coordinating attention and words
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.09 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Positive affect (of child with mother)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.17 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Social engagement
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.44 Not applicable Not reported Study reported = 0.32 Statistically significant, p < .01 Primary

footnote143

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative coefficient values favor the intervention group.

Use of words
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.42 Not applicable Not reported Study reported = 0.37 Statistically significant, p < .01 Primary

footnote143

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative coefficient values favor the intervention group.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
PALS Toddler/Preschooler
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
Behavioral responses
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.07 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.28 Primary
Comments
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = 0.12 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.10 Primary
Coordination of gestures and verbalizations
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.14 Not applicable Not reported Not available Statistically significant, p < .01 Primary
Engagement in activity
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = 0.08 Not applicable Not reported Not available Statistically significant, p = .04 Primary

footnote146

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Positive coefficient values favors the comparison group.

Questions and requests
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.57 Not applicable Not reported Study reported = 0.16 Statistically significant, p = .01 Primary

footnote143

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative coefficient values favor the intervention group.

Verbal responses
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.17 Not applicable Not reported Study reported = 0.30 Not statistically significant, p = 0.06 Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
PALS Infant + Toddler/Preschooler
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
PPVT-III receptive vocabulary
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.28 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
PLS: auditory comprehension
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.94 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
PLS: expressive comprehension
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.30 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Cooperation
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.21 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Coordinating attention and words
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.13 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Positive affect (of child with mother)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.19 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Social engagement
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.25 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Use of words
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.15 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
PALS Infant + Toddler/Preschooler
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Behavioral responses
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I*PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.26 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.88 Primary
Comments
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I*PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.30 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.42 Primary
Coordination of gestures and verbalizations
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I*PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.42 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.50 Primary
Engagement in activity
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I*PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -1.68 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = .63 Primary
Questions and requests
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I*PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.34 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.38 Primary
Verbal responses
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I*PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.04 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.50 Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Play and Learning Strategies (PALS) Infant
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
PPVT-III receptive vocabulary
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.18 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
PLS: auditory comprehension
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.12 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
PLS: expressive comprehension
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 1.21 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Cooperation
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.09 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Coordinating attention and words
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.26 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Positive affect (of child with mother)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.18 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Social engagement
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.18 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Use of words
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.08 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

PPVT-III receptive vocabulary

The PPVT -III assesses individual's receptive language skill. Raw scores were used in the analysis. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

PPVT-III receptive vocabulary

The PPVT -III assesses individual's receptive language skill. Raw scores were used in the analysis. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

PPVT-III receptive vocabulary

The PPVT -III assesses individual's receptive language skill. Raw scores were used in the analysis. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

PLS: auditory comprehension

The PLS assesses receptive and expressive language development. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

PLS: auditory comprehension

The PLS assesses receptive and expressive language development. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

PLS: auditory comprehension

The PLS assesses receptive and expressive language development. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

PLS: expressive comprehension

The PLS assesses receptive and expressive language development. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

PLS: expressive comprehension

The PLS assesses receptive and expressive language development. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

Cooperation

The frequency with which the child attempted to respond to his/her mother's request for an action or verbalization. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.62

Primary

Cooperation

The frequency with which the child attempted to respond to his/her mother's request for an action or verbalization. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.62

Primary

Cooperation

The frequency with which the child attempted to respond to his/her mother's request for an action or verbalization. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.62

Primary

Coordinating attention and words

The frequency with which the child was able to direct his/her mother's attention to an object using words. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.68

Primary

Coordinating attention and words

The frequency with which the child was able to direct his/her mother's attention to an object using words. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.68

Primary

Coordinating attention and words

The frequency with which the child was able to direct his/her mother's attention to an object using words. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.68

Primary

Positive affect (of child with mother)

The frequency with which the child displayed smiles or laughter during the interaction with his/her mother. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.85

Primary

Positive affect (of child with mother)

The frequency with which the child displayed smiles or laughter during the interaction with his/her mother. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.85

Primary

Positive affect (of child with mother)

The frequency with which the child displayed smiles or laughter during the interaction with his/her mother. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.85

Primary

Social engagement

The degree to which the child tried to positively engage his/her mother using verbal and non-verbal communication. The interaction was coded on a 5-point scale. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.65

Primary

Social engagement

The degree to which the child tried to positively engage his/her mother using verbal and non-verbal communication. The interaction was coded on a 5-point scale. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.65

Primary

Social engagement

The degree to which the child tried to positively engage his/her mother using verbal and non-verbal communication. The interaction was coded on a 5-point scale. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.65

Primary

Use of words

The frequency with which the child communicated verbally with his/her mother during the interaction. Communication included single utterance sound, babbling with sentence like intonation, word approximation-single words, two- to three-word phrases, four- to five-word phrases, and six or more word phrases. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.68

Primary

Use of words

The frequency with which the child communicated verbally with his/her mother during the interaction. Communication included single utterance sound, babbling with sentence like intonation, word approximation-single words, two- to three-word phrases, four- to five-word phrases, and six or more word phrases. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.68

Primary

Use of words

The frequency with which the child communicated verbally with his/her mother during the interaction. Communication included single utterance sound, babbling with sentence like intonation, word approximation-single words, two- to three-word phrases, four- to five-word phrases, and six or more word phrases. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.68

Primary
Play and Learning Strategies (PALS) Infant
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Behavioral responses
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.43 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.28 Primary
Comments
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.12 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.97 Primary
Coordination of gestures and verbalizations
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = 0.01 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.95 Primary
Engagement in activity
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = 0.43 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.81 Primary
Questions and requests
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = 0.01 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.26 Primary
Verbal responses
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.07 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.20 Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Behavioral responses

Frequency of child's behavioral responses to maternal requests. The responses were coded as (1) ignore/refuse, (2) passive or incorrect attempt, or (3) correct response. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.81

Primary

Behavioral responses

Frequency of child's behavioral responses to maternal requests. The responses were coded as (1) ignore/refuse, (2) passive or incorrect attempt, or (3) correct response. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.81

Primary

Behavioral responses

Frequency of child's behavioral responses to maternal requests. The responses were coded as (1) ignore/refuse, (2) passive or incorrect attempt, or (3) correct response. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.81

Primary

Comments

The frequency with which the child comments on a book. Responses were coded as (1) orients mother's attention without use of label, (2) labels or describes a picture, or (3) makes a connection involving elements of the story. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.76

Primary

Comments

The frequency with which the child comments on a book. Responses were coded as (1) orients mother's attention without use of label, (2) labels or describes a picture, or (3) makes a connection involving elements of the story. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.76

Primary

Comments

The frequency with which the child comments on a book. Responses were coded as (1) orients mother's attention without use of label, (2) labels or describes a picture, or (3) makes a connection involving elements of the story. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.76

Primary

Coordination of gestures and verbalizations

Whether or not children engaged in nonverbal behaviors indicating recognition of appropriate book reading activities in conjunction with verbal responses. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Primary

Coordination of gestures and verbalizations

Whether or not children engaged in nonverbal behaviors indicating recognition of appropriate book reading activities in conjunction with verbal responses. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Primary

Coordination of gestures and verbalizations

Whether or not children engaged in nonverbal behaviors indicating recognition of appropriate book reading activities in conjunction with verbal responses. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Primary

Engagement in activity

The amount of time in which a child actively participated in the book reading activity. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Primary

Engagement in activity

The amount of time in which a child actively participated in the book reading activity. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Primary

Engagement in activity

The amount of time in which a child actively participated in the book reading activity. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Primary

Questions and requests

The frequency with which the child requested his/her mother identify a picture or asked his/her mother a more sophisticated question such as, "What is he doing?" Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.77

Primary

Questions and requests

The frequency with which the child requested his/her mother identify a picture or asked his/her mother a more sophisticated question such as, "What is he doing?" Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.77

Primary

Questions and requests

The frequency with which the child requested his/her mother identify a picture or asked his/her mother a more sophisticated question such as, "What is he doing?" Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.77

Primary

Verbal responses

Frequency of child's verbal responses to maternal requests. The responses were coded as (1) attempt to respond verbally but incorrect, (2) correct verbal response, or (3) more complex verbalization including explanations, excuses, and/or alternatives. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Primary

Verbal responses

Frequency of child's verbal responses to maternal requests. The responses were coded as (1) attempt to respond verbally but incorrect, (2) correct verbal response, or (3) more complex verbalization including explanations, excuses, and/or alternatives. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Primary

Verbal responses

Frequency of child's verbal responses to maternal requests. The responses were coded as (1) attempt to respond verbally but incorrect, (2) correct verbal response, or (3) more complex verbalization including explanations, excuses, and/or alternatives. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Primary
Play and Learning Strategies (PALS) Infant
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
Negative Affect (With Examiner)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months PALS I vs. DAS 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = -0.07 Coefficient = 0.28 Not reported Study reported = 0.70 Statistically significant, p < 0.01 Primary

footnote142

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

The <em>p</em>-values are study reported.

Social Skills: Cooperation
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months PALS I vs. DAS 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = 5.56 Coefficient = 5.16 Not reported Study reported = 0.39 Not statistically significant, p = 0.08 Primary

footnote142

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

The <em>p</em>-values are study reported.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Negative Affect (With Examiner)

The frequency with which an infant displayed signs of irritation such as whining, fussing, and crying when interacting with the examiner. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.76

Primary

Social Skills: Cooperation

The frequency with which an infant attempted to respond to his/her mother's request for an action or verbalization. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.62

Primary
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Positive Parenting Practices

Outcomes Rated High

PALS Toddler/Preschooler
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
Contingent responsiveness
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.52 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Maintaining child foci
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.03 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Positive affect (of mother with child)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.15 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Redirecting child foci
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.42 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Verbal encouragement
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.41 Not applicable Not reported Study reported = 0.25 Statistically significant, p =.01 Primary

footnote143

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative coefficient values favor the intervention group.

Verbal scaffolding
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.13 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Warm sensitivity
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.37 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
PALS Toddler/Preschooler
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Comments
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.24 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.98 Primary
General verbal support
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.77 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.96 Primary
Language facilitation
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.47 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.13 Primary
Open prompts
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.53 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.27 Primary
Percent time only reading text
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = 0.44 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.07 Primary
Praise and encourage
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = 0.19 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.46 Primary
Responsiveness
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.53 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.22 Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
PALS Infant + Toddler/Preschooler
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
Contingent responsiveness
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.64 Not applicable Not reported Study reported = 0.51 Statistically significant, p = 0.02 Primary
Maintaining child foci
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.00 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Positive affect (of mother with child)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.26 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Redirecting child foci
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.61 Not applicable Not reported Study reported = 0.39 Statistically significant, p = 0.01 Primary

footnote145

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative coefficient values indicate a favorable outcome.

Verbal encouragement
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.08 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Verbal scaffolding
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.06 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Warm sensitivity
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I and PALS II 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.34 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
PALS Infant + Toddler/Preschooler
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Comments
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I*PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.14 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.87 Primary
General verbal support
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I*PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = 0.44 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.89 Primary
Language facilitation
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I*PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = 0.10 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.03 Primary
Open prompts
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I*PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = 0.24 Not applicable Not reported Study reported = 0.38 Statistically significant, p = 0.03 Primary
Percent time only reading text
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I*PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = 0.12 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.26 Primary
Praise and encourage
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I*PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.14 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Responsiveness
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I*PALS II 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = 0.24 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.08 Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Play and Learning Strategies (PALS) Infant
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
Contingent responsiveness
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.51 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Maintaining child foci
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.06 Not applicable Not reported Study reported = 0.32 Statistically significant, p = 0.04 Primary

footnote143

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative coefficient values favor the intervention group.

Positive affect (of mother with child)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.34 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Redirecting child foci
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.52 Not applicable Not reported Not available Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary

footnote144

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Positive coefficient values indicate an unfavorable outcome.

Verbal encouragement
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.60 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Verbal scaffolding
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = 0.10 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05 Primary
Warm sensitivity
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads growth curve coefficient = -0.35 Not applicable Not reported Study reported = 0.29 Statistically significant, p = 0.02 Primary

footnote143

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative coefficient values favor the intervention group.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Contingent responsiveness

The degree to which a mother responded promptly and appropriately to her infant's cues, rated on a five-point scale. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.74

Primary

Contingent responsiveness

The degree to which a mother responded promptly and appropriately to her infant's cues, rated on a five-point scale. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.74

Primary

Contingent responsiveness

The degree to which a mother responded promptly and appropriately to her infant's cues, rated on a five-point scale. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.74

Primary

Maintaining child foci

The frequency with which the mother's behavior helped to sustain her child's current activity. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.81

Primary

Maintaining child foci

The frequency with which the mother's behavior helped to sustain her child's current activity. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.81

Primary

Maintaining child foci

The frequency with which the mother's behavior helped to sustain her child's current activity. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.81

Primary

Positive affect (of mother with child)

The degree to which the mother smiled and laughed during the interaction, rated on a five-point scale. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.74

Primary

Positive affect (of mother with child)

The degree to which the mother smiled and laughed during the interaction, rated on a five-point scale. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.74

Primary

Positive affect (of mother with child)

The degree to which the mother smiled and laughed during the interaction, rated on a five-point scale. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.74

Primary

Redirecting child foci

The frequency with which the mother's interaction was unrelated to her child's current activity in an attempt to redirect the child's attention. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.77

Primary

Redirecting child foci

The frequency with which the mother's interaction was unrelated to her child's current activity in an attempt to redirect the child's attention. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.77

Primary

Redirecting child foci

The frequency with which the mother's interaction was unrelated to her child's current activity in an attempt to redirect the child's attention. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.77

Primary

Verbal encouragement

The frequency with which the mother praised her infant's efforts. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Primary

Verbal encouragement

The frequency with which the mother praised her infant's efforts. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Primary

Verbal encouragement

The frequency with which the mother praised her infant's efforts. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Primary

Verbal scaffolding

The frequency with which the mother provided verbal hints and prompts. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.64

Primary

Verbal scaffolding

The frequency with which the mother provided verbal hints and prompts. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.64

Primary

Verbal scaffolding

The frequency with which the mother provided verbal hints and prompts. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.64

Primary

Warm sensitivity

The degree to which the mother was warm and sensitive in her interactions with her infant (e.g., accepting of the infant's needs and interests), rated on a five-point scale. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.74

Primary

Warm sensitivity

The degree to which the mother was warm and sensitive in her interactions with her infant (e.g., accepting of the infant's needs and interests), rated on a five-point scale. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.74

Primary

Warm sensitivity

The degree to which the mother was warm and sensitive in her interactions with her infant (e.g., accepting of the infant's needs and interests), rated on a five-point scale. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.74

Primary
Play and Learning Strategies (PALS) Infant
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Comments
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.23 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.51 Primary
General verbal support
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.48 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.59 Primary
Language facilitation
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.11 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.41 Primary
Open prompts
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = 0.02 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.87 Primary
Percent time only reading text
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = 0.30 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.26 Primary
Praise and encourage
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = -0.12 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.51 Primary
Responsiveness
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 months after program end PALS I 166 mother/child dyads <abbr title"analysis of covariance">ANCOVA</abbr> coeff = 0.02 Not applicable Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.35 Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Comments

The frequency with which the child comments on a book. Responses were coded as (1) orients mother's attention without use of label, (2) labels or describes a picture, or (3) makes a connection involving elements of the story. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.76

Primary

Comments

The frequency with which the child comments on a book. Responses were coded as (1) orients mother's attention without use of label, (2) labels or describes a picture, or (3) makes a connection involving elements of the story. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.76

Primary

Comments

The frequency with which the child comments on a book. Responses were coded as (1) orients mother's attention without use of label, (2) labels or describes a picture, or (3) makes a connection involving elements of the story. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.76

Primary

General verbal support

The frequency with which the mother used hints and prompts to help her child make connections. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.57

Primary

General verbal support

The frequency with which the mother used hints and prompts to help her child make connections. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.57

Primary

General verbal support

The frequency with which the mother used hints and prompts to help her child make connections. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.57

Primary

Language facilitation

The frequency with which the mother used verbal strategies to facilitate her child's cognitive-linguistic development. These strategies included expansion, assists, and lead-ins. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.68

Primary

Language facilitation

The frequency with which the mother used verbal strategies to facilitate her child's cognitive-linguistic development. These strategies included expansion, assists, and lead-ins. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.68

Primary

Language facilitation

The frequency with which the mother used verbal strategies to facilitate her child's cognitive-linguistic development. These strategies included expansion, assists, and lead-ins. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.68

Primary

Open prompts

The frequency with which the mother asked open-ended questions or made requests that required the child to think more generally about what was happening in the story. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.84

Primary

Open prompts

The frequency with which the mother asked open-ended questions or made requests that required the child to think more generally about what was happening in the story. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.84

Primary

Open prompts

The frequency with which the mother asked open-ended questions or made requests that required the child to think more generally about what was happening in the story. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.84

Primary

Percent time only reading text

The length of time during which the mother just read the text of the book. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.72

Primary

Percent time only reading text

The length of time during which the mother just read the text of the book. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.72

Primary

Percent time only reading text

The length of time during which the mother just read the text of the book. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.72

Primary

Praise and encourage

The frequency with which the mother praised or encouraged her infant's efforts. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.83

Primary

Praise and encourage

The frequency with which the mother praised or encouraged her infant's efforts. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.83

Primary

Praise and encourage

The frequency with which the mother praised or encouraged her infant's efforts. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.83

Primary

Responsiveness

The degree to which the mother responded promptly and appropriately to her infant's cues and expressed enthusiasm during the book reading interaction, rated on a five-point scale from almost always to almost never. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.70

Primary

Responsiveness

The degree to which the mother responded promptly and appropriately to her infant's cues and expressed enthusiasm during the book reading interaction, rated on a five-point scale from almost always to almost never. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.70

Primary

Responsiveness

The degree to which the mother responded promptly and appropriately to her infant's cues and expressed enthusiasm during the book reading interaction, rated on a five-point scale from almost always to almost never. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.70

Primary
Play and Learning Strategies (PALS) Infant
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
Contingent Responsiveness
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months PALS I vs. DAS 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = 0.77 Coefficient = 0.99 Not reported Study reported = 0.93 Statistically significant, p < 0.01 Primary

footnote141

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Lower parameter value indicates a better score. The <em>p</em>-values are study reported.

Harshness of Voice Tone
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months PALS I vs. DAS 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = 0.07 Coefficient = 0.12 Not reported Study reported = 0.28 Statistically significant, p = 0.02 Primary

footnote141

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Lower parameter value indicates a better score. The <em>p</em>-values are study reported.

Labeling Actions
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months PALS I vs. DAS 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = -8.94 Coefficient = -9.20 Not reported Study reported = 0.63 Statistically significant, p < 0.01 Primary

footnote141

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Lower parameter value indicates a better score. The <em>p</em>-values are study reported.

Labeling Objects
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months PALS I vs. DAS 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = -5.47 Coefficient = -5.86 Not reported Study reported = 0.71 Statistically significant, p < 0.01 Primary

footnote141

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Lower parameter value indicates a better score. The <em>p</em>-values are study reported.

Maintaining Infant Foci of Attention
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months PALS I vs. DAS 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = 13.21 Coefficient = 12.40 Not reported Study reported = 0.36 Not statistically significant, p = 0.08 Primary

footnote142

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

The <em>p</em>-values are study reported.

Physical Intrusiveness
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months PALS I vs. DAS 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = 0.44 Coefficient = 0.51 Not reported Study reported = 0.50 Statistically significant, p = 0.01 Primary

footnote141

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Lower parameter value indicates a better score. The <em>p</em>-values are study reported.

Redirecting Infant Foci of Attention
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months PALS I vs. DAS 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = 1.14 Coefficient = 1.57 Not reported Study reported = 1.31 Statistically significant, p < 0.01 Primary

footnote141

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Lower parameter value indicates a better score. The <em>p</em>-values are study reported.

Verbal Encouragement
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months PALS I vs. DAS 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = 0.67 Coefficient = 0.24 Not reported Study reported = 0.71 Statistically significant, p < 0.01 Primary

footnote142

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

The <em>p</em>-values are study reported.

Verbal Scaffolding
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months PALS I vs. DAS 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = 0.41 Coefficient = -0.08 Not reported Study reported = 0.79 Statistically significant, p < 0.01 Primary

footnote142

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

The <em>p</em>-values are study reported.

Warm Sensitivity
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months PALS I vs. DAS 241 mother/child dyads Coefficient = 0.74 Coefficient = 0.90 Not reported Study reported = 0.49 Statistically significant, p < 0.01 Primary

footnote141

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Lower parameter value indicates a better score. The <em>p</em>-values are study reported.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Contingent Responsiveness

The degree to which a mother responded promptly and appropriately to her infant's cues was rated on a five-point scale. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.74

Primary

Harshness of Voice Tone

The degree to which the mother used a harsh and/or impatient tone with her infant, rated on a five-point scale. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.70

Primary

Labeling Actions

The frequency with which a mother provided the specific names of actions during the interaction. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.70 for the labeling one action and 0.75 for the labeling of more than one action

Primary

Labeling Objects

The frequency with which a mother provided the specific names of objects during the interaction. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.77 for both the labeling of one object and the labeling of more than one object

Primary

Maintaining Infant Foci of Attention

The frequency with which the mother's behavior helped to sustain her child's current activity. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.81

Primary

Physical Intrusiveness

The degree of abruptness in physical interactions such as moving the infant, and physical expressions of impatience. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.45

Primary

Redirecting Infant Foci of Attention

The frequency with which the mother's interaction was unrelated to her child's current activity in an attempt to redirect the child's attention. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.77

Primary

Verbal Encouragement

The frequency with which a mother praised her infant's efforts. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78

Primary

Verbal Scaffolding

The frequency with which a mother provided verbal hints and prompts. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.64

Primary

Warm Sensitivity

The degree to which the mother was warm and sensitive in her interactions with her infant (e.g., accepting of the infant's needs and interests), rated on a five-point scale. Videotaped observation

Interrater reliability = 0.74

Primary
View Revisions

Model Overview

Theoretical Model

PALS aims to enhance parents’ interactions with their infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. It is designed as a preventive intervention program to strengthen the attachment between parent and child and stimulate early language, cognitive, and social development. View Revisions

Model Components

PALS includes one-on-one home visits between a trained parent coach and a parent. View Revisions

Target Population

PALS targets at-risk families who are unlikely to have received effective parenting instruction. Local agencies may develop their own target criteria based on their service area context.

Two versions of the model exist: PALS Infant curriculum and PALS Toddler/Preschooler curriculum. PALS Infant curriculum focuses on children ages 5 to 18 months and their families. PALS Toddler/Preschooler curriculum focuses on children ages 18 months through 4 years and their families.

View Revisions

Where to Find Out More

Keith Millner, M.A., Ed.M.
Director, CLI Solutions Group
Children’s Learning Institute
The University of Texas Health Science Center
Phone: (713) 500-3800
Email: Keith.Millner@uth.tmc.edu
Websites: https://playandlearning.org/; https://www.childrenslearninginstitute.org/programs/play-and-learning-strategies-pals/

View Revisions

In Brief

Evidence of Model Effectiveness

PALS Infant meets the criteria established by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) for an “evidence-based early childhood home visiting service delivery model” for the general population, but does not meet the criteria for tribal populations.

PALS Toddler/Preschooler and the combination of PALS Infant + Toddler/Preschooler do not meet the HHS criteria for the general population or for tribal populations.

View Revisions

Model Description

Play and Learning Strategies (PALS) is designed to strengthen parent–child bonding and stimulate children’s early language, cognitive, and social development. There are two versions of the model: PALS Infant curriculum for families with children 5 to 18 months, which consists of 10 weekly sessions; and PALS Toddler/Preschooler curriculum for children 18 months through 4 years, which consists of 12 weekly sessions. Both versions are offered through 90-minute home visits conducted by a parent educator. This report also includes a review of PALS Infant + Toddler/Preschooler which refers to the combined Infant + Toddler/Preschooler curricula. Parent educators are required to receive training and certification from the model developer, the Children’s Learning Institute at the University of Texas Health Science Center. The Children’s Learning Institute recommends that PALS be implemented by agencies with sustained funding mechanisms and organizational structures that can support model continuity, such as Head Start, Early Head Start, and not-for-profit early childhood agencies. For more information, please read the Model Overview.

View Revisions

Extent of Evidence

PALS Toddler/Preschooler
Results of Research and Review
Number of studies
Eligible for review
4
Rated high
2
Rated moderate
0
Rated low
1
Additional source1
1
PALS Infant + Toddler/Preschooler
Results of Research and Review
Number of studies
Eligible for review
3
Rated high
2
Rated moderate
0
Rated low
0
Additional source1
1
Play and Learning Strategies (PALS) Infant
Results of Research and Review
Number of studies
Eligible for review
7
Rated high
3
Rated moderate
0
Rated low
1
Additional source1
3

For more information, see the study database. For more information on the criteria used to determine the study ratings, please read Producing Study Ratings.

 

View Revisions

Summary of Findings

Please read Describing Effects for more information on these categories. Only results from studies that meet the standards for the high or moderate ratings are included above.

View Revisions

Criteria Established by the Department of Health and Human Services

Information Based on Comprehensive Review of All High- and Moderate-Impact Studies for this Model
PALS Toddler/Preschooler
High- or moderate-quality impact study?
Yes
Across high- or moderate-quality studies, favorable impacts in at least two outcome domains within one sample OR the same domain for at least two non-overlapping samples?
Yes
Favorable impacts on full sample?
Yes
Any favorable impacts on outcome measures sustained at least 12 months after model enrollment?1
No
One or more favorable, statistically significant impact reported in a peer-reviewed journal?1
Yes
PALS Infant + Toddler/Preschooler
High- or moderate-quality impact study?
Yes
Across high- or moderate-quality studies, favorable impacts in at least two outcome domains within one sample OR the same domain for at least two non-overlapping samples?
No
Favorable impacts on full sample?
Yes
Any favorable impacts on outcome measures sustained at least 12 months after model enrollment?1
No
One or more favorable, statistically significant impact reported in a peer-reviewed journal?1
Yes
Play and Learning Strategies (PALS) Infant
High- or moderate-quality impact study?
Yes
Across high- or moderate-quality studies, favorable impacts in at least two outcome domains within one sample OR the same domain for at least two non-overlapping samples?
Yes
Favorable impacts on full sample?
Yes
Any favorable impacts on outcome measures sustained at least 12 months after model enrollment?1
Yes
One or more favorable, statistically significant impact reported in a peer-reviewed journal?1
Yes

Please read the HHS Criteria for Evidence-Based Models for more information.

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