Parents as Teachers (PAT)® Meets HHS Criteria

Last updated: 2019

In brief

Evidence of model effectiveness

This model meets the criteria established by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) for an “evidence-based early childhood home visiting service delivery model” for the general population, but does not meet the criteria for tribal populations.

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Model description

The goal of the Parents as Teachers (PAT) model is to provide parents with child development knowledge and parenting support, provide early detection of developmental delays and health issues, prevent child abuse and neglect, and increase children’s school readiness. The Parents as Teachers model includes one-on-one home visits, monthly group meetings, developmental screenings, and linkages and connections for families to needed resources. Parent educators conduct the home visits using structured visit plans and guided planning tools. Local sites offer at least 12 hour-long home visits annually with more offered to higher-need families. Parents as Teachers serves families for at least two years between pregnancy and kindergarten. Parents as Teachers affiliate programs select the target population they plan to serve and the program duration. For more information, please read the Model Overview.

This report also includes a review of two adaptations to Parents as Teachers: (1) Parents as First Teachers (PAFT-New Zealand) and (2) Baby Family and Child Education (Baby FACE). The New Zealand Ministry of Social Development’s Family and Community Services created the PAFT adaptation of Parents as Teachers to specifically meet the needs of their indigenous populations. As of 2016, implementation support is no longer available for PAFT (New Zealand). Baby FACE is implemented in the continental United States and serves high-need American Indian families by integrating Native language and culture into the model.

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Extent of evidence

Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Results of search and review
Number of manuscripts
At least one finding was eligible for review…
30
  …and at least one finding rated high
2
  …and at least one finding rated moderate (but none rated high)
3
  …and all findings that were eligible for review rated low
21
  …but manuscript is additional source1
4
PAT Parents as First Teachers (New Zealand)
Results of search and review
Number of manuscripts
At least one finding was eligible for review…
5
  …and at least one finding rated high
0
  …and at least one finding rated moderate (but none rated high)
2
  …and all findings that were eligible for review rated low
3
  …but manuscript is additional source1
0
Bureau of Indian Affairs’ Baby Family and Child Education Program (Baby FACE)
Results of search and review
Number of manuscripts
At least one finding was eligible for review…
3
  …and at least one finding rated high
0
  …and at least one finding rated moderate (but none rated high)
1
  …and all findings that were eligible for review rated low
1
  …but manuscript is additional source1
1

For more information, see the research database. For more information on the criteria used to rate research, please see details of HomVEE’s methods and standards.

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Summary of findings

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Criteria established by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Information based on comprehensive review of all high- and moderate-rated manuscripts
Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
CriterionCriterion descriptionCriterion met?
1High- or moderate-quality impact study?Yes
2Across high- or moderate-quality studies, favorable impacts in at least two outcome domains within one sample OR the same domain for at least two non-overlapping samples?Yes
3Favorable impacts on full sample?Yes
4Any favorable impacts on outcome measures sustained at least 12 months after model enrollment?
Reported for all research but only required for RCTs.
Yes
5One or more favorable, statistically significant impact reported in a peer-reviewed journal?
Reported for all research but only required for RCTs.
Yes
PAT Parents as First Teachers (New Zealand)
CriterionCriterion descriptionCriterion met?
1High- or moderate-quality impact study?Yes
2Across high- or moderate-quality studies, favorable impacts in at least two outcome domains within one sample OR the same domain for at least two non-overlapping samples?No
3Favorable impacts on full sample?No
4Any favorable impacts on outcome measures sustained at least 12 months after model enrollment?
Reported for all research but only required for RCTs.
No
5One or more favorable, statistically significant impact reported in a peer-reviewed journal?
Reported for all research but only required for RCTs.
No
Bureau of Indian Affairs’ Baby Family and Child Education Program (Baby FACE)
CriterionCriterion descriptionCriterion met?
1High- or moderate-quality impact study?Yes
2Across high- or moderate-quality studies, favorable impacts in at least two outcome domains within one sample OR the same domain for at least two non-overlapping samples?Yes
3Favorable impacts on full sample?Yes
4Any favorable impacts on outcome measures sustained at least 12 months after model enrollment?
Reported for all research but only required for RCTs.
Yes
5One or more favorable, statistically significant impact reported in a peer-reviewed journal?
Reported for all research but only required for RCTs.
No

Notes: If the model does not meet criterion 3 but meets criteria 1 and 2 based on findings from subgroups, the impacts must be replicated in the same domain in two or more studies using non-overlapping analytic study samples. HomVEE assesses and reports criteria 4 and 5 for all models that have well-designed research, but meeting those two criteria is only required of models for which all findings are from randomized controlled trials. Please read the HHS criteria for evidence-based models for more information.

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