Parents as Teachers (PAT)® Meets HHS Criteria

Last updated: 2019

Effects shown in research & outcome measure details

Family economic self-sufficiency

Findings rated high

Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
Any postsecondary education
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 363 mothers % = 27.00 % = 33.10 = -6.10 HomeVEE calculated = -0.18 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Any postsecondary education
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 354 mothers % = 29.30 % = 38.80 = -9.50 HomeVEE calculated = -0.26 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, HomVEE calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The HomVEE tests of statistical significance are based on the HomVEE calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Attending school in the past year
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 363 mothers % = 27.70 % = 30.70 = -3.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.09 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Attending school in the past year
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 354 mothers % = 25.80 % = 23.50 = 3.30 HomeVEE calculated = 0.08 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Average highest grade level
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 363 mothers Mean = 10.50 Mean = 11.20 Mean difference = -0.70 Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Average highest grade level
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 354 mothers Mean = 10.80 Mean = 11.60 Mean difference = -0.80 Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
High school graduate
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 363 mothers % = 23.20 % = 22.70 = 0.50 HomeVEE calculated = 0.02 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
High school graduate
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 354 mothers % = 24.50 % = 20.40 = 4.10 HomeVEE calculated = 0.14 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Household income $10000 - $29999
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 366 mothers % = 57.90 % = 44.90 = 13.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.32 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, HomVEE calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The HomVEE tests of statistical significance are based on the HomVEE calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Household income $10000 - $29999
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 354 mothers % = 55.30 = = 7.90 HomeVEE calculated = 0.19 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Household income $30000 or more
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 366 mothers % = 22.60 % = 33.60 = -11.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.33 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, HomVEE calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The HomVEE tests of statistical significance are based on the HomVEE calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Household income $30000 or more
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 354 mothers % = 25.30 % = 36.80 = -11.50 HomeVEE calculated = -0.33 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Household income less than $10000
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 366 mothers % = 19.50 % = 21.50 = -2.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.07 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Household income less than $10000
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 354 mothers % = 19.30 % = 15.80 = 3.50 HomeVEE calculated = 0.15 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Household receiving AFDC
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 366 mothers % = 16.10 % = 22.20 = -6.10 HomeVEE calculated = -0.24 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, HomVEE calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The HomVEE tests of statistical significance are based on the HomVEE calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Household receiving AFDC
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 354 mothers % = 15.40 % = 17.90 = -2.50 HomeVEE calculated = -0.11 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Household receiving Medi-Cal
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 366 mothers % = 39.90 % = 45.10 = -5.20 HomeVEE calculated = -0.13 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Household receiving Medi-Cal
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 354 mothers &#; = 37.00 % = 36.40 = 0.60 HomeVEE calculated = 0.02 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Less than high school
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 363 mothers % = 49.80 % = 44.20 = 5.60 HomeVEE calculated = 0.14 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Less than high school
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 354 mothers % = 46.20 % = 40.80 = 5.40 HomeVEE calculated = 0.13 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Mother working/in job training
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 366 mothers % = 48.80 % = 36.20 = 12.60 HomeVEE calculated = 0.31 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, HomVEE calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The HomVEE tests of statistical significance are based on the HomVEE calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Mother working/in job training
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 354 mothers % = 55.40 % = 46.00 = 9.40 HomeVEE calculated = 0.23 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, HomVEE calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The HomVEE tests of statistical significance are based on the HomVEE calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Show outcome measure summary
Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties Operations links

Any postsecondary education

Percentage of mothers who had some postsecondary education Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Attending school in the past year

Percentage of mothers who attended school in the past year Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Average highest grade level

An average of the highest level of school that the mother had completed Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

High school graduate

Percentage of mothers who had completed high school Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Household income $10,000–$29,999

Percentage of households with incomes between $10,000 and $29,000 Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Household income $30,000 or more

Percentage of households with incomes of $30,000 or greater Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Household income less than $10,000

Percentage of households with incomes less than $10,000 Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Household receiving AFDC

Percentage of households that received AFDC Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Household receiving Medi-Cal

Percentage of households that received Medi-Cal Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Less than high school

Percentage of mothers who had less than a high school education Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Mother working/in job training

Percentage of mothers who were working or in job training Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Findings rated moderate

Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance
Change in AFDC Status
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-5 years Binghamton, NY 40 children Unadjusted mean = -0.10 Unadjusted mean = 0.20 Mean difference = -0.30 Not available Statistically significant, p < 0.05
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Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties Operations links

Change in AFDC Status

Difference in percentage of families who received AFDC when children were age 1 and when children were age 4 or 5 Department of Social Services records

Not applicable

Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance
Child covered by health insurance
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Three-site sample 265 children % = 79.80 % = 84.80 = -4.60 Study reported = -0.13 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
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Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties Operations links

Child covered by health insurance

Percentage of children who were covered by health insurance

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance
Receiving AFDC at assessment
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1 year Teen mothers sample 234 mothers % = 50.40 % = 58.00 = -7.60 HomeVEE calculated = -0.19 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Receiving AFDC at assessment
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Teen mothers sample 192 mothers % = 61.30 % = 54.60 = 6.70 HomeVEE calculated = 0.17 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Working or in job training
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1 year Teen mothers sample 234 mothers % = 16.50 % = 18.50 = -2.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.08 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Working or in job training
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Teen mothers sample 194 mothers % = 26.60 % = 29.00 = -2.40 HomeVEE calculated = -0.07 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
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Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties Operations links

Receiving AFDC at assessment

Percentage of households that received AFDC Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Working or in job training

Percentage of mothers who were working or in job training Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

PAT Parents as First Teachers (New Zealand)
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
Attained additional educational qualifications since birth of child
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin 207 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.23 Unadjusted % = 0.30 Mean difference = -0.07 HomeVEE calculated = -0.22 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Elley-Irving Socio-Economic Index
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Not available Not available Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Family means of transport
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Not available Not available Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Family owns car
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.88 Unadjusted % = 0.90 Mean difference = -0.02 HomeVEE calculated = -0.12 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Family Strains Questionnaire, Sum of strains
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 206 mothers Unadjusted mean = 10.92 Unadjusted mean = 9.97 Mean difference = 0.95 HomeVEE calculated = 0.12 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05

footnote169

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors report that significantly more program group families reported experiencing increased strain on family money for medical expenses, clothes, food, etc., but, after applying the Bonferroni inequality, this difference was no longer significant.

Family Stressors Questionnaire, Sum of stressors
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 206 mothers Unadjusted mean = 15.42 Unadjusted mean = 14.54 Mean difference = 0.88 HomeVEE calculated = 0.10 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Held a community services card
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.39 Unadjusted % = 0.42 Mean difference = -0.03 HomeVEE calculated = -0.08 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Language use in the home
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Not available Not available Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Mother working in full-time position
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.35 Unadjusted % = 0.53 Mean difference = -0.18 HomeVEE calculated = -0.45 Statistically significant, p < 0.05
Mother working in paid employment
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.64 Unadjusted % = 0.56 Mean difference = 0.08 HomeVEE calculated = 0.20 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Receiving government support
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.42 Unadjusted % = 0.39 Mean difference = 0.03 HomeVEE calculated = 0.08 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Subjective perception of income level
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 207 mothers Not available Not available Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Type of accomodation
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Not available Not available Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Show outcome measure summary
Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties Operations links

Attained additional educational qualifications since birth of child

Number/percentage of mothers who attained additional educational qualifications since birth of their child

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Elley-Irving Socio-Economic Index

Distribution of socio-economic status (Level 1 & 2, Level 3 & 4, Level 5 or 6, Other), as defined by the Elley-Irving Socio-Economic Index.

Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by authors

Family means of transport

Distribution of families' means of transport

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Family owns car

Number/percentage of families that owned a car

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Family Strains Questionnaire, Sum of strains

Mean sum of strains parents experienced

Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by authors

Family Stressors Questionnaire, Sum of stressors

Mean sum of stressors parents experienced

Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by authors

Held a community services card

Number/percentage of families that held a Community Services Card

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Language use in the home

Distribution of languages families spoke at home

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Mother working in full-time position

Number/percentage of mothers working in full-time positions

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Mother working in paid employment

Number/percentage of mothers working in paid employment

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Receiving government support

Number/percentage of families receiving government support

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Subjective perception of income level

Distribution of mothers' perception of their income levels, categorized as top or second to top, middle to average, or lower

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Type of accomodation

Distribution of families' housing type

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

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