Parents as Teachers (PAT)® Meets HHS Criteria

Last updated: October 2019

Effects Shown in Research & Outcome Measure Details

Family Economic Self-Sufficiency

Outcomes Rated High

Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
Any postsecondary education
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 363 mothers % = 27.00 % = 33.10 = -6.10 HomeVEE calculated = -0.18 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Any postsecondary education
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 354 mothers % = 29.30 % = 38.80 = -9.50 HomeVEE calculated = -0.26 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (<em>p</em> &le; 0.05). The <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> tests of statistical significance are based on the <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Attending school in the past year
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 363 mothers % = 27.70 % = 30.70 = -3.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.09 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Attending school in the past year
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 354 mothers % = 25.80 % = 23.50 = 3.30 HomeVEE calculated = 0.08 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Average highest grade level
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 363 mothers Mean = 10.50 Mean = 11.20 Mean difference = -0.70 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Average highest grade level
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 354 mothers Mean = 10.80 Mean = 11.60 Mean difference = -0.80 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Father living in household
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 371 mothers % = 77.60 % = 81.00 = -3.40 HomeVEE calculated = -0.13 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Father living in household
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 343 mothers % = 78.80 % = 80.80 = -2.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.08 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High school graduate
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 363 mothers % = 23.20 % = 22.70 = 0.50 HomeVEE calculated = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High school graduate
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 354 mothers % = 24.50 % = 20.40 = 4.10 HomeVEE calculated = 0.14 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Household income $10000 - $29999
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 366 mothers % = 57.90 % = 44.90 = 13.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.32 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (<em>p</em> &le; 0.05). The <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> tests of statistical significance are based on the <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Household income $10000 - $29999
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 354 mothers % = 55.30 = = 7.90 HomeVEE calculated = 0.19 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Household income $30000 or more
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 366 mothers % = 22.60 % = 33.60 = -11.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.33 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (<em>p</em> &le; 0.05). The <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> tests of statistical significance are based on the <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Household income $30000 or more
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 354 mothers % = 25.30 % = 36.80 = -11.50 HomeVEE calculated = -0.33 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Secondary
Household income less than $10000
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 366 mothers % = 19.50 % = 21.50 = -2.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Household income less than $10000
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 354 mothers % = 19.30 % = 15.80 = 3.50 HomeVEE calculated = 0.15 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Household receiving AFDC
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 366 mothers % = 16.10 % = 22.20 = -6.10 HomeVEE calculated = -0.24 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (<em>p</em> &le; 0.05). The <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> tests of statistical significance are based on the <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Household receiving AFDC
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 354 mothers % = 15.40 % = 17.90 = -2.50 HomeVEE calculated = -0.11 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Household receiving Medi-Cal
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 366 mothers % = 39.90 % = 45.10 = -5.20 HomeVEE calculated = -0.13 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Household receiving Medi-Cal
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 354 mothers &#; = 37.00 % = 36.40 = 0.60 HomeVEE calculated = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Less than high school
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 363 mothers % = 49.80 % = 44.20 = 5.60 HomeVEE calculated = 0.14 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Less than high school
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 354 mothers % = 46.20 % = 40.80 = 5.40 HomeVEE calculated = 0.13 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Married
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 371 mothers % = 66.10 % = 67.60 = -1.50 HomeVEE calculated = -0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Married
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 343 mothers % = 67.20 % = 68.70 = -1.50 HomeVEE calculated = -0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Married two- parent household
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 371 mothers % = 61.90 % = 65.50 = -3.60 HomeVEE calculated = -0.09 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Married two- parent household
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 343 mothers % = 64.60 % = 67.80 = -3.20 HomeVEE calculated = -0.09 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Mother working/in job training
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 366 mothers % = 48.80 % = 36.20 = 12.60 HomeVEE calculated = 0.31 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (<em>p</em> &le; 0.05). The <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> tests of statistical significance are based on the <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Mother working/in job training
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 354 mothers % = 55.40 % = 46.00 = 9.40 HomeVEE calculated = 0.23 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (<em>p</em> &le; 0.05). The <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> tests of statistical significance are based on the <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Sole-adult household
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 371 mothers % = 10.00 % = 5.20 = 4.80 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Sole-adult household
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 343 mothers % = 10.10 % = 10.60 = -0.50 HomeVEE calculated = -0.03 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Any postsecondary education

Percentage of mothers who had some postsecondary education Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Attending school in the past year

Percentage of mothers who attended school in the past year Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Average highest grade level

An average of the highest level of school that the mother had completed Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Father living in household

Percentage of fathers who lived in the same household as the study’s focal child Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

High school graduate

Percentage of mothers who had completed high school Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Household income $10,000–$29,999

Percentage of households with incomes between $10,000 and $29,000 Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Household income $30,000 or more

Percentage of households with incomes of $30,000 or greater Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Household income less than $10,000

Percentage of households with incomes less than $10,000 Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Household receiving AFDC

Percentage of households that received AFDC Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Household receiving Medi-Cal

Percentage of households that received Medi-Cal Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Less than high school

Percentage of mothers who had less than a high school education Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Married

Percentage of mothers who were married Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Married, two-parent household

Percentage of households in which there were two married parents Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Mother working/in job training

Percentage of mothers who were working or in job training Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Sole-adult household

Percentage of households in which the mother was the only adult Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Outcomes Rated Moderate

Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Change in AFDC Status
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
4-5 years Binghamton, NY 40 children Unadjusted mean = -0.10 Unadjusted mean = 0.20 Mean difference = -0.30 Not available Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Change in AFDC Status

Difference in percentage of families who received AFDC when children were age 1 and when children were age 4 or 5 Department of Social Services records

Not applicable

Primary
Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Baby’s father living in the household
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1 year Teen mothers sample 236 mothers % = 47.40 % = 50.00 = -2.60 HomeVEE calculated = -0.06 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Baby’s father living in the household
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Teen mothers sample 195 mothers % = 40.20 % = 42.00 = -1.80 HomeVEE calculated = -0.05 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Married
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1 year Teen mothers sample 236 mothers % = 19.80 % = 15.00 = 4.80 HomeVEE calculated = 0.20 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Married
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Teen mothers sample 195 mothers % = 19.20 % = 28.70 = -9.50 HomeVEE calculated = -0.32 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Secondary
Receiving AFDC at assessment
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1 year Teen mothers sample 234 mothers % = 50.40 % = 58.00 = -7.60 HomeVEE calculated = -0.19 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Receiving AFDC at assessment
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Teen mothers sample 192 mothers % = 61.30 % = 54.60 = 6.70 HomeVEE calculated = 0.17 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Teen mother was only adult in the household
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1 year Teen mothers sample 236 mothers % = 16.40 % = 15.00 = 1.40 HomeVEE calculated = 0.06 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Teen mother was only adult in the household
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Teen mothers sample 195 mothers % = 18.50 % = 26.00 = -7.50 HomeVEE calculated = -0.26 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Working or in job training
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1 year Teen mothers sample 234 mothers % = 16.50 % = 18.50 = -2.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.08 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Working or in job training
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Teen mothers sample 194 mothers % = 26.60 % = 29.00 = -2.40 HomeVEE calculated = -0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Baby’s father living in the household

Percentage of fathers who lived in the same household as the study’s focal child Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Married

Percentage of mothers who were married Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Receiving AFDC at assessment

Percentage of households that received AFDC Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Teen mother was only adult in the household

Percentage of households in which the mother was the only adult Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Working or in job training

Percentage of mothers who were working or in job training Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Parents as First Teachers (New Zealand)
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
Attained additional educational qualifications since birth of child
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Dunedin 207 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.23 Unadjusted % = 0.30 Mean difference = -0.07 HomeVEE calculated = -0.22 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Elley-Irving Socio-Economic Index
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Not available Not available Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Family composition
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Not available Not available Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Family means of transport
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Not available Not available Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Family owns car
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.88 Unadjusted % = 0.90 Mean difference = -0.02 HomeVEE calculated = -0.12 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Family Strains Questionnaire, Sum of strains
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 206 mothers Unadjusted mean = 10.92 Unadjusted mean = 9.97 Mean difference = 0.95 HomeVEE calculated = 0.12 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote169

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors report that significantly more program group families reported experiencing increased strain on family money for medical expenses, clothes, food, etc., but, after applying the Bonferroni inequality, this difference was no longer significant.

Family Stressors Questionnaire, Sum of stressors
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 206 mothers Unadjusted mean = 15.42 Unadjusted mean = 14.54 Mean difference = 0.88 HomeVEE calculated = 0.10 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Family type
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Not available Not available Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Father in paid employment
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.85 Unadjusted % = 0.84 Mean difference = 0.01 HomeVEE calculated = 0.05 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Held a community services card
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.39 Unadjusted % = 0.42 Mean difference = -0.03 HomeVEE calculated = -0.08 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
In a "married" relationship
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.80 Unadjusted % = 0.87 Mean difference = -0.07 HomeVEE calculated = -0.31 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Language use in the home
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Not available Not available Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Live-in partner
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.86 Unadjusted % = 0.87 Mean difference = -0.01 HomeVEE calculated = -0.05 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Mother working in full-time position
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.35 Unadjusted % = 0.53 Mean difference = -0.18 HomeVEE calculated = -0.45 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Secondary
Mother working in paid employment
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.64 Unadjusted % = 0.56 Mean difference = 0.08 HomeVEE calculated = 0.20 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Number of hours father figure employed per week
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Not available Not available Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Receiving government support
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.42 Unadjusted % = 0.39 Mean difference = 0.03 HomeVEE calculated = 0.08 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Solo parenting
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.20 Unadjusted % = 0.13 Mean difference = 0.07 HomeVEE calculated = 0.31 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Subjective perception of income level
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 207 mothers Not available Not available Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Type of accomodation
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Not available Not available Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
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