Parents as Teachers (PAT)® Meets HHS Criteria

Last updated: October 2019

Effects Shown in Research & Outcome Measure Details

Child Development and School Readiness

Outcomes Rated High

Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
BSID Mental Development Index (in normal range)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 184 children % = 67.60 % = 69.60 = -2.00 Study reported = -0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
BSID Mental Development Index (mean)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 184 children Mean = 91.00 Mean = 92.20 Mean difference = -1.20 Study reported = -0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
BSID Physical Development Index (in normal range)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 184 children % = 85.70 % = 79.80 = 5.90 Study reported = 0.16 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
BSID Physical Development Index (mean)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 184 children Mean = 99.80 Mean = 98.40 Mean difference = 1.40 Study reported = 0.12 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII Cognitive Development Scale (at or above chronological age)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 375 children % = 68.60 % = 67.70 = 0.90 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII Cognitive Development Scale (at or above chronological age)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 363 children % = 44.80 % = 41.20 = 3.60 Study reported = 0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII Cognitive Development Scale (mean months differential)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 375 children Mean = 1.80 Mean = 1.80 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII Cognitive Development Scale (mean months differential)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 363 children Mean = -0.50 Mean = -1.10 Mean difference = 0.60 Study reported = 0.10 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII Communication Development Scale (at or above chronological age)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 375 children % = 82.70 % = 74.80 = 7.90 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, HomVEE calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The HomVEE tests of statistical significance are based on the HomVEE calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

DPII Communication Development Scale (at or above chronological age)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 363 children % = 78.60 % = 77.10 = 1.50 Study reported = 0.03 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII Communication Development Scale (mean months differential)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 375 children Mean = 4.30 Mean = 4.40 Mean difference = -0.10 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII Communication Development Scale (mean months differential)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 363 children Mean = 5.40 Mean = 5.30 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII Physical Development Scale (at or above chronological age)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 375 children % = 86.40 % = 85.20 = 1.20 Study reported = 0.03 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII Physical Development Scale (at or above chronological age)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 363 children % = 78.10 % = 79.10 = -1.00 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII Physical Development Scale (mean months differential)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 375 children Mean = 4.60 Mean = 4.60 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII Physical Development Scale (mean months differential)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 363 children Mean = 3.90 Mean = 3.70 Mean difference = 0.20 Study reported = 0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII Self-Help Development Scale (at or above chronological age)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 375 children % = 96.40 % = 95.50 = 0.90 Study reported = 0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII Self-Help Development Scale (at or above chronological age)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 363 children % = 92.90 % = 90.80 = 2.10 Study reported = 0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII Self-Help Development Scale (mean months differential)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 375 children Mean = 7.30 Mean = 7.40 Mean difference = -0.10 Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII Self-Help Development Scale (mean months differential)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 363 children Mean = 13.00 Mean = 10.80 Mean difference = 2.20 Study reported = 0.25 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Primary
DPII Social Development Scale (at or above chronological age)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 375 children % = 91.60 % = 93.20 = -1.60 Study reported = 0.06 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII Social Development Scale (at or above chronological age)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 363 children % = 83.30 % = 73.90 = 9.40 Study reported = 0.23 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, HomVEE calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The HomVEE tests of statistical significance are based on the HomVEE calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

DPII Social Development Scale (mean months differential)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 375 children Mean = 4.70 Mean = 5.80 Mean difference = -1.10 Study reported = -0.24 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Primary
DPII Social Development Scale (mean months differential)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 363 children Mean = 7.40 Mean = 5.90 Mean difference = 1.50 Study reported = 0.17 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
PPVT ator above chronological age
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 320 children % = 50.00 % = 49.20 = 0.80 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
PPVT mean months differential
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 320 children Mean = 0.30 Mean = -0.20 Mean difference = 0.50 Study reported = 0.06 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

BSID:

  • Physical Development Index
  • Mental Development Index
The BSID tests the mental, motor, and behavioral development and abilities of young children. The researchers examined both the mental development and physical development scales. The scores were presented as (1) average scores, and (2) the proportion of the sample that were within the normal range (scores of 86 or above). Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

DPII:

  • Physical Development Scale
  • Cognitive Development Scale
  • Communication Development Scale
  • Self-Help Development Scale
  • Social Development Scale
The subscales of the DPII assess the physical, communication, self-help, social, and cognitive development of young children. The scores were presented as (1) the difference in months between a child’s chronological age and the age that corresponds to the skill level assessed, and (2) the proportion of the sample assessed as at or above their chronological age in the area assessed. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

DPII:

  • Physical Development Scale
  • Cognitive Development Scale
  • Communication Development Scale
  • Self-Help Development Scale
  • Social Development Scale
The subscales of the DPII assess the physical, communication, self-help, social, and cognitive development of young children. The scores were presented as (1) the difference in months between a child’s chronological age and the age that corresponds to the skill level assessed, and (2) the proportion of the sample assessed as at or above their chronological age in the area assessed. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

PPVT

The PPVT assesses receptive language in young children. Scores were presented as (1) the number of months difference between the chronological age of the child and his/her receptive language developmental age, and (2) the proportion of the sample assessed as at or above their chronological age. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary
Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
BSID Behavioral Rating Scale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
24 month Ohio sample 354 children Mean = 109.63 Mean = 109.20 Mean difference = 0.43 Study reported = 0.06 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.56
Primary

footnote74

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

<abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> reversed the sign of this effect size because the treatment group mean was less than the control group mean.

BSID Mental Development Scale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
24 month Ohio sample 344 children Mean = 96.97 Mean = 97.75 Mean difference = -0.78 Study reported = -0.05 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.67
Primary

footnote74

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

<abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> reversed the sign of this effect size because the treatment group mean was less than the control group mean.

BSID, Behavioral Rating Scale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
36 month Ohio sample 342 children Mean = 111.84 Mean = 113.48 Mean difference = -1.64 Study reported = -0.14 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.20
Primary

footnote74

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

<abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> reversed the sign of this effect size because the treatment group mean was less than the control group mean.

CBRS, Engagement Score
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
24 month Ohio sample 336 children Mean = 2.81 Mean = 2.98 Mean difference = -0.17 Study reported = -0.17 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.11
Primary

footnote65

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Information on outcomes was received through communication with the authors.

,

footnote74

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

<abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> reversed the sign of this effect size because the treatment group mean was less than the control group mean.

CBRS, Negative Affect Score
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
24 month Ohio sample 336 children Mean = 4.93 Mean = 4.93 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.97
Primary

footnote65

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Information on outcomes was received through communication with the authors.

CBRS, Positive Affect Score
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
24 month Ohio sample 336 children Mean = 2.43 Mean = 2.44 Mean difference = -0.01 Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.96
Primary

footnote65

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Information on outcomes was received through communication with the authors.

,

footnote74

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

<abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> reversed the sign of this effect size because the treatment group mean was less than the control group mean.

CBRS: Involvement Score
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
24 month Ohio sample 330 children Mean = 4.13 Mean = 4.18 Mean difference = -0.05 Study reported = -0.05 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.73
Primary

footnote65

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Information on outcomes was received through communication with the authors.

,

footnote74

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

<abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> reversed the sign of this effect size because the treatment group mean was less than the control group mean.

KABC Simultaneous Processing Standard Score
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
36 month Ohio sample 331 children Mean = 107.77 Mean = 109.29 Mean difference = -1.52 Study reported = -0.11 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.30
Primary
SSRS Parent Report
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
36 month Ohio sample 336 children Mean = 103.07 Mean = 100.37 Mean difference = 2.70 Study reported = 0.18 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.09
Primary
TERA-2
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
36 month Ohio sample 333 children Mean = 106.12 Mean = 105.58 Mean difference = 0.54 Study reported = 0.04 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.72
Primary
Bracken Basic Concept Scale composite
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
36 month Ohio sample 336 children Mean = 113.47 Mean = 112.23 Mean difference = 1.24 Study reported = 0.07 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.51
Primary
Mastery Motivation – Task Competence
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
36 month Ohio sample 319 children Mean = 847.98 Mean = 841.74 Mean difference = 6.24 Study reported = 0.20 Statistically significant,
p = 0.05
Primary
Mastery Motivation – Task Persistence
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
36 month Ohio sample 318 children Mean = 17.30 Mean = 16.49 Mean difference = 0.81 Study reported = 0.20 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.07
Primary
Mastery Motivation – Task Pleasure
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
36 month Ohio sample 319 children Mean = 0.51 Mean = 0.52 Mean difference = -0.01 Study reported = -0.03 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.71
Primary

footnote74

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

<abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> reversed the sign of this effect size because the treatment group mean was less than the control group mean.

Q-Sort Security of Attachment
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
18 month Ohio sample 364 children Mean = 34.43 Mean = 35.46 Mean difference = -1.03 Study reported = -0.05 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.64
Primary

footnote65

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Information on outcomes was received through communication with the authors.

,

footnote74

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

<abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> reversed the sign of this effect size because the treatment group mean was less than the control group mean.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

BSID:

  • Mental Development Scale
  • Behavioral Rating Scale
The BSID tests the mental, motor, and behavioral development and abilities of young children. The researchers examined both the mental development and behavioral subscales. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

BBCS-R

The BBCS-R assesses knowledge of basic concepts and receptive language skills in young children. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

CBRS:

  • Engagement score
  • Positive Affect score
  • Negative Affect score,
  • Involvement score
The CBRS assesses behavioral problems in young children. The researchers examined scores related to engagement, involvement, and positive and negative affect. Observation

Interrater reliability = 0.81 to 0.90

Primary

KABC: Simultaneous Processing Standard score

The KABC assesses achievement and intelligence in young children. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

SSRS

The SSRS assesses social skills, academic competence, and problem behaviors in young children. Parent/caregiver and teacher report

Not reported by author

Primary

TERA-2

The TERA-2 assesses early reading skills in young children. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

Attachment Q-Sort scale

The Attachment Q-Sort assesses security of attachment and dependency in young children. Observation

Interrater reliability = 0.90

Primary

Mastery Motivation – Task Persistence, Task Pleasure, Task Competence

Children were introduced to various toys and were evaluated based upon persistence, pleasure, and competence in problem solving for up to 4 minutes. Observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78 to 0.91

Primary

Outcomes Rated Moderate

Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Achievement-Kaufman ABC
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
4-5 years Binghamton, NY 24 children Unadjusted mean = 97.00 Unadjusted mean = 94.00 Mean difference = 3.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.25 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Achievement-Kaufman ABC, % Below 90
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
4-5 years Binghamton, NY 24 children Unadjusted mean = 0.25 Unadjusted mean = 0.20 Mean difference = 0.05 HomeVEE calculated = 0.17 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Fine Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
4-5 years Binghamton, NY 40 children Unadjusted mean = 0.30 Unadjusted mean = 0.50 Mean difference = -0.20 HomeVEE calculated = -0.30 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Fine Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test, % Below Age Level
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
4-5 years Binghamton, NY 40 children Unadjusted mean = 0.25 Unadjusted mean = 0.40 Mean difference = -0.15 HomeVEE calculated = -0.41 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Gross Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
4-5 years Binghamton, NY 40 children Unadjusted mean = 0.10 Unadjusted mean = 0.90 Mean difference = -0.80 HomeVEE calculated = -0.77 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary
Gross Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test, % Below Age Level
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
4-5 years Binghamton, NY 40 children Unadjusted mean = 0.10 Unadjusted mean = 0.45 Mean difference = -0.35 HomeVEE calculated = 1.05 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary
Language Acquisition Quotient-Zimmerman Preschool Language Scale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
4-5 years Binghamton, NY 40 children Unadjusted mean = 107.00 Unadjusted mean = 100.00 Mean difference = 7.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.57 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary
Language Acquisition Quotient-Zimmerman Preschool Language Scale, % Below Age Level
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
4-5 years Binghamton, NY 40 children Unadjusted mean = 0.30 Unadjusted mean = 0.65 Mean difference = -0.35 HomeVEE calculated = -0.80 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary
Mental Processing-Kaufman ABC
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
4-5 years Binghamton, NY 24 children Unadjusted mean = 102.00 Unadjusted mean = 94.00 Mean difference = 8.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.62 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Mental Processing-Kaufman ABC, % Below 90
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
4-5 years Binghamton, NY 24 children Unadjusted mean = 0.05 Unadjusted mean = 0.25 Mean difference = -0.20 HomeVEE calculated = -1.27 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Achievement-Kaufman ABC

Mean score on achievement portion of Kaufman Assessment Battery for children (K- ABC) Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary

Achievement-Kaufman ABC, % Below 90

Percentage of children who scored below 90 on achievement portion of Kaufman Assessment Battery for children (K- ABC) Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary

Fine Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test

Mean number of fine motor delays (definite delays) and cautions (questionable delays) on the Denver Developmental Screening Test Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary

Fine Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test, % Below Age Level

Percentage of children who scored below age level for fine motor delays (definite delays) and cautions (questionable delays) on the Denver Developmental Screening Test Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary

Gross Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test

Mean number of gross motor delays (definite delays) and cautions (questionable delays) on the Denver Developmental Screening Test Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary

Gross Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test, % Below Age Level

Percentage of children who scored below age level for gross motor delays (definite delays) and cautions (questionable delays) on the Denver Developmental Screening Test Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary

Language Acquisition Quotient-Zimmerman Preschool Language Scale

Mean language age quotient on Zimmerman Preschool Language Scale, calculated by comparing the child's language development with his/her chronical age to measure language development. Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary

Language Acquisition Quotient-Zimmerman Preschool Language Scale, % Below Age Level

Percentage of children whose language age quotient was below 100 on the Zimmerman Preschool Language Scale, indicating their language development was below their cronical age. Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary

Mental Processing-Kaufman ABC

Mean score on mental processing portion of Kaufman Assessment Battery for children (K- ABC) Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary

Mental Processing-Kaufman ABC, % Below 90

Percentage of children who scored below 90 on mental processing portion of Kaufman Assessment Battery for children (K- ABC) Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary
Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
DPII average months differential: cognitive development
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 266 children Mean = 2.20 Mean = 2.40 Mean difference = -0.20 Study reported = -0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII average months differential: communication development
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 266 children Mean = 4.90 Mean = 4.50 Mean difference = 0.40 Study reported = 0.08 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII average months differential: physical development
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 266 children Mean = 2.90 Mean = 3.00 Mean difference = -0.10 Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII average months differential: self-help development
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 266 children Mean = 6.10 Mean = 6.00 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII average months differential: social development
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 266 children Mean = 4.90 Mean = 4.90 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
ASBI score
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 259 children Mean = 72.30 Mean = 70.80 Mean difference = 1.50 Study reported = 0.21 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

DPII:

  • Physical Development Scale
  • Cognitive Development Scale
  • Communication Development Scale
  • Self-Help Development Scale
  • Social Development Scale
The subscales of the DPII assess the physical, communication, self-help, social, and cognitive development of young children. The scores were presented as the difference in months between a child’s chronological age and the age that corresponds to the skill level assessed. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

ASBI: Total score

The ASBI assesses the social development and prosocial/antisocial behaviors of young children. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary
Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
DPII average months differential: cognitive development
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1 year Teen mothers sample 236 children Mean = 3.90 Mean = 3.60 Mean difference = 0.30 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII average months differential: cognitive development
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Teen mothers sample 196 children Mean = 2.60 Mean = 2.20 Mean difference = 0.40 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII average months differential: communication development
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1 year Teen mothers sample 236 children Mean = 2.60 Mean = 2.30 Mean difference = 0.30 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII average months differential: communication development
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Teen mothers sample 196 children Mean = 3.50 Mean = 3.20 Mean difference = 0.30 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII average months differential: physical development
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1 year Teen mothers sample 236 children Mean = 3.60 Mean = 3.80 Mean difference = -0.20 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII average months differential: physical development
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Teen mothers sample 196 children Mean = 5.60 Mean = 5.60 Mean difference = 0.00 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII average months differential: self-help
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1 year Teen mothers sample 236 children Mean = 2.70 Mean = 2.60 Mean difference = 0.10 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII average months differential: self-help
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Teen mothers sample 196 children Mean = 9.00 Mean = 9.40 Mean difference = -0.40 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII average months differential: social development
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1 year Teen mothers sample 236 children Mean = 6.10 Mean = 6.60 Mean difference = -0.50 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII average months differential: social development
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Teen mothers sample 196 children Mean = 7.80 Mean = 6.80 Mean difference = 1.00 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

DPII:

  • Physical Development Scale
  • Cognitive Development Scale
  • Communication Development Scale
  • Self-Help Development Scale
  • Social Development Scale
The subscales of the DPII assess the physical, communication, self-help, social, and cognitive development of young children. The scores were presented as the difference in months between a child’s chronological age and the age that corresponds to the skill level assessed. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary
Parents as First Teachers (New Zealand)
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Age in months when child first walked 6 steps unaided
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 206 mothers Unadjusted mean = 12.90 Unadjusted mean = 12.37 Mean difference = 0.53 HomeVEE calculated = 0.24 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Behaviour Checklist
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Not available Not available Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Denver II Assessment, Fine Motor Delay
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 206 mothers Not available Not available Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Denver II Assessment, Gross Motor Delay
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 206 mothers Not available Not available Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Denver II Assessment, Language Delay
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 206 mothers Not available Not available Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Denver II Assessment, Personal Social Items
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 206 mothers Not available Not available Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Mental Processing Composite
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 158 mothers Unadjusted mean = 59.44 Unadjusted mean = 60.34 Mean difference = -0.90 HomeVEE calculated = -0.09 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Sequential Processing
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 158 mothers Unadjusted mean = 22.14 Unadjusted mean = 23.00 Mean difference = -0.86 HomeVEE calculated = -0.16 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Parents as First Teachers (New Zealand)
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Positive child behaviors - imaginative play episode, attending to help
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Whangarei 163 mothers Unadjusted mean = 2.00 Unadjusted mean = 2.45 Mean difference = -0.45 HomeVEE calculated = -0.13 Not statistically significant, p = 0.41 Secondary
Positive child behaviors - imaginative play episode, using information
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Whangarei 163 mothers Unadjusted mean = 1.99 Unadjusted mean = 2.18 Mean difference = -0.19 HomeVEE calculated = -0.09 Not statistically significant, p = 0.58 Secondary
Positive child behaviors - problem solving task, total
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Whangarei 129 mothers Unadjusted mean = 12.09 Unadjusted mean = 11.31 Mean difference = 0.78 HomeVEE calculated = 0.11 Not statistically significant, p = 0.52 Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Bureau of Indian Affairs’ Baby Family and Child Education Program (Baby FACE)
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes

Boehm Test of Basic Concepts -3 Preschool, Total Score

FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect

3 years

RCT: BabyFACE vs. comparision

67 families Adjusted mean = 26.84 Adjusted mean = 23.86 MD = 2.98 = 0.34

Not statistically significant, p = 0.09

Primary

Boehm Test of Basic Concepts-3 Preschool - Total Score

FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect

3 years

RCT: BabyFACE vs. comparision

67 families Not reported Not reported Not reported Not available

Not statistically significant, p=0.050

Primary

Although authors do not report the effect size, they indicate the finding is significant and favorable. Covariates included child's birth, household poverty, intergenerational living arrangement, and frequency of English spoken to children.

Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA) - Attachment

FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect

2 years

RCT: BabyFACE vs. comparision

66 families Adjusted mean = 26.63 Adjusted mean = 26.47 MD = 0.16 = 0.07

Not statistically significant, p = 0.69

Primary

Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA) - Attachment

FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect

3 years

RCT: BabyFACE vs. comparision

68 families Adjusted mean = 26.37 Adjusted mean = 25.90 MD = 0.47 = 0.15

Not statistically significant, p = 0.26

Primary

Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA) - Behavioral concerns

FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect

2 years

RCT: BabyFACE vs. comparision

66 families Adjusted mean = 11.06 Adjusted mean = 11.83 MD = -0.77 = -0.19

Not statistically significant, p = 0.22

Primary

Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA) - Behavioral concerns

FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect

3 years

RCT: BabyFACE vs. comparision

68 families Not reported Not reported Not reported Not available

Statistically significant, p = 0.03

Primary

Although authors do not report the effect size, they indicate the finding is significant and favorable. Covariates included child's birth, household poverty, intergenerational living arrangement, and frequency of English spoken to children.

Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA) - Behavioral concerns

FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect

3 years

RCT: BabyFACE vs. comparision

68 families Adjusted mean = 10.73 Adjusted mean = 13.00 MD = -2.27 = -0.47

Not statistically significant, p = 0.56

Primary

Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA) - Initiative

FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect

2 years

RCT: BabyFACE vs. comparision

66 families Adjusted mean = 32.03 Adjusted mean = 30.37 MD = 1.66 = 0.27

Not statistically significant, p = 0.56

Primary

Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA) - Initiative

FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect

3 years

RCT: BabyFACE vs. comparision

68 families Adjusted mean = 32.35 Adjusted mean = 30.58 MD = 1.77 = 1.04

Not statistically significant, p = 0.19

Primary

Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA) - Self-control

FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect

2 years

RCT: BabyFACE vs. comparision

66 families Adjusted mean = 20.26 Adjusted mean = 20.53 MD = -0.27 = -0.38

Not statistically significant, p = 0.82

Primary

Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA) - Self-control

FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect

3 years

RCT: BabyFACE vs. comparision

68 families Adjusted mean = 20.42 Adjusted mean = 20.00 MD = 0.42 = 0.10

Not statistically significant, p = 0.35

Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Boehm Test of Basic Concepts-3

Assesses 26 basic concepts relevant to children ages 3 to 5

Child assessment

Internal consistency and test reliability range from .85 to .92.

Primary
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