Parents as Teachers (PAT)® Meets HHS Criteria

Last updated: October 2019

In Brief

Evidence of Model Effectiveness

This model meets the criteria established by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) for an “evidence-based early childhood home visiting service delivery model” for the general population, but does not meet the criteria for tribal populations.

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Model Description

The goal of the Parents as Teachers (PAT) model is to provide parents with child development knowledge and parenting support, provide early detection of developmental delays and health issues, prevent child abuse and neglect, and increase children’s school readiness. The Parents as Teachers model includes one-on-one home visits, monthly group meetings, developmental screenings, and linkages and connections for families to needed resources. Parent educators conduct the home visits using structured visit plans and guided planning tools. Local sites offer at least 12 hour-long home visits annually with more offered to higher-need families. Parents as Teachers serves families for at least two years between pregnancy and kindergarten. Parents as Teachers affiliate programs select the target population they plan to serve and the program duration. For more information, please read the Model Overview.

This report also includes a review of two adaptations to Parents as Teachers: (1) Parents as First Teachers (PAFT-New Zealand) and (2) Baby Family and Child Education (Baby FACE). The New Zealand Ministry of Social Development’s Family and Community Services created the PAFT adaptation of Parents as Teachers to specifically meet the needs of their indigenous populations. As of 2016, implementation support is no longer available for PAFT (New Zealand). Baby FACE is implemented in the continental United States and serves high-need American Indian families by integrating Native language and culture into the model.

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Extent of Evidence

Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Results of Research and Review
Number of studies
Eligible for review
30
Rated high
2
Rated moderate
3
Rated low
21
Additional source1
4
PAT Parents as First Teachers (New Zealand)
Results of Research and Review
Number of studies
Eligible for review
5
Rated high
0
Rated moderate
2
Rated low
3
Additional source1
0
Bureau of Indian Affairs’ Baby Family and Child Education Program (Baby FACE)
Results of Research and Review
Number of studies
Eligible for review
3
Rated high
0
Rated moderate
1
Rated low
1
Additional source1
1

For more information, see the study database. For more information on the criteria used to determine the study ratings, please read Producing Study Ratings.

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Summary of Findings

Please read Describing Effects for more information on these categories. Only results from studies that meet the standards for the high or moderate ratings are included above.

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Criteria Established by the Department of Health and Human Services

Information Based on Comprehensive Review of All High- and Moderate-Impact Studies for this Model
Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
High- or moderate-quality impact study?
Yes
Across high- or moderate-quality studies, favorable impacts in at least two outcome domains within one sample OR the same domain for at least two non-overlapping samples?
Yes
Favorable impacts on full sample?
Yes
Any favorable impacts on outcome measures sustained at least 12 months after model enrollment?1
Yes
One or more favorable, statistically significant impact reported in a peer-reviewed journal?1
Yes
PAT Parents as First Teachers (New Zealand)
High- or moderate-quality impact study?
Yes
Across high- or moderate-quality studies, favorable impacts in at least two outcome domains within one sample OR the same domain for at least two non-overlapping samples?
No
Favorable impacts on full sample?
No
Any favorable impacts on outcome measures sustained at least 12 months after model enrollment?1
No
One or more favorable, statistically significant impact reported in a peer-reviewed journal?1
No
Bureau of Indian Affairs’ Baby Family and Child Education Program (Baby FACE)
High- or moderate-quality impact study?
Yes
Across high- or moderate-quality studies, favorable impacts in at least two outcome domains within one sample OR the same domain for at least two non-overlapping samples?
Yes
Favorable impacts on full sample?
Yes
Any favorable impacts on outcome measures sustained at least 12 months after model enrollment?1
Yes
One or more favorable, statistically significant impact reported in a peer-reviewed journal?1
No

Please read the HHS Criteria for Evidence-Based Models for more information.

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