Parents as Teachers (PAT)® Meets HHS Criteria

Last updated: 2019

Effects shown in research & outcome measure details

Positive parenting practices

Findings rated high

Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
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KIDI

The KIDI measures the parent’s knowledge of childrearing practices and developmental processes. The researchers measured the percentage of items that were answered correctly on the 57-item assessment. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

PSOC Scale: Total score, Parenting satisfaction subscale, Parenting efficacy subscale

The PSOC measures parent attitudes and self-efficacy. The researchers examined the total score and two subscale scores regarding parental, efficacy and satisfaction. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

HOME:

  • Total score
  • Parental responsivity subscale
  • Acceptance of child’s behavior subscale
  • Organization of the environment subscale
  • Appropriate play materials subscale
  • Involvement with child subscale
  • Opportunities for stimulation subscale
  • Parental responsivity subscale
  • Language- and literacy-promoting behaviors
  • Mother-child interaction
  • Discipline
The HOME assesses parenting practices and aspects of the home environment. The researchers examined the total score, as well as the following subscales: acceptance of child’s behavior, opportunity for stimulation, organization of the environment, parental involvement, parental responsivity, appropriate play materials, language promoting behaviors, mother-child interaction, and discipline. Parent/caregiver interview and observational assessment

Not reported by author

Findings rated moderate

Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
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Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance
While doing everyday things parent reads aloud to child
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 266 mothers Mean = 3.10 Mean = 2.90 Mean difference = 0.20 Study reported = 0.20 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
While doing everyday things parent talks to/asks child questions
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 343 mothers Mean = 3.30 Mean = 3.20 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 0.09 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
While doing everyday things parent talks to/asks child questions
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 266 mothers Mean = 3.30 Mean = 3.40 Mean difference = -0.10 Study reported = -0.09 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
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KIDI:

  • All items
  • General child development
  • Language/cognitive development
  • Emotional development
  • Discipline
  • Child care and safety
The KIDI measures the parent’s knowledge of childrearing practices and developmental processes. In addition to the total score, the researchers examined subscales about general child development, language/cognitive development, emotional development, and discipline. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

NCAST: Total score

The NCAST assesses the quality of teaching interaction between caregivers and young children. Mothers were assessed while introducing a new toy to their child. Areas of assessment included cue-giving and responsiveness to cues of both the parents and children. Observation

Not reported by author

PSOC: Total score, Parenting efficacy, Satisfaction

The PSOC measures parent attitudes and self-efficacy. The researchers analyzed the total score and scores on the two subscales: parent satisfaction and parent efficacy. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

AAPI: Average CMPS score

The CMPS from the AAPI assesses attitudes toward disciplining children that have been shown to, correlate with later abusive behaviors toward them. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

HOME:

  • Language- and literacy-promoting behaviors
  • Total score
  • Parental responsivity
  • Acceptance of child’s behavior
  • Organization of the environment
  • Appropriate play materials
  • Involvement
  • Opportunities for stimulation
The HOME assesses parenting practices and aspects of the home environment. The researchers examined the total score, as well as subscales related to parental responsivity, acceptance of child's behavior, provision of appropriate play materials,, organization of the child’s environment, parental involvement with children, and the opportunities provided for daily stimulation. Parent/caregiver interview and observational assessment

Not reported by author

Language, literacy, numeracy promotion scale

  • While doing everyday things, parent talks to/asks child questions
  • While doing everyday things, parent reads aloud to child
  • While doing everyday things, parent counts things or uses numbers with child
  • Parent tells stories, sings with child
  • Parent reads books with child
  • Parent talks to/asks child questions during reading
A 6-item measure of direct parent-child verbal interactions that encourage children’s language development, literacy, and numeracy. Each question was answered on a 4-point scale, with 4 being the most positive response. An overall scale was formed by summing the values on these six items. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Parent Observation Scale

A scale of parent observations skills ranging from 1 to 4, with 4 being the most observant Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
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HOME:

  • Total score
  • Parental responsivity subscale
  • Acceptance of child’s behavior subscale
  • Appropriate play materials subscale
  • Organization of the environment subscale
  • Involvement with child subscale
  • Opportunities for stimulation subscale
The HOME assesses parenting practices and aspects of the home environment. The researchers examined the total score, as well as subscales related to parental responsivity, acceptance of child's behavior, provision of appropriate play materials, organization of the child’s environment, parental involvement with children, and the opportunities provided for daily stimulation. Parent/caregiver interview and observational assessment

Not reported by author

PAT Parents as First Teachers (New Zealand)
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HOME Questionnaire, Overall

The Home Observation forMeasurement of theEnvironment (HOME)Questionnaire was designed to rate family interaction/reactionary behaviors and non-interactive behaviors, especially between the main caregiver and the child.

Observational Assessment

Not reported by authors

Parental Concerns, Disruption of plans

Number/percentage of parents who reported caring for their child had disrupted their personal plans

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Parental Concerns, Disruption of relationship with partner

Number/percentage of parents who reported caring for their child had disrupted their relationship with their partner

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Parental Concerns, Significant Concern

Number/percentage of parents who had a significant concern about caring for their child

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Parental Concerns, Social Concern

Number/percentage of parents who had a social concern about caring for their child

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Parents as Teachers Questionnaire, Overall

The Parents as Teachers Questionnaire was designed to assess parental knowledge of child health and development.

Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by authors

Total number of activities

Mean total number of activities children experienced at home within six months prior to the parental interview

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Total number of experiences

Mean total number of children's experiences out of the home

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Video Session, Parent-Child Interaction

Parent-child interactions were video recorded and scored by researchers.

Videotaped observation

Not reported by authors

PAT Parents as First Teachers (New Zealand)
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Positive caregiver behaviors - imaginative play episode, responding to child

Mean number of times caregiver responded to their child's initiative during interactive play

Videotaped observation

Not applicable

Bureau of Indian Affairs’ Baby Family and Child Education Program (Baby FACE)
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Frequency of home literacy activity

A list of 14 literacy activities rated on a 5-point scale from rarely/never to daily/several times a day

Parent report

Cronbach's alpha is .88

Hours parent reads to child, RCT

Hours read to child

Parent report

Not applicable

Protective Factors Survey - Nurturing and Attachment

The Protective Factors Survey is a self-administered survey with five subscales: family functioning/resiliency, social support, concrete support, nurturing and attachment, and child development knowledge.

Parent report

Cronbach's alpha is .78

Protective Factors Survey - Parent's Child Development Knowledge

The Protective Factors Survey is a self-administered survey with five subscales: family functioning/resiliency, social support, concrete support, nurturing and attachment, and child development knowledge.

Parent report

Cronbach's alpha is .69

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