ParentChild+® Core Model

Last updated: 2019

Effects shown in research & outcome measure details

Positive parenting practices

Findings rated high

ParentChild+® Core Model
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Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance
Parent as a Teacher Inventory (PAAT) - Total
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months ParentChild+ vs. comparison, northeastern U.S., Study 2 full sample 144 parents Not reported Not reported Not reported = 0.08 Not statistically significant, p = 0.64
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Parent as a Teacher Inventory (PAAT) - Total

A 50-item questionnaire assessing parents' expectation of their child and attitudes about appropriate behavior.

Parent questionnaire

Cronbach's alpha = 0.60 and 0.70

ParentChild+® Core Model
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Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance
Maternal Interactive Behavior
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Post-program 1973 – 1976 cohorts 114 mothers Mean = 282.38 Mean = 185.95 Mean difference = 96.43 HomeVEE calculated = 0.96 Statistically significant, p < 0.05
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Maternal Interactive Behavior

Frequencies of occurrence of 10 categories of behavior were tallied in four viewings of videotaped parent-child interaction. The categories were: labeling, use of color names, verbalization of actions, verbalization of number and shape, solicitation of information from the child, verbal praise, encouragement of divergent use of a toy, nonverbal indication of warmth, reply to child's vocalization, and failure to reply to child's vocalization.

Video recording of parent-child interaction

Pearson's r = 0.48 to 0.74 Cronbach's α = 0.82

Findings rated moderate

ParentChild+® Core Model
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Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
Parent as a Teacher Total (PAAT) (unadjusted)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months ParentChild+ vs. comparison, northeastern U.S., Study 2 full sample 150 parents Unadjusted mean = 137.71 Unadjusted mean = 136.97 MD = 0.74 HomeVEE calculated = 0.09 Not statistically significant, p = 0.58
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Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties Operations links

Parent as a Teacher Total (PAAT) (unadjusted)

A 50-item questionnaire assessing parents' expectation of their child and attitudes about appropriate behavior.

Parent questionnaire

Cronbach's alpha = 0.60 and 0.70

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