ParentChild+® Core Model

Last updated: May 2019

Model Overview

Theoretical Model

Building on the socio-cultural theory of Vygotsky, Bruner’s theory of language symbolism, research on the importance of play for toddlers, and attachment theory, the ParentChild+ Core Model focuses on increasing positive parent-child verbal and non-verbal interaction and building positive parenting skills. Increasing these interactions and skills is designed to promote children’s social-emotional and cognitive development, including the development of early literacy and language skills, such as receptive and expressive language.

Home visitors work to develop a strong relationship with and become trusted advisors to the families. They aim to empower parents to support their children’s learning. Rather than directly instructing parents, they model interactions with the child and reinforce learning through intensive services.

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Model Components

The ParentChild+ Core Model includes (1) twice-weekly home visits that must always include the primary caregiver (the primary caregiver is most often a parent but may also be a grandparent or other relative or foster parent) and may also include additional adult caregivers and siblings; (2) once a week distribution of books and educational toys to create a library in the family’s home; (3) referrals/connections to other social supports and educational services for the program child and other family members; and (4) assistance with transition to the next educational step for the program child.

During home visits, visitors facilitate and model playful verbal interactions between parents and children using the social-emotional and cognitive curriculum. Home visitors are encouraged to model verbal interactions such as providing information (for example, “This is a circle” and “That’s the yellow school bus”); eliciting information (for example, “Where is the yellow school bus going?”); and verbalizing social interaction (for example, inviting participation, taking turns, or following the parent’s and child’s lead).

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Target Population

The ParentChild+ Core Model serves families with multiple risk factors when the children are 2 and 3 years old. The model is designed for families with the following risk factors: low income, low levels of education, geographic isolation, teen parent and single-parent households, immigrant or refugee status, and literacy and/or language barriers.

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Where to Find Out More

The ParentChild+ National Center
163B Mineola Boulevard
Mineola, NY 11501
Phone: 516-883-7480
Website: http://www.parentchildplus.org

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Effects Shown in Research & Outcome Measure Details

Summary of Findings

Please read Describing Effects for more information on these categories. Only results from studies that meet the standards for the high or moderate ratings are included above.

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Child Development and School Readiness

Outcomes Rated High

ParentChild+® Core Model
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
Day Night Task
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months ParentChild+ vs. comparison, northeastern U.S., Study 2 full sample 136 children Not reported Not reported Not reported = 0.18 Not statistically significant, p = 0.29 Primary
Preschool Language Scale Fourth Edition (PLS-4) - Auditory
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months ParentChild+ vs. comparison, northeastern U.S., Study 2 full sample 133 children Not reported Not reported Not reported = 0.38 Statistically significant, p = 0.03 Primary
Preschool Language Scale Fourth Edition (PLS-4) - Total
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months ParentChild+ vs. comparison, northeastern U.S., Study 2 full sample 127 children Not reported Not reported Not reported = 0.37 Statistically significant, p = 0.04 Primary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Day Night Task

A measure of self-regulation and effortful control, child is shown a card with a day or night sky and asked to select opposite response of card shown. Children can earn 0-3 points per trial, and total score ranges from 0-30 for 10 trials.

Observed task

Not reported

Primary

Preschool Language Scale Fourth Edition (PLS-4) - Auditory

The PLS-4 is individually administered to assess language competence in children from birth to 6 years. The auditory comprehension subscale includes 48 items.

Standardized test

Internal reliability (r) = 0.86

Primary

Preschool Language Scale Fourth Edition (PLS-4) - Total

The PLS-4 is individually administered to assess language competence in children from birth to 6 years.

Standardized test

Internal reliability (r) = 0.93

Primary
ParentChild+® Core Model
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Day Night Task (adjusted)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months ParentChild+ vs. comparison, northeastern U.S., Study 2 full sample 147 children Not reported Not reported Not reported Study reported = 0.23 Not statistically significant, p = 0.16 Primary

footnote449

Submitted by nwu on Fri, 04/12/2019 - 18:30

Effect size is a Cohen's d.

Tower Clean Up Task Duration (adjusted)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months ParentChild+ vs. comparison, northeastern U.S., Study 2 full sample 126 children Not reported Not reported Not reported = 0.08 Not statistically significant, p = 0.67 Primary

footnote449

Submitted by nwu on Fri, 04/12/2019 - 18:30

Effect size is a Cohen's d.

Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Day Night Task (adjusted)

A measure of self-regulation and effortful control, child is shown a card with a day or night sky and asked to select opposite response of card shown. Children can earn 0-3 points per trial, and total score ranges from 0-30 for 10 trials.

Observed task

Not reported

Primary

Preschool Language Scale Fourth Edition (PLS-4) - Auditory (adjusted)

The PLS-4 is individually administered to assess language competence in children from birth to 6 years. The auditory comprehension subscale includes 48 items.

Standardized test

Internal reliability (r) = 0.86

Primary

Preschool Language Scale Fourth Edition (PLS-4) - Total (adjusted)

The PLS-4 is individually administered to assess language competence in children from birth to 6 years.

Standardized test

Internal reliability (r) = 0.93

Primary

Tower Clean Up Task Duration (adjusted)

A measure of child compliance, child is asked to put 18 blocks into a bag and timed, with a goal of completion within two minutes.

Observed task

Not reported

Primary
ParentChild+® Core Model
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
PPVT
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Post-program 1973 – 1975 cohorts 111 children Mean = 91.60 Mean = 91.28 Mean difference = 0.32 HomeVEE calculated = 0.05 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
PPVT
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Post-program 1973 – 1974 cohorts 82 children Mean = 89.48 Mean = 90.36 MD = -0.88 HomeVEE calculated = -0.06 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Stanford-Binet
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Post-program 1973 – 1976 cohorts 166 children Mean = 104.05 Mean = 103.54 Mean difference = 0.51 HomeVEE calculated = 0.04 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

PPVT

ThePPVT assesses receptive vocabulary for Standard American English and verbal ability in young children.

Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

Stanford-Binet

The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales assess intelligence and cognitive ability in areas including verbal reasoning, quantitative reasoning, abstract and visual reasoning, and short-term memory.

Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

Outcomes Rated Moderate

ParentChild+® Core Model
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social-Emotional (ASQ: SE) (unadjusted)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months ParentChild+ vs. comparison, northeastern U.S., Study 2 full sample 112 children Unadjusted mean = -0.11 Unadjusted mean = 0.00 MD = -0.11 = -0.11 Not statistically significant, p = 0.56 Primary
Day Night Task (unadjusted)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months ParentChild+ vs. comparison, northeastern U.S., Study 2 full sample 149 children Unadjusted mean = 12.16 Unadjusted mean = 10.58 MD = 1.58 HomeVEE calculated = 0.18 Not statistically significant, p = 0.29 Primary
Preschool Language Scale Fourth Edition (PLS-4) - Auditory (unadjusted)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months ParentChild+ vs. comparison, northeastern U.S., Study 2 full sample 144 children Unadjusted mean = 95.27 Unadjusted mean = 91.80 MD = 3.47 HomeVEE calculated = 0.29 Not statistically significant, p = 0.09 Primary
Preschool Language Scale Fourth Edition (PLS-4) - Expressive (unadjusted)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months ParentChild+ vs. comparison, northeastern U.S., Study 2 full sample 144 children Unadjusted mean = 98.39 Unadjusted mean = 95.13 MD = 3.26 = 0.21 Not statistically significant, p = 0.21 Primary
Preschool Language Scale Fourth Edition (PLS-4) - Total (unadjusted)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months ParentChild+ vs. comparison, northeastern U.S., Study 2 full sample 141 children Unadjusted mean = 96.89 Unadjusted mean = 92.46 MD = 4.43 HomeVEE calculated = 0.32 Not statistically significant, p = 0.06 Primary
Tower Clean Up Task Duration (unadjusted)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months ParentChild+ vs. comparison, northeastern U.S., Study 2 full sample 127 children Unadjusted mean = 57.66 Unadjusted mean = 51.89 MD = 5.77 HomeVEE calculated = 0.20 Not statistically significant, p = 0.27 Primary
Tower Clean Up Task Time to Start (unadjusted)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months ParentChild+ vs. comparison, northeastern U.S., Study 2 full sample 142 children Unadjusted mean = 14.92 Unadjusted mean = 14.62 MD = 0.30 = 0.01 Not statistically significant, p = 0.95 Primary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social-Emotional (ASQ: SE) (unadjusted)

A 30-item assessment for children aged 30 to 65 months. Measured domains include self-regulation, compliance, communication, adaptive functioning, autonomy, affect, and interaction with people.

Parent report

Cronbach's alpha = 0.78 (36-month) and 0.80 (48 month)

Primary

Day Night Task (unadjusted)

A measure of self-regulation and effortful control, child is shown a card with a day or night sky and asked to select opposite response of card shown. Children can earn 0-3 points per trial, and total score ranges from 0-30 for 10 trials.

Observed task

Not reported

Primary

Preschool Language Scale Fourth Edition (PLS-4) - Auditory (unadjusted)

The PLS-4 is individually administered to assess language competence in children from birth to 6 years. The auditory comprehension subscale includes 48 items.

Standardized test

Internal reliability (r) = 0.86

Primary

Preschool Language Scale Fourth Edition (PLS-4) - Expressive (unadjusted)

The PLS-4 is individually administered to assess language competence in children from birth to 6 years. The expressive communication subscale includes 48 items.

Standardized test

Internal reliability (r) = 0.91

Primary

Preschool Language Scale Fourth Edition (PLS-4) - Total (unadjusted)

The PLS-4 is individually administered to assess language competence in children from birth to 6 years.

Standardized test

Internal reliability (r) = 0.93

Primary

Tower Clean Up Task Duration (unadjusted)

A measure of child compliance, child is asked to put 18 blocks into a bag and timed, with a goal of completion within two minutes.

Observed task

Not reported

Primary

Tower Clean Up Task Time to Start (unadjusted)

A measure of child compliance, child is asked to put 18 blocks into a bag and timed.

Observed task

Not reported

Primary
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Positive Parenting Practices

Outcomes Rated High

ParentChild+® Core Model
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
Parent as a Teacher Inventory (PAAT) - Total
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months ParentChild+ vs. comparison, northeastern U.S., Study 2 full sample 144 parents Not reported Not reported Not reported = 0.08 Not statistically significant, p = 0.64 Secondary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Parent as a Teacher Inventory (PAAT) - Total

A 50-item questionnaire assessing parents' expectation of their child and attitudes about appropriate behavior.

Parent questionnaire

Cronbach's alpha = 0.60 and 0.70

Secondary
ParentChild+® Core Model
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
Maternal Interactive Behavior
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Post-program 1973 – 1976 cohorts 114 mothers Mean = 282.38 Mean = 185.95 Mean difference = 96.43 HomeVEE calculated = 0.96 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Maternal Interactive Behavior

Frequencies of occurrence of 10 categories of behavior were tallied in four viewings of videotaped parent-child interaction. The categories were: labeling, use of color names, verbalization of actions, verbalization of number and shape, solicitation of information from the child, verbal praise, encouragement of divergent use of a toy, nonverbal indication of warmth, reply to child's vocalization, and failure to reply to child's vocalization.

Video recording of parent-child interaction

Pearson's r = 0.48 to 0.74 Cronbach's α = 0.82

Primary

Outcomes Rated Moderate

ParentChild+® Core Model
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Parent as a Teacher Total (PAAT) (unadjusted)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months ParentChild+ vs. comparison, northeastern U.S., Study 2 full sample 150 parents Unadjusted mean = 137.71 Unadjusted mean = 136.97 MD = 0.74 HomeVEE calculated = 0.09 Not statistically significant, p = 0.58 Secondary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Parent as a Teacher Total (PAAT) (unadjusted)

A 50-item questionnaire assessing parents' expectation of their child and attitudes about appropriate behavior.

Parent questionnaire

Cronbach's alpha = 0.60 and 0.70

Secondary
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In Brief

Evidence of Model Effectiveness

This model does not meet the criteria established by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) for an “evidence-based early childhood home visiting service delivery model” for the general population or for tribal populations because the findings from high- or moderate-rated effectiveness studies of the model do not meet all required criteria.

Note: This model has favorable effects in two different outcome domains, but these effects were not found in the same study sample as required by HHS criteria. The model also has two favorable effects in the same outcome domain, but these effects were not found in separate study samples as required by HHS criteria. Therefore, the model does not meet HHS criteria for evidence-based models.

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Model Description

ParentChild+ (formerly the Parent-Child Home Program) focuses on promoting children’s social-emotional development and cognitive competencies by increasing and enhancing the quantity and quality of caregiver-child verbal and non-verbal interaction. ParentChild+ can be used one-on-one with parents and with family child care providers responsible for group care. The HomVEE review is based on the ParentChild+ Core Model, the version of ParentChild+ used with parents in the home. The ParentChild+ Core Model is designed for families with 2- to 3-year-old children and a variety of risk factors—such as parents with low levels of education and teen mothers. Families participate in 92 home visits over 46 weeks. The 46-week program is divided into two cycles of twice weekly visits over 23 weeks each to provide program sites flexibility in terms of how they implement the entire 46 weeks of programming. Home visitors model behaviors for enhancing children’s development, rather than directly instructing parents, and provide books, toys, and activities for parents to use with their children. Home visitors also provide referrals to social supports and educational services. For more information, please read the Model Overview

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Extent of Evidence

Results of Research and Review
Number of studies
Eligible for review
16
Rated high
3
Rated moderate
0
Rated low
9
Additional source1
4

For more information, see the study database. For more information on the criteria used to determine the study ratings, please read Producing Study Ratings.

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Summary of Findings

Please read Describing Effects for more information on these categories. Only results from studies that meet the standards for the high or moderate ratings are included above.

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Criteria Established by the Department of Health and Human Services

Information Based on Comprehensive Review of All High- and Moderate-Impact Studies for this Model
High- or moderate-quality impact study?
Yes
Across high- or moderate-quality studies, favorable impacts in at least two outcome domains within one sample OR the same domain for at least two non-overlapping samples?
No
Favorable impacts on full sample?
Yes
Any favorable impacts on outcome measures sustained at least 12 months after model enrollment?1
Yes
One or more favorable, statistically significant impact reported in a peer-reviewed journal?1
Yes

Please read the HHS Criteria for Evidence-Based Models for more information.

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