Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)® Meets HHS Criteria

Last updated: 2019

Effects shown in research & outcome measure details

Family economic self-sufficiency

Findings rated high

Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)®
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Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance
Economically productive
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
19-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and comparison (Elmira) 231 children % (adjusted) = 71.00 Adjusted mean % = 68.00 Difference = 0.03 HomeVEE calculated = 0.09 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Economically productive
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
19-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 219 children %(adjusted) = 73.00 Adjusted mean % = 68.00 Difference = 0.04 HomeVEE calculated = 0.13 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Ever used AFDC
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
19-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and comparison (Elmira) 231 children % (adjusted) = 3.00 Adjusted mean % = 2.00 Difference = 0.01 HomeVEE calculated = 0.26 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Ever used AFDC
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
19-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 219 children %(adjusted) = 6.00 Adjusted mean % = 2.00 Difference = 0.04 HomeVEE calculated = -0.68 Statistically significant, p < 0.05
Ever used food stamps
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
19-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and comparison (Elmira) 231 children %(adjusted) = 6.00 Adjusted mean % = 6.00 Difference = 0.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.02 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Ever used food stamps
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
19-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 219 children %(adjusted) = 7.00 Adjusted mean % = 6.00 Difference = 0.01 HomeVEE calculated = 0.06 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Ever used Medicaid
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
19-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and comparison (Elmira) 231 children %(adjusted) = 11.00 Adjusted mean % = 12.00 Difference = -0.01 HomeVEE calculated = -0.06 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Ever used Medicaid
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
19-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 219 children %(adjusted) = 20.00 Adjusted mean % = 12.00 Difference = 0.07 HomeVEE calculated = 0.34 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
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Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties Operations links

Economically productive

Percentage of youth engaging in economically productive activities such as whether the youth was in school, the military, or job training or working full time at the time of the interview Adolescent report

Not applicable

Ever used AFDC

Percentage of youth that had received AFDC Adolescent report

Not applicable

Ever used food stamps

Percentage of youth that had received food stamps Adolescent report

Not applicable

Ever used Medicaid

Percentage of youth that had received Medicaid Adolescent report

Not applicable

Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)®
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Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
Employed during pregnancy
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36th week of pregnancy Full (Memphis) 916 mothers % (adjusted) = 6.00 Adjusted mean % = 3.00 OR = 2.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.44 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05

footnote3

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors report the difference in this outcome to be statistically significant, p < 0.10, which is greater than the acceptable alpha for this review (&alpha; = 0.05).

In school during pregnancy
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36th week of pregnancy Full (Memphis) 916 mothers % (adjusted) = 44.00 Adjusted mean % = 41.00 OR = 1.20 HomeVEE calculated = 0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

Months on AFDC , 13–24 months postpartum
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 years postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 671 mothers Adjusted mean = 7.80 Adjusted mean = 8.40 Mean difference = -0.60 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05

footnote3

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors report the difference in this outcome to be statistically significant, p < 0.10, which is greater than the acceptable alpha for this review (&alpha; = 0.05).

Months on AFDC , 0–12 months postpartum
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 years postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 681 mothers Adjusted mean = 7.30 Adjusted mean = 7.60 Mean difference = -0.30 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Months worked, 0–12 months postpartum
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 years postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 681 mothers Adjusted mean = 2.20 Adjusted mean = 1.70 Mean difference = 0.50 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Months worked, 13–24 months postpartum
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 years postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 671 mothers Adjusted mean = 3.40 Adjusted mean = 3.40 Mean difference = 0.00 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Used other community services
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36th week of pregnancy Full (Memphis) 916 mothers % (adjusted) = 29.00 Adjusted mean % = 20.00 OR = 1.80 HomeVEE calculated = 0.30 Statistically significant,
p ≤ 0.01

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

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Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties Operations links

Employed during pregnancy

Percentage of women who were employed at 28 weeks gestation Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

In school during pregnancy

Percentage of women who were enrolled in school at 28 weeks gestation Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Months on AFDC

Counts of the number of months the mother received AFDC Review of Tennessee Department of Human Services records

Not applicable

Months worked

Counts of the number of months the mother was employed Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Used other community services

Percentage of women who used other community services at 28 weeks’ gestation Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)®
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Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance
Current socioeconomic status (percentile ranked by U.S. occupational codes)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 646 mothers Adjusted mean = 15.62 Adjusted mean = 13.73 Mean difference = 1.89 Not available Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
Highest education level
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 646 mothers Adjusted mean = 11.61 Adjusted mean = 11.67 Mean difference = -0.06 Not available Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
Number of months mother or child received AFDC (0–60 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 646 mothers Adjusted mean = 32.55 Adjusted mean = 36.19 Mean difference = -3.64 Not available Statistically significant,
p ≤ 0.01
Number of months mother or child received food stamps (0–60 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 646 mothers Adjusted mean = 41.57 Adjusted mean = 45.04 Mean difference = -3.47 Not available Statistically significant,
p ≤ 0.01
Number of months received WIC (0–54 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 646 mothers Adjusted mean = 21.51 Adjusted mean = 23.33 Mean difference = -1.82 Not available Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
Number of months received Medicaid (0–54 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 646 mothers Adjusted mean = 39.59 Adjusted mean = 41.08 Mean difference = -1.49 Not available Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
Number of months worked (0–54 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 646 mothers Adjusted mean = 19.89 Adjusted mean = 18.84 Mean difference = 1.05 Not available Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
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Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties Operations links

Current SES

Percentile rank of the mother’s occupation estimated by calculating percentile rank for each occupation using Census categories and the median income and educational achievement associated with each occupation Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Highest education level

The highest year of school the mother had completed Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Number of months mother or child received AFDC

Counts of the number of months the mother received AFDC Review of Tennessee Department of Human Services records

Not applicable

Number of months mother or child received food stamps

Counts of the number of months the mother received food stamps. The outcome was measured for the period of 0 to 60 months postpartum. Review of Tennessee Department of Human Services records

Not applicable

Number of months received WIC

Counts of the number of months the mother received WIC Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Number of months received Medicaid

Counts of the number of months the mother received Medicaid Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Number of months worked

Counts of the number of months the mother was employed Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)®
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Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance
Number of nutritional supplementation vouchers
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
32 weeks Full (Elmira) 288 mothers Mean = 2.18 Mean = 1.56 Mean difference = 0.62 Not available Statistically significant,
p ≤ 0.05
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Number of nutritional supplementation vouchers

The number of WIC vouchers the family received

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)®
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Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance
Time employed, in months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
10 to 12 years Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and development screening comparison (Memphis) 594 mothers Adjusted mean = 7.10 Adjusted mean = 7.77 Mean difference = -0.67 HomeVEE calculated = -2.62 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Time employed, in months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 to 12 years Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and development screening comparison (Memphis) 594 mothers Adjusted mean = 4.50 Adjusted mean = 4.64 Mean difference = -0.14 HomeVEE calculated = -0.99 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Use of AFDC-TANF
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
0 to 12 years Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and development screening comparison (Memphis 594 mothers Adjusted mean = 4.97 Adjusted mean = 5.47 Mean difference = -0.50 HomeVEE calculated = -3.03 Statistically significant, p < .05
Use of AFDC-TANF
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
10 to 12 years Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and development screening comparison (Memphis) 594 mothers Adjusted mean = 3.75 Adjusted mean = 3.97 Mean difference = -0.22 HomeVEE calculated = -13.10 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Use of food stamps
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
0 to 12 years Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and development screening comparison (Memphis) 594 mothers Adjusted mean = 6.27 Adjusted mean = 6.86 Mean difference = -0.59 HomeVEE calculated = -3.90 Statistically significant, p < .05
Use of food stamps
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
10 to 12 years Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and development screening comparison (Memphis) 594 mothers Adjusted mean = 4.46 Adjusted mean = 5.06 Mean difference = -0.60 HomeVEE calculated = -2.65 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Use of Medicaid
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
0 to 12 years Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and development screening comparison (Memphis) 594 mothers Adjusted mean = 8.08 Adjusted mean = 8.39 Mean difference = -0.31 HomeVEE calculated = -1.88 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Use of Medicaid
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
10 to 12 years Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and development screening comparison (Memphis) 594 mothers Adjusted mean = 6.02 Adjusted mean = 6.23 Mean difference = -0.21 HomeVEE calculated = -0.81 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
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Time employed, in months

Count of the number of months the mother was employed from child age 2 to 12 years Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable 

Use of AFDC-TANF

Count of the number of months per year the mother Aid to Families with Dependent Children and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families from birth through child age 12 years Review of state records supplemented by parent/caregiver report

Not applicable 

Use of food stamps

Count of the number of months per year the mother received food stamps from birth through child age 12 years Review of state records supplemented by parent/caregiver report

Not applicable 

Use of Medicaid

Count of the number of months per year the mother received Medicaid from birth through age child age 12 years Review of state records supplemented by parent/caregiver report

Not applicable 

Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)®
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
SES of current job (mother)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 641 mothers Adjusted mean = 14.01 Adjusted mean = 13.06 Mean difference = 0.95 Study reported = 0.05 Not statistically significant, p = 0.56
Months mother employed (54–72 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 641 mothers Adjusted mean = 9.96 Adjusted mean = 9.99 Mean difference = -0.03 Study reported = 0.00 Not statistically significant, p = 0.97
Months of AFDC (54–72 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 641 mothers Adjusted mean = 7.21 Adjusted mean = 8.96 Mean difference = -1.75 Study reported = -0.22 Statistically significant, p = 0.01
Months of food stamps (54–72 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 641 mothers Adjusted mean = 9.67 Adjusted mean = 11.50 Mean difference = -1.83 Study reported = -0.24 Statistically significant, p < 0.01
Months of Medicaid, (54–72 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 641 mothers Adjusted mean = 11.98 Adjusted mean = 13.08 Mean difference = -1.10 Study reported = -0.15 Not statistically significant, p = 0.08
Mother graduated from high school/earned GED (percentage)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 641 mothers % (adjusted) = 69.00 Adjusted mean % = 66.00 OR = 1.12 Study reported = 0.07 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.54

footnote2

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

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Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties Operations links

SES of current job

Percentile rank of the mother’s occupation estimated by calculating percentile rank for each occupation using Census categories and the median income and educational achievement associated with each occupation Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Months mother employed

Counts of the number of months the mother was employed Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Months on AFDC

Counts of the number of months the mother received AFDC Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Months on food stamps

Counts of the number of months the mother received food stamps Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Months on Medicaid

Counts of the number of months the mother received Medicaid Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Mother graduated from high school/earned GED

Percentage of mothers who had earned a high school diploma or GED Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)®
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Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance
Number of months employed per year (2–9 years postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
9-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 3.84 Adjusted mean = 3.86 Mean difference = -0.02 Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.93
Number of months employed per year (6–9 years postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
9-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 6.86 Adjusted mean = 7.39 Mean difference = -0.53 Study reported = -0.15 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.13
Number of months on /TANF per year (0–9 years postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
9-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 5.21 Adjusted mean = 5.92 Mean difference = -0.71 Study reported = -0.14 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01
Number of months on TANF(6–9 years postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
9-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 3.39 Adjusted mean = 4.01 Mean difference = -0.62 Study reported = -0.12 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.12
Number of months on food stamps per year (0–9 years postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
9-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 6.98 Adjusted mean = 7.80 Mean difference = -0.82 Study reported = -0.17 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01
Number of months on food stamps per year (6–9 years postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
9-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 4.89 Adjusted mean = 5.92 Mean difference = -1.03 Study reported = -0.21 Statistically significant,
p = 0.02
Number of months on Medicaid per year (0–9 years postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
9-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 9.71 Adjusted mean = 10.07 Mean difference = -0.36 Study reported = -0.09 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.12
Number of months on Medicaid per year (6–9 years postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
9-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 8.79 Adjusted mean = 8.74 Mean difference = 0.05 Study reported = 0.01 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.89
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Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties Operations links

Number of months employed per year

Counts of the number of months the mother was employed per year Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Number of months on AFDC/TANF per year

Counts of the number of months per year the mother received AFDC or TANF Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Number of months on food stamps per year

Counts of the number of months per year the mother received food stamps Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Number of months on Medicaid per year

Counts of the number of months per year the mother received Medicaid Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Number of months with current partner

Counts of the number of months the mother had been in a relationship with her current partner Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)®
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Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance
Educational achievement (years)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
21 months Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 427 mothers Adjusted mean = 11.51 Adjusted mean = 11.51 Mean difference = 0.00 Not available Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
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Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties Operations links

Educational achievement

The highest year of school the mother had completed

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)®
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance
Graduated from high school or earned GED
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-year follow-up Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 424 mothers = 0.80 = 0.76 OR = 1.26 HomeVEE calculated = 0.14 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.35
Months mother employed (25–48 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-year follow-up Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 424 mothers Adjusted mean = 14.42 Adjusted mean = 13.38 Mean difference = 1.04 Study reported = 0.04 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.22
Months of AFDC (25–48 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-year follow-up Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 424 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.88 Adjusted mean = 2.10 Mean difference = -0.22 Study reported = 0.01 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.69
Months of food stamps (25–48 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-year follow-up Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 424 mothers Adjusted mean = 4.32 Adjusted mean = 3.98 Mean difference = 0.34 Study reported = 0.07 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.67
Months of Medicaid (25–48 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-year follow-up Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 424 mothers Adjusted mean = 7.34 Adjusted mean = 6.98 Mean difference = 0.36 Study reported = -0.03 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.71
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Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties Operations links

Graduated from high school or earned GED

Percentage of mothers who had earned a high school diploma or GED

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Months mother employed (25–48 months postpartum)

Counts of the number of months the mother was employed Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Months on AFDC (25–48 months postpartum)

Counts of the number of months the mother received AFDC

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Months on food stamps (25–48 months postpartum)

Counts of the number of months the mother received food stamps

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Months on Medicaid (25–48 months postpartum)

Counts of the number of months the mother received Medicaid Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)®
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance
Months employed
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
15-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 227 mothers Adjusted mean = 87.50 Adjusted mean = 89.70 Mean difference = -2.20 Not available Statistical significance not reported
Months employed
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
15-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 245 mothers Adjusted mean = 96.40 Adjusted mean = 89.70 Mean difference = 6.70 Not available Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
Months receiving AFDC
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
15-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 227 mothers Adjusted mean = 70.20 Adjusted mean = 65.90 Mean difference = 4.30 Not available Statistical significance not reported
Months receiving AFDC
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
15-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 245 mothers Adjusted mean = 52.80 Adjusted mean = 65.90 Mean difference = -13.10 Not available Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
Months receiving food stamps
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
15-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 227 mothers Adjusted mean = 62.00 Adjusted mean = 56.40 Mean difference = 5.60 Not available Statistical significance not reported
Months receiving food stamps
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
15-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy, and comparison (Elmira) 245 mothers Adjusted mean = 47.90 Adjusted mean = 56.40 Mean difference = -8.50 Not available Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
Months receiving Medicaid
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
15-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 227 mothers Adjusted mean = 71.10 Adjusted mean = 70.00 Mean difference = 1.10 Not available Statistical significance not reported
Months receiving Medicaid
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
15-year follow-up Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 245 mothers Adjusted mean = 61.80 Adjusted mean = 70.00 Mean difference = -8.20 Not available Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
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Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties Operations links

Months employed

Counts of the number of months the mother was employed between the child’s birth and 15th year of life Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Months receiving AFDC

Counts of the number of months the mother received AFDC between the child’s birth and 15th year of life Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Months receiving food stamps

Counts of the number of months the mother received food stamps between the child’s birth and 15th year of life Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Months receiving Medicaid

Counts of the number of months the mother received Medicaid between the child’s birth and 15th year of life Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)®
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance
Concern about finding work
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
10 months postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 195 mothers Adjusted mean = 2.43 Adjusted mean = 2.17 Mean difference = 0.26 Not available Statistical significance not reported
Concern about finding work
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
10 months postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 202 mothers Adjusted mean = 2.38 Adjusted mean = 2.17 Mean difference = 0.21 Not available Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
Concern about finding work
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
22 months postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 192 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.97 Adjusted mean = 1.92 Mean difference = 0.05 Not available Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
Concern about finding work
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
22 months postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 183 mothers Adjusted mean = 2.24 Adjusted mean = 1.92 Mean difference = 0.32 Not available Statistical significance not reported
Help with child care
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
10 months postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 197 mothers Adjusted mean = 2.77 Adjusted mean = 2.64 Mean difference = 0.13 Not available Statistical significance not reported
Help with child care
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
10 months postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 204 mothers Adjusted mean = 2.76 Adjusted mean = 2.64 Mean difference = 0.12 Not available Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
Help with child care
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
22 months postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 189 mothers Adjusted mean = 2.94 Adjusted mean = 2.76 Mean difference = 0.18 Not available Statistical significance not reported
Help with child care
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
22 months postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 197 mothers Adjusted mean = 2.83 Adjusted mean = 2.76 Mean difference = 0.07 Not available Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
Help with child care
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
46 months postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 167 mothers Adjusted mean = 2.97 Adjusted mean = 3.00 Mean difference = -0.03 Not available Statistical significance not reported
Help with child care
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
46 months postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 183 mothers Adjusted mean = 3.18 Adjusted mean = 3.00 Mean difference = 0.18 Not available Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
Number of days on public assistance (0–22 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
22 months postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 185 mothers Adjusted mean = 268.00 Adjusted mean = 244.00 Mean difference = 24.00 Not available Statistical significance not reported
Number of days on public assistance (0–22 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
22 months postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 194 mothers Adjusted mean = 236.00 Adjusted mean = 244.00 Mean difference = -8.00 Not available Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
Number of days on public assistance (0–48 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
48 months postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 196 mothers Adjusted mean = 510.00 Adjusted mean = 530.00 Mean difference = -20.00 Not available Statistical significance not reported
Number of days on public assistance (0–48 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
48 months postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 208 mothers Adjusted mean = 437.00 Adjusted mean = 530.00 Mean difference = -93.00 Not available Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
Number of months employed (0–22 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
22 months postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 194 mothers Adjusted mean = 6.15 Adjusted mean = 5.89 Mean difference = 0.26 Not available Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
Number of months employed (0–22 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
22 months postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 185 mothers Adjusted mean = 7.57 Adjusted mean = 5.89 Mean difference = 1.68 Not available Statistical significance not reported
Number of months employed (0–46 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
46 months postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 196 mothers Adjusted mean = 17.01 Adjusted mean = 12.65 Mean difference = 4.36 Not available Statistical significance not reported
Number of months employed (0–46 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
46 months postpartum Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 208 mothers Adjusted mean = 15.18 Adjusted mean = 12.65 Mean difference = 2.53 Not available Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
Show outcome measure summary
Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties Operations links

Concern about finding work

Likert scale with a range of 1 to 4 indicating frequency of worrying about finding work Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Help with child care

Scale ranging from 1 to 4 based on average frequency of help with specific child care tasks (e.g., diaper changing, dressing, toilet training, feeding, playing) provided by other family members and friends Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Number of days on public assistance

Counts of the number of days the mother was on public assistance Review of county records for mothers that were at-risk or reported use of public assistance and had not moved out of the county during the period. Otherwise, parent/caregiver report was used.

Not applicable

Number of months employed

Counts of the number of months the mother was employed Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

NFP with Paraprofessional Home Visitors
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance
Educational achievement (years)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
21 months Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 440 mothers Adjusted mean = 11.62 Adjusted mean = 11.51 Mean difference = 0.11 Not available Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
Months employed (1–12 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
12 months Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 425 mothers Adjusted mean = 4.21 Adjusted mean = 3.97 Mean difference = 0.24 Not available Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
Months employed (13–24 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 439 mothers Adjusted mean = 6.14 Adjusted mean = 5.73 Mean difference = 0.41 Not available Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
Months on AFDC (1–12 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
12 months Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 425 mothers Adjusted mean = 2.60 Adjusted mean = 2.35 Mean difference = 0.25 Not available Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
Months on AFDC (13–24 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 439 mothers Adjusted mean = 2.31 Adjusted mean = 1.92 Mean difference = 0.39 Not available Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
Show outcome measure summary
Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties Operations links

Educational achievement

The highest year of school the mother had completed

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Months employed

Counts of the number of months the mother was employed. The outcome was measured for the periods of 1 to 12 months postpartum and 13 to 24 months postpartum.

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Months on AFDC

Counts of the number of months the mother received AFDC. The outcome was measured for the periods of 1 to 12 months postpartum and 13 to 24 months postpartum.

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Findings rated moderate

Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)®
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
Neighborhood Disadvantage index
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
12 years Memphis, TN - Nurse Family Partnership (NFP) 569 mothers Unadjusted mean = 1.54 Unadjusted mean = 1.60 Mean difference = -0.06 Study reported = -0.04 p = 0.78

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Neighborhood Disadvantage index
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
15 years Elmira, NY- Nurse Family Partnership (NFP) 183 mothers Unadjusted mean = 0.48 Unadjusted mean = 0.06 Mean difference = 0.42 Study reported = 0.42 p = 0.03

footnote163

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Positive value is favorable to the comparison group.

Neighborhood Disadvantage index
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months Elmira, NY- Nurse Family Partnership (NFP) 205 mothers Unadjusted mean = 0.32 Unadjusted mean = 0.45 Mean difference = -0.13 Study reported = -0.12 p = 0.54

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Neighborhood Disadvantage index
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months Memphis, TN - Nurse Family Partnership (NFP) 657 mothers Unadjusted mean = 2.30 Unadjusted mean = 2.21 Mean difference = 0.09 Study reported = 0.05 p = 0.7

footnote163

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Positive value is favorable to the comparison group.

Neighborhood Disadvantage index
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4 years Elmira, NY- Nurse Family Partnership (NFP) 214 mothers Unadjusted mean = 0.36 Unadjusted mean = 0.44 Mean difference = -0.08 Study reported = -0.07 p = 0.72

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Neighborhood Disadvantage index
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4 years Denver, CO- Nurse Family Partnership (NFP) 414 mothers Unadjusted mean = 0.10 Unadjusted mean = 0.06 Mean difference = 0.04 Study reported = 0.04 p = 0.72

footnote163

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Positive value is favorable to the comparison group.

Neighborhood Disadvantage index
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
54 months Memphis, TN - Nurse Family Partnership (NFP) 626 mothers Unadjusted mean = 2.40 Unadjusted mean = 2.28 Mean difference = 0.12 Study reported = 0.06 p = 0.63

footnote163

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Positive value is favorable to the comparison group.

Neighborhood Disadvantage index
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6 years Memphis, TN - Nurse Family Partnership (NFP) 627 mothers Unadjusted mean = 1.86 Unadjusted mean = 2.04 Mean difference = -0.18 Study reported = -0.11 p = 0.38

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Neighborhood Disadvantage index
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6 years Denver, CO- Nurse Family Partnership (NFP) 394 mothers Unadjusted mean = -0.01 Unadjusted mean = -0.08 Mean difference = 0.07 Study reported = 0.12 p = 0.34

footnote163

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Positive value is favorable to the comparison group.

Neighborhood Disadvantage index
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
9 years Memphis, TN - Nurse Family Partnership (NFP) 617 mothers Unadjusted mean = 1.93 Unadjusted mean = 1.93 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.00 p = 0.99

footnote163

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Positive value is favorable to the comparison group.

Neighborhood Disadvantage index
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
9 years Denver, CO- Nurse Family Partnership (NFP) 357 mothers Unadjusted mean = -0.15 Unadjusted mean = -0.17 Mean difference = 0.02 Study reported = 0.03 p = 0.84

footnote163

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Positive value is favorable to the comparison group.

Show outcome measure summary
Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)®
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance
Months employed (1–12 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
12 months Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 406 mothers Adjusted mean = 4.35 Adjusted mean = 3.97 Mean difference = 0.38 Not available Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
Months employed (13–24 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 419 mothers Adjusted mean = 6.87 Adjusted mean = 5.73 Mean difference = 1.14 Not available Statistically significant,
p ≤ 0.05
Months on AFDC (1–12 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
12 months Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 406 mothers Adjusted mean = 2.31 Adjusted mean = 2.35 Mean difference = -0.04 Not available Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
Months on AFDC (13–24 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 419 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.95 Adjusted mean = 1.92 Mean difference = 0.03 Not available Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
Show outcome measure summary
Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties Operations links

Months employed

Counts of the number of months the mother was employed Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Months on AFDC

Counts of the number of months the mother received AFDC Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

NFP with Nurse Home Visitors - Mothers with low psychological resources subgroup
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
Neighborhood Disadvantage index
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
12 years Memphis, TN Nurse Family Partnership (NFP) - low psychological resources 308 mothers Unadjusted mean = 2.03 Unadjusted mean = 1.74 Mean difference = 0.29 Study reported = 0.19 p = 0.11

footnote163

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Positive value is favorable to the comparison group.

Neighborhood Disadvantage index
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
15 years Elmira, NYNurseFamily Partnership (NFP) - high risk (unmarried, low SES) 78 mothers Unadjusted mean = 0.57 Unadjusted mean = 0.52 Mean difference = 0.05 Study reported = 0.04 p = 0.86

footnote163

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Positive value is favorable to the comparison group.

Neighborhood Disadvantage index
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months Memphis, TN Nurse Family Partnership (NFP) - low psychological resources 338 mothers Unadjusted mean = 2.48 Unadjusted mean = 2.51 Mean difference = -0.03 Study reported = -0.02 p = 0.88

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Neighborhood Disadvantage index
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4 years Elmira, NYNurseFamily Partnership (NFP) - high risk (unmarried, low SES) 100 mothers Unadjusted mean = 0.83 Unadjusted mean = 0.91 Mean difference = -0.08 Study reported = -0.06 p = 0.79

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Neighborhood Disadvantage index
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4 years Denver, CONurseFamily Partnership (NFP) - low psychological resources 152 mothers Unadjusted mean = 0.18 Unadjusted mean = 0.40 Mean difference = -0.22 Study reported = -0.23 p = 0.16

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Neighborhood Disadvantage index
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
54 months Memphis, TN Nurse Family Partnership (NFP) - low psychological resources 325 mothers Unadjusted mean = 2.52 Unadjusted mean = 2.71 Mean difference = -0.19 Study reported = -0.11 p = 0.35

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Neighborhood Disadvantage index
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6 years Memphis, TN Nurse Family Partnership (NFP) - low psychological resources 332 mothers Unadjusted mean = 2.84 Unadjusted mean = 2.34 Mean difference = 0.50 Study reported = 0.30 p = 0.01

footnote163

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Positive value is favorable to the comparison group.

Show outcome measure summary
Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties Operations links

Neighborhood Disadvantage index

Weighted average of the standardized values for the following percentages within Census tract and block group: (1) households below the federal poverty level (2) persons on public assistance (3) female-headed households with children (4) persons unemployed, and (5) share of population that is black.

U.S. Census Bureau - 1980, 1990, and 2000 censuses

Not reported by authors

Neighborhood Disadvantage index

An average of the standardized values for five elements in each Census tract and block group number: (1) percentage of households below the federal poverty level, (2) percentage of persons on public assistance, (3) percentage of female-headed households with children, (4) percentage of persons unemployed, (5) percentage of population that is black. This average was weighted by intervals between the Censuses when participant assessments were conducted. The weighted scores represent the degree of concentrated disadvantage in the neighborhood in terms of national averages, weighted by intervals to the Census.

Author calculation from public data

Not reported by author

NFP with Paraprofessional Home Visitors
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance
Graduated from high school or earned GED
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-year follow-up Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 431 mothers = 0.82 = 0.76 OR = 1.39 HomeVEE calculated = 0.20 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.18
Months mother employed (25–48 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-year follow-up Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 431 mothers Adjusted mean = 15.13 Adjusted mean = 13.38 Mean difference = 1.75 Study reported = 0.11 Statistically significant,
p = 0.04
Months of AFDC (25–48 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-year follow-up Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 431 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.95 Adjusted mean = 2.10 Mean difference = -0.15 Study reported = -0.19 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.78
Months of food stamps (25–48 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-year follow-up Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 431 mothers Adjusted mean = 4.56 Adjusted mean = 3.98 Mean difference = 0.58 Study reported = 0.21 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.47
Months of Medicaid (25–48 months postpartum)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-year follow-up Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 431 mothers Adjusted mean = 8.08 Adjusted mean = 6.98 Mean difference = 1.10 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.26
Show outcome measure summary
Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties Operations links

Graduated from high school or earned GED

Percentage of mothers who had earned a high school diploma or GED

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Months mother employed (25–48 months postpartum)

Counts of the number of months the mother was employed. The outcome was measured for the period of 25 to 48 months postpartum

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Months on AFDC (25–48 months postpartum)

Counts of the number of months the mother received AFDC. The outcome was measured for the period of 25 to 48 months postpartum

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Months on food stamps (25–48 months postpartum)

Counts of the number of months the mother received food stamps. The outcome was measured for the period of 25 to 48 months postpartum

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Months on Medicaid (25–48 months postpartum)

Counts of the number of months the mother received Medicaid. The outcome was measured for the period of 25 to 48 months postpartum

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

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