Maternal Infant Health Outreach Worker (MIHOW)®

Model effectiveness research report last updated: 2018

Effects shown in research & outcome measure details

Maternal health

Findings rated high

Maternal Infant Health Outreach Worker (MIHOW)®
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
Always receive social and emotional help needed
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 months postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted proportion = 0.89 Unadjusted proportion = 0.67 Mean difference = 0.22 HomeVEE calculated = 0.82 Statistically significant, p = 0.00

footnote388

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Proportions indicate the percentages of women who selected this response to a closed-ended question on frequency of social and emotional support that included seven possible responses. Authors analyzed all seven responses collectively using a mixed effect linear model; we report a <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr>-calculated effect size and p-value associated with the individual response.

Always receive social and emotional help needed
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 weeks postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted proportion = 0.97 Unadjusted proportion = 0.67 Mean difference = 0.29 HomeVEE calculated = 1.60 Statistically significant, p = 0.00

footnote388

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Proportions indicate the percentages of women who selected this response to a closed-ended question on frequency of social and emotional support that included seven possible responses. Authors analyzed all seven responses collectively using a mixed effect linear model; we report a <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr>-calculated effect size and p-value associated with the individual response.

Always receive social and emotional help needed
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6 months postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted proportion = 0.96 Unadjusted proportion = 0.43 Mean difference = 0.53 HomeVEE calculated = 2.04 Statistically significant, p = 0.00

footnote388

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Proportions indicate the percentages of women who selected this response to a closed-ended question on frequency of social and emotional support that included seven possible responses. Authors analyzed all seven responses collectively using a mixed effect linear model; we report a <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr>-calculated effect size and p-value associated with the individual response.

Average number of prenatal visits during pregnancy
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Not reported Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted mean = 9.00 Unadjusted mean = 9.20 Mean difference = -0.20 HomeVEE calculated = -0.09 Not statistically significant, p = 0.48

footnote386

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance is based on the authors&rsquo; analysis using an independent t-test.

Median Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 months postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted median = 0.00 Unadjusted median = 3.00 Median difference = -3.00 Not available Not reported

footnote387

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance is based on the authors&rsquo; analysis using a mixed effect linear model. Negative effect is favorable to the intervention.

Median Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 weeks postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted median = 0.00 Unadjusted median = 5.00 Median difference = -5.00 Not available Not reported

footnote387

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance is based on the authors&rsquo; analysis using a mixed effect linear model. Negative effect is favorable to the intervention.

Median Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6 months postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted median = 0.00 Unadjusted median = 0.00 Median difference = 0.00 Not available Not reported

footnote387

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance is based on the authors&rsquo; analysis using a mixed effect linear model. Negative effect is favorable to the intervention.

Median Parenting Stress Index (PSI) total stress score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 months postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted median = 74.00 Unadjusted median = 76.00 Median difference = -2.00 Not available Statistically significant, p = 0.00

footnote387

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance is based on the authors&rsquo; analysis using a mixed effect linear model. Negative effect is favorable to the intervention.

Median Parenting Stress Index (PSI) total stress score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 weeks postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted median = 74.00 Unadjusted median = 76.00 Median difference = -2.00 Not available Statistically significant, p = 0.00

footnote387

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance is based on the authors&rsquo; analysis using a mixed effect linear model. Negative effect is favorable to the intervention.

Median Parenting Stress Index (PSI) total stress score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6 months postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted median = 74.00 Unadjusted median = 77.00 Median difference = -3.00 Not available Statistically significant, p = <0.001

footnote387

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance is based on the authors&rsquo; analysis using a mixed effect linear model. Negative effect is favorable to the intervention.

Never receive social and emotional help needed
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 months postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted proportion = 0.01 Unadjusted proportion = 0.00 Mean difference = 0.01 HomeVEE calculated = 5.62 Statistically significant, p = 0.00

footnote389

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Proportions indicate the percentages of women who selected this response to a closed-ended question on frequency of social and emotional support that included seven possible responses. Authors analyzed all seven responses collectively using a mixed effect linear model; we report a <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr>-calculated effect size and p-value associated with the individual response. Negative effect size is favorable to the intervention.

Never receive social and emotional help needed
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 weeks postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted proportion = 0.00 Unadjusted proportion = 0.00 Mean difference = 0.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Not statistically significant, p = 1.00

footnote389

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Proportions indicate the percentages of women who selected this response to a closed-ended question on frequency of social and emotional support that included seven possible responses. Authors analyzed all seven responses collectively using a mixed effect linear model; we report a <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr>-calculated effect size and p-value associated with the individual response. Negative effect size is favorable to the intervention.

Never receive social and emotional help needed
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6 months postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted proportion = 0.00 Unadjusted proportion = 0.00 Mean difference = 0.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Not statistically significant, p = 1.00

footnote389

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Proportions indicate the percentages of women who selected this response to a closed-ended question on frequency of social and emotional support that included seven possible responses. Authors analyzed all seven responses collectively using a mixed effect linear model; we report a <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr>-calculated effect size and p-value associated with the individual response. Negative effect size is favorable to the intervention.

Show outcome measure summary
Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties

Always receive social and emotional help needed

Mothers were asked how often they received the social and emotional support needed, with response options being Always, Usually, Sometimes, Rarely, Never, Don't Know, or to refuse to respond. Mother report

Not reported by author

Average number of prenatal visits during pregnancy

Question developed for the MIHOW Program Mother report

Not reported by author

Median Parenting Stress Index (PSI) total stress score

The PSI measures parental distress, parent-child dysfunction interaction, and difficult child. Mother report

Cronbach's alpha of 0.88-0.89

Median score on the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS)

The EPDS measures depressive symptoms using a 10-question structured interview guide. Mother report

Cronbach's alpha of 0.87-0.88

Never receive social and emotional help needed

Mothers were asked how often they received the social and emotional support needed, with response options being Always, Usually, Sometimes, Rarely, Never, Don't Know, or to refuse to respond. Mother report

Not reported by author

Findings rated moderate

Maternal Infant Health Outreach Worker (MIHOW)®
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
Median score on the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Prenatal, at 35 weeks Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted median = 0.00 Unadjusted median = 4.00 Median difference = -4.00 Not available Not reported

footnote387

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance is based on the authors&rsquo; analysis using a mixed effect linear model. Negative effect is favorable to the intervention.

Percentage reporting having received prenatal care
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Not reported Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted mean = 0.99 Unadjusted mean = 0.99 Mean difference = 0.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.05 Not statistically significant, p = 0.96

footnote390

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance is based on the authors’ analysis using a chi-square test of independence.

Show outcome measure summary
Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties

Median score on the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS)

The EPDS measures depressive symptoms using a 10-question structured interview guide. Mother report

Cronbach’s alpha of 0.87-0.88

Percentage reporting having received prenatal care

Question from the Perinatal Risk Assessment Monitory System Survey Mother report

Not reported by author

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