Maternal Infant Health Outreach Worker (MIHOW)®

Last updated: June 2018

Effects Shown in Research & Outcome Measure Details

Maternal Health

Outcomes Rated High

Maternal Infant Health Outreach Worker (MIHOW)®
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
Always receive social and emotional help needed
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 months postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted proportion = 0.89 Unadjusted proportion = 0.67 Mean difference = 0.22 HomeVEE calculated = 0.82 Statistically significant, p = 0.00 Secondary

footnote388

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Proportions indicate the percentages of women who selected this response to a closed-ended question on frequency of social and emotional support that included seven possible responses. Authors analyzed all seven responses collectively using a mixed effect linear model; we report a <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr>-calculated effect size and p-value associated with the individual response.

Always receive social and emotional help needed
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 weeks postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted proportion = 0.97 Unadjusted proportion = 0.67 Mean difference = 0.29 HomeVEE calculated = 1.60 Statistically significant, p = 0.00 Secondary

footnote388

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Proportions indicate the percentages of women who selected this response to a closed-ended question on frequency of social and emotional support that included seven possible responses. Authors analyzed all seven responses collectively using a mixed effect linear model; we report a <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr>-calculated effect size and p-value associated with the individual response.

Always receive social and emotional help needed
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted proportion = 0.96 Unadjusted proportion = 0.43 Mean difference = 0.53 HomeVEE calculated = 2.04 Statistically significant, p = 0.00 Secondary

footnote388

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Proportions indicate the percentages of women who selected this response to a closed-ended question on frequency of social and emotional support that included seven possible responses. Authors analyzed all seven responses collectively using a mixed effect linear model; we report a <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr>-calculated effect size and p-value associated with the individual response.

Average number of prenatal visits during pregnancy
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Not reported Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted mean = 9.00 Unadjusted mean = 9.20 Mean difference = -0.20 HomeVEE calculated = -0.09 Not statistically significant, p = 0.48 Secondary

footnote386

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance is based on the authors&rsquo; analysis using an independent t-test.

Median Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 months postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted median = 0.00 Unadjusted median = 3.00 Median difference = -3.00 Not available Not reported Secondary

footnote387

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance is based on the authors&rsquo; analysis using a mixed effect linear model. Negative effect is favorable to the intervention.

Median Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 weeks postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted median = 0.00 Unadjusted median = 5.00 Median difference = -5.00 Not available Not reported Secondary

footnote387

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance is based on the authors&rsquo; analysis using a mixed effect linear model. Negative effect is favorable to the intervention.

Median Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted median = 0.00 Unadjusted median = 0.00 Median difference = 0.00 Not available Not reported Secondary

footnote387

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance is based on the authors&rsquo; analysis using a mixed effect linear model. Negative effect is favorable to the intervention.

Median Parenting Stress Index (PSI) total stress score
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 months postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted median = 74.00 Unadjusted median = 76.00 Median difference = -2.00 Not available Statistically significant, p = 0.00 Primary

footnote387

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance is based on the authors&rsquo; analysis using a mixed effect linear model. Negative effect is favorable to the intervention.

Median Parenting Stress Index (PSI) total stress score
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 weeks postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted median = 74.00 Unadjusted median = 76.00 Median difference = -2.00 Not available Statistically significant, p = 0.00 Primary

footnote387

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance is based on the authors&rsquo; analysis using a mixed effect linear model. Negative effect is favorable to the intervention.

Median Parenting Stress Index (PSI) total stress score
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted median = 74.00 Unadjusted median = 77.00 Median difference = -3.00 Not available Statistically significant, p = <0.001 Primary

footnote387

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance is based on the authors&rsquo; analysis using a mixed effect linear model. Negative effect is favorable to the intervention.

Never receive social and emotional help needed
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 months postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted proportion = 0.01 Unadjusted proportion = 0.00 Mean difference = 0.01 HomeVEE calculated = 5.62 Statistically significant, p = 0.00 Secondary

footnote389

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Proportions indicate the percentages of women who selected this response to a closed-ended question on frequency of social and emotional support that included seven possible responses. Authors analyzed all seven responses collectively using a mixed effect linear model; we report a <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr>-calculated effect size and p-value associated with the individual response. Negative effect size is favorable to the intervention.

Never receive social and emotional help needed
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 weeks postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted proportion = 0.00 Unadjusted proportion = 0.00 Mean difference = 0.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Not statistically significant, p = 1.00 Secondary

footnote389

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Proportions indicate the percentages of women who selected this response to a closed-ended question on frequency of social and emotional support that included seven possible responses. Authors analyzed all seven responses collectively using a mixed effect linear model; we report a <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr>-calculated effect size and p-value associated with the individual response. Negative effect size is favorable to the intervention.

Never receive social and emotional help needed
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted proportion = 0.00 Unadjusted proportion = 0.00 Mean difference = 0.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Not statistically significant, p = 1.00 Secondary

footnote389

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Proportions indicate the percentages of women who selected this response to a closed-ended question on frequency of social and emotional support that included seven possible responses. Authors analyzed all seven responses collectively using a mixed effect linear model; we report a <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr>-calculated effect size and p-value associated with the individual response. Negative effect size is favorable to the intervention.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Always receive social and emotional help needed

Mothers were asked how often they received the social and emotional support needed, with response options being Always, Usually, Sometimes, Rarely, Never, Don't Know, or to refuse to respond. Mother report

Not reported by author

Secondary

Average number of prenatal visits during pregnancy

Question developed for the MIHOW Program Mother report

Not reported by author

Secondary

Median Parenting Stress Index (PSI) total stress score

The PSI measures parental distress, parent-child dysfunction interaction, and difficult child. Mother report

Cronbach's alpha of 0.88-0.89

Primary

Median score on the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS)

The EPDS measures depressive symptoms using a 10-question structured interview guide. Mother report

Cronbach's alpha of 0.87-0.88

Secondary

Never receive social and emotional help needed

Mothers were asked how often they received the social and emotional support needed, with response options being Always, Usually, Sometimes, Rarely, Never, Don't Know, or to refuse to respond. Mother report

Not reported by author

Secondary

Outcomes Rated Moderate

Maternal Infant Health Outreach Worker (MIHOW)®
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
Median score on the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Prenatal, at 35 weeks Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted median = 0.00 Unadjusted median = 4.00 Median difference = -4.00 Not available Not reported Secondary

footnote387

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance is based on the authors&rsquo; analysis using a mixed effect linear model. Negative effect is favorable to the intervention.

Percentage reporting having received prenatal care
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Not reported Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted mean = 0.99 Unadjusted mean = 0.99 Mean difference = 0.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.05 Not statistically significant, p = 0.96 Secondary

footnote390

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance is based on the authors’ analysis using a chi-square test of independence.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Median score on the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS)

The EPDS measures depressive symptoms using a 10-question structured interview guide. Mother report

Cronbach’s alpha of 0.87-0.88

Secondary

Percentage reporting having received prenatal care

Question from the Perinatal Risk Assessment Monitory System Survey Mother report

Not reported by author

Secondary
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