MOM Program

Last updated: May 2013

Model Overview

Theoretical Model

The MOM Program was developed to address gaps in the use of health services and early intervention services for developmental issues for children under age 5. It was designed to provide professional support to help low-income mothers identify the need for early intervention and access appropriate services for their children.

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Model Components

Until children reach age 3, the MOM Program provides home visits to mothers before planned well-child health care visits to prepare mothers for their appointment. Home visitors, consisting of both nurses and paraprofessional community workers, are not assigned to specific mothers, but instead alternate visiting participants.

Well-child visits are planned according to American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines. During the visits, home visitors:

  • Ask mothers whether they have concerns about their child’s development;
  • Show mothers checklists of age-specific developmental milestones and ask how their child compares;
  • Encourage mothers to ask about their child’s development at the upcoming well-child visit;
  • Discuss expectations for the upcoming well-child visit in terms of procedures and immunizations;
  • Inform mothers of appropriate early education services;
  • Conduct developmental screenings when children are ages 18 and 36 months.

Home visitors also call mothers to remind them of their scheduled well-child appointments. They call again after the scheduled visit to check that the mothers went to their appointment and received all recommended services. If one home visitor encounters persistent nonresponse from a mother, another home visitor takes over. In addition to varying the home visitor attempting communication, home visitors also vary the days and times of contact efforts.

The MOM Program offers two additional visits to mothers of children with developmental delays before they reach 33 months. During these additional visits, home visitors inform mothers about the procedures for enrolling their children in early intervention services and obtaining missing documents, such as their children’s birth certificates.

When children are 36 to 60 months of age, home visits are offered to all mothers to support enrollment in preschool and kindergarten and, when applicable, to facilitate the transition between early intervention and preschool special education services.

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Target Population

The MOM Program is offered to postpartum mothers of healthy infants until their children’s fifth birthdays. Targeted mothers are recruited from an urban academic hospital and reside in high-poverty neighborhoods in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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Where to Find Out More

Jerilynn Radcliffe
The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia
3400 Civic Center Blvd.
CHOP North 1461
Philadelphia, PA 19104
215-590-7446
Radcliffe@email.chop.edu

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Effects Shown in Research & Outcome Measure Details

Summary of Findings

Please read Describing Effects for more information on these categories. Only results from studies that meet the standards for the high or moderate ratings are included above.

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Linkages and Referrals

Outcomes Rated Moderate

MOM Program
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Receipt of early intervention (EI) services
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
33 months Philadelphia sample 287 mothers Percentage = 0.15 Mean % = 0.04 Percentage difference = 0.11 HomeVEE calculated = 0.87 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Secondary
Referral to early intervention (EI)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
33 months Philadelphia sample 287 mothers Percentage = 0.20 Mean % = 0.15 Percentage difference = 0.06 HomeVEE calculated = 0.23 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Secondary
Time to first receipt of early intervention (EI) services
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
33 months Philadelphia sample 287 mothers Not available Not available Not reported Not available Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Secondary
Time to first referral for early intervention (EI) services
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
33 months Philadelphia sample 287 mothers Not available Not available Not reported Not available Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Receipt of early intervention (EI) services

Number of children who received EI services Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Referral to early intervention (EI)

Number of children referred to EI services Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Time to first receipt of early intervention (EI) services

Percentage of children who received EI services at one-month intervals when children were between 0 and 33 months of age Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Time to first referral for early intervention (EI) services

Percentage of children referred to EI services at one-month intervals when children were between 0 and 33 months of age Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
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Child Development and School Readiness

Outcomes Rated Moderate

MOM Program
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Denver Developmental Screening Test-II (DDST-II)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
16 months Philadelphia sample 287 mothers Not available Not available Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition (WPPSI-III), Full Scale IQ
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
33 months Philadelphia sample 271 mothers Mean = 88.44 Mean = 89.53 Mean difference = -1.09 HomeVEE calculated = -0.09 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition (WPPSI-III), Language Score
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
33 months Philadelphia sample 271 mothers Mean = 90.10 Mean = 90.36 Mean difference = -0.26 HomeVEE calculated = -0.02 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition (WPPSI-III), Performance Score
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
33 months Philadelphia sample 271 mothers Mean = 89.38 Mean = 91.18 Mean difference = -1.80 HomeVEE calculated = -0.15 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition (WPPSI-III), Verbal Score
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
33 months Philadelphia sample 271 mothers Mean = 90.33 Mean = 91.02 Mean difference = -0.69 HomeVEE calculated = -0.06 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Denver Developmental Screening Test-II (DDST-II)

Number of children whose scores indicated abnormal development on the DDST-II. DDST-II is designed to measure developmental skill attainment for children from birth to age 6. DDST-II provides overall ratings of normal, borderline, or abnormal development, with abnormal defined as having two or more areas considered borderline or abnormal. Parent/caregiver report

Interrater reliability = 90%; test-retest reliability = 0.75;

Primary

Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition (WPPSI-III), Full Scale IQ

Mean full scale IQ score on the WPPSI-III. WPPSI-III includes tasks of language, nonverbal reasoning, concept development, and fine motor skills. Child assessment

Test-retest reliability ranges from 0.86 to 0.92; internal consistency ranges from 0.89 to 0.97

Primary

Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition (WPPSI-III), Language Score

Mean language score on the WPPSI-III. WPPSI-III includes tasks of language, nonverbal reasoning, concept development, and fine motor skills. Child assessment

Test-retest reliability ranges from 0.86 to 0.92; internal consistency ranges from 0.89 to 0.97

Primary

Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition (WPPSI-III), Performance Score

Mean performance score on the WPPSI-III. WPPSI-III includes tasks of language, nonverbal reasoning, concept development, and fine motor skills. Child assessment

Test-retest reliability ranges from 0.86 to 0.92; internal consistency ranges from 0.89 to 0.97

Primary

Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition (WPPSI-III), Verbal Score

Mean verbal score on the WPPSI-III. WPPSI-III includes tasks of language, nonverbal reasoning, concept development, and fine motor skills. Child assessment

Test-retest reliability ranges from 0.86 to 0.92; internal consistency ranges from 0.89 to 0.97

Primary
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Family Economic Self-Sufficiency

Outcomes Rated Moderate

MOM Program
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
Maternal level of education
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
33 months Philadelphia sample 271 mothers Mean = 12.20 Mean = 12.30 Mean difference = -0.10 HomeVEE calculated = -0.05 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Monthly income > 2500
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
33 months Philadelphia sample 271 mothers Percentage = 0.07 Mean % = 0.07 Percentage difference = 0.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote173

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Author calculated <em>p</em>-value for overall difference across income categories = 0.70

Monthly income: 1000
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
33 months Philadelphia sample 271 mothers Percentage = 0.21 Mean % = 0.19 Percentage difference = 0.02 HomeVEE calculated = 0.08 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote173

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Author calculated <em>p</em>-value for overall difference across income categories = 0.70

Monthly income: 1500
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
33 months Philadelphia sample 271 mothers Percentage = 0.21 Mean % = 0.17 Percentage difference = 0.04 HomeVEE calculated = 0.14 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote173

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Author calculated <em>p</em>-value for overall difference across income categories = 0.70

Monthly income: 2000
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
33 months Philadelphia sample 271 mothers Percentage = 0.07 Mean % = 0.11 Percentage difference = 0.04 HomeVEE calculated = 0.27 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote173

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Author calculated <em>p</em>-value for overall difference across income categories = 0.70

Monthly income: 250
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
33 months Philadelphia sample 271 mothers Percentage = 0.18 Mean % = 0.13 Percentage difference = 0.05 HomeVEE calculated = 0.24 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote173

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Author calculated <em>p</em>-value for overall difference across income categories = 0.70

Monthly income: 2500
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
33 months Philadelphia sample 271 mothers Percentage = 0.04 Mean % = 0.05 Percentage difference = 0.01 HomeVEE calculated = 0.11 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote173

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Author calculated <em>p</em>-value for overall difference across income categories = 0.70

Monthly income: 500
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
33 months Philadelphia sample 271 mothers Percentage = 0.23 Mean % = 0.29 Percentage difference = 0.06 HomeVEE calculated = 0.19 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote173

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Author calculated <em>p</em>-value for overall difference across income categories = 0.70

Number of months in school in past year
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
33 months Philadelphia sample 271 mothers Mean = 2.00 Mean = 1.40 Mean difference = 0.60 HomeVEE calculated = 0.19 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Number of months worked in past year
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
33 months Philadelphia sample 271 mothers Mean = 6.80 Mean = 7.10 Mean difference = -0.30 HomeVEE calculated = -0.06 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Number of moves in past 33 months
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
33 months Philadelphia sample 271 mothers Mean = 1.10 Mean = 1.10 Mean difference = 0.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Receipt of public assistance
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
33 months Philadelphia sample 271 mothers Percentage = 0.56 Mean % = 0.55 Percentage difference = 0.01 HomeVEE calculated = 0.03 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Use of homeless services
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
33 months Philadelphia sample 271 mothers Percentage = 0.10 Mean % = 0.06 Percentage difference = 0.04 HomeVEE calculated = 0.32 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote163

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Positive value is favorable to the comparison group.

,

footnote174

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

<abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr>-calculated p-value

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Maternal level of education

Mean years of maternal education Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Mean number of months caregiver was in school during the past year

Number of months in school in past year Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Mean number of months caregiver worked in the past year

Number of months worked in past year Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Mean number of times family moved in the past 33 months

Number of moves in past 33 months Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Mean years of maternal education

Maternal level of education Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Percentage of families that received public assistance

Receipt of public assistance Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Percentage of families that used homeless services

Use of homeless services Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Percentage of families with monthly income between $1,001 and $1,500

Monthly income: 1500 Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Percentage of families with monthly income between $1,501 and $2,000

Monthly income: 2000 Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Percentage of families with monthly income between $2,001 and $2,500

Monthly income: 2500 Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Percentage of families with monthly income between $251 and $500

Monthly income: 500 Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Percentage of families with monthly income between $501 and $1,000

Monthly income: 1000 Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Percentage of families with monthly income greater than $2,500

Monthly income > 2500 Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Percentage of families with monthly income of $250 or less

Monthly income: 250 Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
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Maternal Health

Outcomes Rated Moderate

MOM Program
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
BDI-II total scale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
33 months Philadelphia sample 269 mothers Mean = 12.20 Mean = 11.00 Mean difference = 1.20 HomeVEE calculated = 0.13 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Number of other children
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
33 months Philadelphia sample 271 mothers Mean = 1.40 Mean = 1.40 Mean difference = 0.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Number of other children
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
33 months Philadelphia sample 271 mothers Mean = 0.30 Mean = 0.30 Mean difference = 0.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Number of subsequent pregnancies
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
33 months Philadelphia sample 271 mothers Mean = 0.61 Mean = 0.60 Mean difference = 0.01 HomeVEE calculated = 0.01 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

No. of other children

Mean number of other children Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

No. of subsequent pregnancies

Mean number of subsequent pregnancies Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
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In Brief

Evidence of Model Effectiveness

This model does not meet the criteria established by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) for an “evidence-based early childhood home visiting service delivery model” for the general population or for tribal populations.

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Model Description

The MOM Program is designed to address gaps in the use of health and early intervention services for developmental issues for children under age 5, to improve their developmental and behavioral outcomes at kindergarten entry. The program targets low-income, postpartum mothers of healthy infants. Home visits, conducted by a nurse or community worker, typically last 15 minutes and are offered until children reach age 5. Until age 3, the program provides mothers with home visits and telephone reminders before planned well-child health care visits to prepare them for their appointments, telephone calls to follow up after their visits, and developmental screenings when children are 18 and 36 months old. Home visits conducted after age 3 focus on preschool and kindergarten enrollment and, when applicable, the transition from early intervention to special education services. For more information, please read the Model Overview.

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Extent of Evidence

Results of Research and Review
Number of studies
Eligible for review
1
Rated high
0
Rated moderate
1
Rated low
0
Additional source1
0

For more information, see the study database. For more information on the criteria used to determine the study ratings, please read Producing Study Ratings

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Summary of Findings

Please read Describing Effects for more information on these categories. Only results from studies that meet the standards for the high or moderate ratings are included above.

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Criteria Established by the Department of Health and Human Services

Information Based on Comprehensive Review of All High- and Moderate-Impact Studies for this Model
High- or moderate-quality impact study?
Yes
Across high- or moderate-quality studies, favorable impacts in at least two outcome domains within one sample OR the same domain for at least two non-overlapping samples?
No
Favorable impacts on full sample?
Yes
Any favorable impacts on outcome measures sustained at least 12 months after model enrollment?1
Yes
One or more favorable, statistically significant impact reported in a peer-reviewed journal?1
Yes

Please read the HHS Criteria for Evidence-Based Models for more information.

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