Healthy Families America (HFA)® Meets HHS Criteria

Last updated: 2020

Effects shown in research & outcome measure details

Reductions in juvenile delinquency, family violence, and crime

Findings rated high

Healthy Families America (HFA)®
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Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance
Family court
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, San Diego trial 422 families % = 11.00 % = 10.00 = 1.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.06 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Family court
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Year 3 Full sample, San Diego trial 382 families % = 10.00 % = 7.00 = 3.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.24 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Incident of physical assault, frequency (CTS)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, San Diego trial 422 families Mean = 24.70 Mean = 2.20 Mean difference = -0.20 HomeVEE calculated = -0.04 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Incident of physical assault, frequency (CTS)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Year 3 Full sample, San Diego trial 382 families Mean = 0.93 Mean = 0.87 Mean difference = 0.06 HomeVEE calculated = 0.02 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Incident of physical assault, prevalence (CTS)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, San Diego trial 422 families % = 36.00 % = 39.00 = -3.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.08 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Incident of physical assault, prevalence (CTS)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Year 3 Full sample, San Diego trial 382 families % = 18.00 % = 17.00 = 1.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.04 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Partner violence resulting in injury (CTS)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, San Diego trial 422 families % = 15.00 % = 15.00 = 1.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Partner violence resulting in injury (CTS)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Year 3 Full sample, San Diego trial 382 families % = 8.00 % = 6.00 = 2.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.19 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Restraining order
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, San Diego trial 422 families % = 7.00 % = 7.00 = 0.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Restraining order
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Year 3 Full sample, San Diego trial 382 families % = 6.00 % = 4.00 = 2.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.26 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
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CTS:

  • Partner violence resulting in injury
  • Incident of physical assault, prevalence
The CTS assesses victimization and perpetration related to intimate partner violence and maltreatment. The researchers examined the prevalence and the frequency of physical assault and partner violence that resulted in injury. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Family court

Percentage of program participants who had been connected to resources that helped them enter family court Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Restraining order

Percentage of program participants who had been connected to resources that helped them obtain a restraining order Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Healthy Families America (HFA)®
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Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
Maternal perpetration (CTS)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Average across 3 years of program Full sample, Hawaii trial 640 mothers Mean = 5.08 Mean = 7.72 IRR = 0.83 Not available Statistically significant,
p < 0.05

footnote60

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Actual p-value was not reported by the authors.

Maternal perpetration (CTS)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Average when child was 7-9 years old Full sample, Hawaii trial 640 mothers Mean = 2.45 Mean = 2.51 IRR = 0.98 Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Maternal victimization (CTS)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Average across 3 years of program Full sample, Hawaii trial 640 mothers Mean = 7.50 Mean = 9.55 IRR = 0.86 Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05

footnote59

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Incidence rate ratio is calculated using imputed data and adjusted for baseline covariates.

Maternal victimization (CTS)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Average when child was 7-9 years old Full sample, Hawaii trial 640 mothers Mean = 3.35 Mean = 4.01 IRR = 0.95 Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
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CTS: Maternal perpetration

The CTS assesses victimization and perpetration related to intimate partner violence and maltreatment. The researchers used the 38-item CTS1 at baseline and the 78-item revised CTS2 at subsequent follow-ups. The CTS2 includes questions on verbal aggression/abuse, physical assault, sexual coercion/abuse, and injury. The researchers transformed the CTS’s categorical response categories into counts: never (0), once (1), twice (2), 3 to 5 times (4), 6 to 10 times (8), 11 to 20 times (15), and more than 20 times (25). Parent/caregiver report

Cronbach’s α: verbal aggression and abuse (.79), physical assault (.86), sexual coercion and abuse (.87), and injury (.95),

CTS: Maternal victimization

The CTS assesses victimization and perpetration related to intimate partner violence and maltreatment. The researchers used the 38-item CTS1 at baseline and the 78-item revised CTS2 at subsequent follow-ups. The CTS2 includes questions on verbal aggression/abuse, physical assault, sexual coercion/abuse, and injury. The researchers transformed the CTS’s categorical response categories into counts: never (0), once (1), twice (2), 3 to 5 times (4), 6 to 10 times (8), 11 to 20 times (15), and more than 20 times (25). Parent/caregiver report

Cronbach’s α: verbal aggression and abuse (.79), physical assault (.86), sexual coercion and abuse (.87), and injury (.95),

Healthy Families America (HFA)®
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Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
Partner incident resulting in injury (CTS)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, Hawaii trial 564 mothers % = 24.00 % = 26.00 = -2.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.06 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Partner incident resulting in injury (CTS)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Year 2 Full sample, Hawaii trial 556 mothers % = 14.00 % = 20.00 = -6.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.26 Statistically significant, p < 0.05
Partner incident resulting in injury (CTS)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Year 3 Full sample, Hawaii trial 548 mothers % = 17.00 % = 18.00 = -1.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.04 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Partner incident resulting in injury (CTS)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Years 1-3 Full sample, Hawaii trial 564 mothers % = 24.00 % = 26.00 OR = 0.81 Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Partner physical abuse (CTS)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, Hawaii trial 564 mothers % = 37.00 % = 42.00 = -5.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.13 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Partner physical abuse (CTS)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Year 2 Full sample, Hawaii trial 556 mothers % = 26.00 % = 32.00 = -6.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.18 Statistically significant, p < 0.05
Partner physical abuse (CTS)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Year 3 Full sample, Hawaii trial 548 mothers % = 29.00 % = 30.00 = -1.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.03 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Partner physical abuse (CTS)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Years 1-3 Full sample, Hawaii trial 564 mothers % = 37.00 % = 42.00 OR = 0.83 Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Partner psychological abuse (CTS)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, Hawaii trial 564 mothers % = 49.00 % = 49.00 = 0.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Partner psychological abuse (CTS)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Year 2 Full sample, Hawaii trial 556 mothers % = 42.00 % = 42.00 = 0.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Partner psychological abuse (CTS)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Year 3 Full sample, Hawaii trial 548 mothers % = 42.00 % = 38.00 = -4.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.10 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Partner psychological abuse (CTS)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Years 1-3 Full sample, Hawaii trial 564 mothers % = 49.00 % = 49.00 OR = 1.05 Not available Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05

footnote51

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Adjusted odds ratios are based on the average effect across all follow-up years.

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CTS:

  • Partner psychological abuse
  • Partner physical abuse
  • Partner incident resulting in injury
The CTS assesses victimization and perpetration related to intimate partner violence and maltreatment. The researchers examined the prevalence of psychological abuse, physical abuse, and an incident of injury. The father was considered to be physically violent if he had committed three or more incidents of physical violence toward the mother in the year prior to the baseline interview and was psychologically aggressive if he had committed acts of psychological aggression more than 35 times in the year prior to the interview. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Findings rated moderate

Healthy Families America (HFA)®
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Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
Maternally reported father violence
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Years 1-3 All families 600 families Not available Not available OR = 0.78 HomeVEE calculated = -0.15 Not statistically significant, p = 0.12
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Maternally reported father violence

Physical violence towards mother three or more times in year before baseline interview, based on Conflict Tactics Scale. Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Healthy Families America (HFA)®
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Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance
Family violence
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
12 months Arizona sample 168 mothers Mean = 0.43 Mean = 0.52 Mean difference = -0.09 HomeVEE calculated = -1.12 Not statistically significant, p =0.37
Family violence
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6 months Arizona sample 180 mothers Mean = 0.51 Mean = 0.43 Mean difference = 0.08 HomeVEE calculated = 1.87 Not statistically significant, p =0.15
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Family violence

The authors used common indicators of violence to create a family violence index similar to the Conflict Tactics Scale. The index included items that describe violent behaviors in the home such as pushing and shoving, slapping, and throwing objects. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

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