Healthy Families America (HFA)® Meets HHS Criteria

Last updated: September 2018

Effects Shown in Research & Outcome Measure Details

Positive Parenting Practices

Outcomes Rated High

Healthy Families America (HFA)®
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Learning environment (HOME)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, Hawaii trial 564 mothers Mean = 35.20 Mean = 35.20 Mean difference = 0.00 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Learning environment (HOME)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 2 Full sample, Hawaii trial 567 mothers Mean = 34.60 Mean = 34.10 Mean difference = 0.50 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Mother-child interaction, Caregiver total score (NCAST)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, Hawaii trial 564 mothers Mean = 12.80 Mean = 12.70 Mean difference = 0.10 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Mother-child interaction, Caregiver total score (NCAST)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 2 Full sample, Hawaii trial 567 mothers Mean = 15.00 Mean = 14.60 Mean difference = 0.40 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Mother-child interaction, Child total score (NCAST)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, Hawaii trial 564 mothers Mean = 6.80 Mean = 6.50 Mean difference = 0.30 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Mother-child interaction, Child total score (NCAST)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 2 Full sample, Hawaii trial 567 mothers Mean = 7.20 Mean = 7.20 Mean difference = 0.00 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Parenting efficacy (PSOC)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, Hawaii trial 564 mothers Mean = 75.20 Mean = 74.40 Mean difference = 0.80 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parenting efficacy (PSOC)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 2 Full sample, Hawaii trial 567 mothers Mean = 76.10 Mean = 74.10 Not reported Not available Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

NCAST: Caregiver total score  NCAST: Child total score

The NCAST assesses the quality of teaching interaction between caregivers and young children. The researchers examined separate composite scores for both children and parents. Observation

Not reported by author

Primary

PSOC

The PSOC measures parent attitudes and self-efficacy. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary

HOME: Learning environment

The HOME assesses parenting practices and aspects of the home environment. Parent/caregiver interview and observational assessment

Not reported by author

Primary
Healthy Families America (HFA)®
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Maternal acceptance of child’s behavior (HOME)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, Hawaii trial 558 mothers Mean = 5.60 Mean = 5.70 Mean difference = -0.10 Not available Statistical significance not reported Primary
Maternal acceptance of child’s behavior (HOME)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 2 Full sample, Hawaii trial 549 mothers Mean = 5.40 Mean = 5.40 Mean difference = 0.00 Not available Statistical significance not reported Primary
Maternal acceptance of child’s behavior (HOME)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 3 Full sample, Hawaii trial 541 mothers Mean = 3.20 Mean = 3.00 Mean difference = 0.20 Not available Statistical significance not reported Primary
Maternal responsivity to child (HOME)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, Hawaii trial 558 mothers Mean = 9.30 Mean = 9.20 Mean difference = 0.10 Not available Statistical signifivance not reported Primary
Maternal responsivity to child (HOME)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 2 Full sample, Hawaii trial 549 mothers Mean = 9.30 Mean = 8.90 Mean difference = 0.40 Not available Statistical significance not reported Primary
Maternal responsivity to child (HOME)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 3 Full sample, Hawaii trial 541 mothers Mean = 4.80 Mean = 4.50 Mean difference = 0.30 Not available Statistical significance not reported Primary
Maternal responsivity to child (HOME)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Years 1-3 Full sample, Hawaii trial 558 mothers Not available Not available Mean difference = 0.18 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Nonviolent discipline, ever used in past year (CTS-PC)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, Hawaii trial 558 mothers % = 98.00 % = 99.00 = -1.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.43 Statistical significance not reported Secondary
Nonviolent discipline, ever used in past year (CTS-PC)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 2 Full sample, Hawaii trial 549 mothers % = 100.00 % = 100.00 = 0.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Statistical significance not reported Secondary
Nonviolent discipline, ever used in past year (CTS-PC)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 3 Full sample, Hawaii trial 541 mothers % = 100.00 % = 100.00 = 0.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Statistical significance not reported Secondary
Nonviolent discipline, times used in past year (CTS-PC)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, Hawaii trial 558 mothers Mean = 33.00 Mean = 30.90 Mean difference = 2.10 Not available Statistical significance not reported Secondary
Nonviolent discipline, times used in past year (CTS-PC)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 2 Full sample, Hawaii trial 549 mothers Mean = 45.70 Mean = 42.40 Mean difference = 3.30 Not available Statistical significance not reported Secondary
Nonviolent discipline, times used in past year (CTS-PC)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 3 Full sample, Hawaii trial 541 mothers Mean = 47.00 Mean = 46.10 Mean difference = 0.90 Not available Statistical significance not reported Secondary
Nonviolent discipline, times used in past year (CTS-PC)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Years 1-3 Full sample, Hawaii trial 558 mothers Not available Not available Mean difference = 1.80 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Timeouts, ever used in past week (CTS-PC)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, Hawaii trial 558 mothers % = 35.00 % = 36.00 = -1.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.03 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Timeouts, ever used in past week (CTS-PC)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 2 Full sample, Hawaii trial 549 mothers % = 62.00 % = 62.00 = 0.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Timeouts, ever used in past week (CTS-PC)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 3 Full sample, Hawaii trial 541 mothers % = 71.00 % = 67.00 = 4.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.11 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Timeouts, ever used in past week (CTS-PC)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Years 1-3 Full sample, Hawaii trial 558 mothers Not available Not available OR = 1.01 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Timeouts, times used in past year (CTS-PC)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, Hawaii trial 558 mothers Mean = 1.50 Mean = 1.10 Mean difference = 0.40 Not available Statistical significance not reported Secondary
Timeouts, times used in past year (CTS-PC)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 2 Full sample, Hawaii trial 549 mothers Mean = 2.90 Mean = 3.00 Mean difference = -0.10 Not available Statistical significance not reported Secondary
Timeouts, times used in past year (CTS-PC)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 3 Full sample, Hawaii trial 541 mothers Mean = 5.20 Mean = 5.40 Mean difference = -0.20 Not available Statistical significance not reported Secondary
Timeouts, times used in past year (CTS-PC)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Years 1-3 Full sample, Hawaii trial 558 mothers Not available Not available Mean difference = 0.10 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

CTS-PC: Nonviolent discipline

The CTS-PC assesses neglectful, psychologically aggressive, and abusive parenting behaviors and acts. The assessment is divided into six subscales, including a scale of nonviolent discipline Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary

CTS-PC: Timeouts

The CTS-PC assesses neglectful, psychologically aggressive, and abusive parenting behaviors and acts. The assessment is divided into six subscales, including a scale of nonviolent discipline. The assessment also asks how often parents used specific parenting behaviors, such as timeouts, in the recent past. The researchers examined both the prevalence and frequency (times used in the past week or past year) of timeouts and nonviolent discipline. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary

HOME: Acceptance of child’s behavior HOME: Responsivity

The HOME assesses parenting practices and aspects of the home environment. The HOME includes several subscales, including scales that describe the extent to which parents respond to their child’s behavior and parental acceptance of challenging child behaviors. Parent/caregiver interview and observational assessment

Not reported by author

Primary
Healthy Families America (HFA)®
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Mother relinquished role (child lived separately from mother for one month or more)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Years 1 and 2 Full sample, Alaska trial 322 families % = 18.00 % = 16.00 OR = 1.19 HomeVEE calculated = 0.09 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Mother relinquished role

Percentage of families in which the child lived separately from the mother for one month or more. Research staff determined whether separation cases were a relinquishment of parenting responsibilities, or a necessary separation to meet professional or family responsibilities. Parent/caregiver report and review of records

Not applicable

Secondary
Healthy Families America (HFA)®
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Mother-child interaction, Caregiver total score (NCAST)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, San Diego trial 435 mothers Mean = 37.10 Mean = 35.90 Mean difference = 1.20 HomeVEE calculated = 0.16 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Mother-child interaction, Caregiver total score (NCAST)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 3 Full sample, San Diego trial 412 mothers Mean = 40.30 Mean = 39.80 Mean difference = 0.50 HomeVEE calculated = 0.09 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Mother-child interaction, Child total score (NCAST)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, San Diego trial 435 mothers Mean = 17.30 Mean = 16.80 Mean difference = 0.50 HomeVEE calculated = 0.15 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Mother-child interaction, Child total score (NCAST)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 3 Full sample, San Diego trial 412 mothers Mean = 16.60 Mean = 16.40 Mean difference = 0.20 HomeVEE calculated = 0.05 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Nonviolent discipline (CTS-PC)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, San Diego trial 435 mothers % = 100.00 % = 99.50 = 0.50 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Nonviolent discipline (CTS-PC)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 3 Full sample, San Diego trial 412 mothers % = 95.50 % = 95.50 = 0.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Quality of home environment (HOME)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, San Diego trial 435 mothers Mean = 35.60 Mean = 35.20 Mean difference = 0.40 HomeVEE calculated = 0.06 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Quality of home environment (HOME)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 3 Full sample, San Diego trial 412 mothers Mean = 40.10 Mean = 40.10 Mean difference = 0.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

NCAST: Caregiver total score  NCAST: Child total score

The NCAST assesses the quality of teaching interaction between caregivers and young children. The researchers examined separate composite scores for both children and parents. Observation

Not reported by author

Primary

CTS-PC: Nonviolent discipline

The CTS-PC assesses neglectful, psychologically aggressive, and abusive parenting behaviors and acts. The assessment includes several subscales, including nonviolent discipline, which the researchers used to examine the prevalence of nonviolent discipline in the sample. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary

HOME: Total score

The HOME assesses parenting practices and aspects of the home environment. Parent/caregiver interview and observational assessment

Not reported by author

Primary
Healthy Families America (HFA)®
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Aggressive discipline
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Arizona sample 168 mothers Mean = 1.44 Mean = 1.83 Mean difference = -0.39 HomeVEE calculated = -2.43 Not statistically significant, p =0.10 Secondary
Belief in corporal punishment
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Arizona sample 180 mothers Mean = 2.25 Mean = 2.15 Mean difference = 0.10 HomeVEE calculated = 0.15 Not statistically significant, p =0.12 Primary
Belief in corporal punishment (AAPI-2)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Arizona sample 168 mothers Mean = 2.21 Mean = 2.23 Mean difference = -0.02 HomeVEE calculated = -0.03 Not statistically significant, p =0.63 Primary
Inappropriate expectations
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Arizona sample 180 mothers Mean = 3.05 Mean = 2.88 Mean difference = 0.17 HomeVEE calculated = 0.22 Not statistically significant, p =0.10 Primary
Inappropriate expectations (AAPI-2)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Arizona sample 168 mothers Mean = 2.77 Mean = 2.77 Mean difference = 0.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Not statistically significant, p =0.91 Primary
Lack of empathy
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Arizona sample 180 mothers Mean = 1.95 Mean = 1.94 Mean difference = 0.01 HomeVEE calculated = 0.02 Not statistically significant, p = 0.54 Primary
Lack of empathy (AAPI-2)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Arizona sample 168 mothers Mean = 1.80 Mean = 1.78 Mean difference = 0.02 HomeVEE calculated = 0.04 Not statistically significant, p =0.91 Primary
Mother's reading
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Arizona sample 168 mothers Mean = 2.26 Mean = 2.22 Mean difference = 0.04 HomeVEE calculated = 0.27 Not statistically significant, p =0.85 Primary
Mother's reading
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Arizona sample 180 mothers Mean = 2.46 Mean = 2.72 Mean difference = -0.26 HomeVEE calculated = -1.62 Not statistically significant, p =0.28 Primary
Never called name, cursed
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Arizona sample 168 mothers Mean % = 96.40 Mean % = 94.10 Mean difference = 2.30 HomeVEE calculated = 0.26 Not statistically significant, p =0.33 Secondary
Never hit elsewhere
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Arizona sample 168 mothers Mean % = 98.80 Mean % = 96.50 Mean difference = 2.30 HomeVEE calculated = 0.68 Not statistically significant, p =0.28 Secondary
Never pinched child
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Arizona sample 168 mothers Mean % = 98.80 Mean % = 94.10 Mean difference = 4.70 HomeVEE calculated = 1.12 Not statistically significant, p =0.15 Secondary
Never shouted, yelled at child
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Arizona sample 168 mothers Mean % = 50.60 Mean % = 34.10 Mean difference = 16.50 HomeVEE calculated = 0.43 Statistically significant, p =0.02 Secondary
Never slapped hand
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Arizona sample 168 mothers Mean % = 56.60 Mean % = 38.80 Mean difference = 17.80 HomeVEE calculated = 0.42 Statistically significant, p =0.03 Secondary
Never slapped on face
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Arizona sample 168 mothers Mean % = 100.00 Mean % = 97.60 Mean difference = 2.40 Not available Not statistically significant, p =0.99 Secondary
Never smacked/threatened, hit
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Arizona sample 168 mothers Mean % = 69.50 Mean % = 63.50 Mean difference = 6.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.16 Not statistically significant, p =0.30 Secondary
Never spanked
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Arizona sample 168 mothers Mean % = 71.10 Mean % = 65.80 Mean difference = 5.30 HomeVEE calculated = 0.14 Not statistically significant, p =0.19 Secondary
Never threw object at child
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Arizona sample 168 mothers Mean % = 100.00 Mean % = 98.80 Mean difference = 1.20 Not available Not statistically significant, p =0.32 Secondary
Oppressing child's independence
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Arizona sample 168 mothers Mean = Mean = 3.32 Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p =0.68 Primary
Oppressing child's independence (AAPI-2)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Arizona sample 180 mothers Mean = 3.62 Mean = 3.58 Mean difference = 0.04 HomeVEE calculated = 0.10 Not statistically significant, p =0.06 Primary
Reversing roles
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Arizona sample 180 mothers Mean = 2.60 Mean = 2.47 Mean difference = 0.13 HomeVEE calculated = 0.17 Not statistically significant, p =0.32 Primary
Reversing roles (AAPI-2)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Arizona sample 168 mothers Mean = Mean = 2.25 Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p =0.33 Primary
Safety practices
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Arizona sample 168 mothers Mean = 17.96 Mean = 17.07 Mean difference = 0.89 HomeVEE calculated = 1.17 Not statistically significant, p =0.42 Primary
Safety practices
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Arizona sample 180 mothers Mean = 17.95 Mean = 16.05 Mean difference = 1.90 HomeVEE calculated = 3.00 Statistically significant, p = 0.04 Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Aggressive discipline

The authors developed a modified version of the Revised Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale that used the most serious indicators of abusive and neglectful behavior. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Primary

Beliefin corporal punishment (AAPI-2)

The Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory-2 (AAPI-2)was used to assess the child rearing attitudes of parents. The AAPI-2 includes five subscales: inappropriate expectations, parental lack of empathy, parental belief in corporal punishment, reversing parent-child family roles, and oppressing children’s power and independence. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Primary

Inappropriate expectations (AAPI-2)

The Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory-2 (AAPI-2)was used to assess the child rearing attitudes of parents. The AAPI-2 includes five subscales: inappropriate expectations, parental lack of empathy, parental belief in corporal punishment, reversing parent-child family roles, and oppressing children’s power and independence. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Primary

Lack of empathy (AAPI-2)

The Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory-2 (AAPI-2)was used to assess the child rearing attitudes of parents. The AAPI-2 includes five subscales: inappropriate expectations, parental lack of empathy, parental belief in corporal punishment, reversing parent-child family roles, and oppressing children’s power and independence. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Primary

Mother's reading

An estimate of the time spent reading to the child on a weekly basis Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Primary

Never called name, cursed

The authors developed a modified version of the Revised Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale that used the most serious indicators of abusive and neglectful behavior. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary

Never hit elsewhere

The authors developed a modified version of the Revised Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale that used the most serious indicators of abusive and neglectful behavior. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary

Never pinched child

The authors developed a modified version of the Revised Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale that used the most serious indicators of abusive and neglectful behavior. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary

Never shouted, yelled at child

The authors developed a modified version of the Revised Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale that used the most serious indicators of abusive and neglectful behavior. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary

Never slapped hand

The authors developed a modified version of the Revised Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale that used the most serious indicators of abusive and neglectful behavior. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary

Never slapped on face

The authors developed a modified version of the Revised Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale that used the most serious indicators of abusive and neglectful behavior. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary

Never smacked/threatened, hit

The authors developed a modified version of the Revised Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale that used the most serious indicators of abusive and neglectful behavior. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary

Never spanked

The authors developed a modified version of the Revised Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale that used the most serious indicators of abusive and neglectful behavior. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary

Never threw object at child

The authors developed a modified version of the Revised Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale that used the most serious indicators of abusive and neglectful behavior. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary

Oppressing child's independence (AAPI-2)

The Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory-2 (AAPI-2)was used to assess the child rearing attitudes of parents. The AAPI-2 includes five subscales: inappropriate expectations, parental lack of empathy, parental belief in corporal punishment, reversing parent-child family roles, and oppressing children’s power and independence. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Primary

Reversing roles (AAPI-2)

The Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory-2 (AAPI-2)was used to assess the child rearing attitudes of parents. The AAPI-2 includes five subscales: inappropriate expectations, parental lack of empathy, parental belief in corporal punishment, reversing parent-child family roles, and oppressing children’s power and independence. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Primary

Safety practices

A safety practices index included a list of items that were validated as true or false such as parent has a car seat, poisons are not within child’s reach, and similar indicators.  Observation

Not reported by author

Primary

Outcomes Rated Moderate

Healthy Families America (HFA)®
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Caregiver contingency score (NCAST)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 2 Biological mothers with custody of index child at interview, Alaska trial 249 mothers Adjusted mean = 15.40 Adjusted mean = 15.00 Mean difference = 0.40 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Cognitive growth fostering (NCAST)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 2 Biological mothers with custody of index child at interview, Alaska trial 249 mothers Adjusted mean = 11.80 Adjusted mean = 11.90 Mean difference = -0.10 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Infant caregiving (AAPI)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 2 Biological mothers with custody of index child at interview, Alaska trial 249 mothers Adjusted mean = 112.10 Adjusted mean = 109.50 Mean difference = 2.60 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Maternal self-efficacy (Teti scale)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 2 Biological mothers with custody of index child at interview, Alaska trial 249 mothers Adjusted mean = 35.10 Adjusted mean = 34.60 Mean difference = 0.50 Not available Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Secondary
Parenting attitudes (AAPI)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 2 Biological mothers with custody of index child at interview, Alaska trial 249 mothers Adjusted mean = 130.00 Adjusted mean = 125.60 Mean difference = 4.50 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Parenting knowledge (KIDI)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 2 Biological mothers with custody of index child at interview, Alaska trial 249 mothers Adjusted mean = 73.50 Adjusted mean = 70.70 Mean difference = 2.80 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Quality of home environment (HOME)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 2 Biological mothers with custody of index child at interview, Alaska trial 249 mothers Adjusted mean = 36.70 Adjusted mean = 35.90 Mean difference = 0.80 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Recognition of child developmental delay
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 2 Biological mothers with custody of index child at interview, Alaska trial 249 mothers % = 20.00 % = 24.00 Not reported HomeVEE calculated = -0.14 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Response to distress (NCAST)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 2 Biological mothers with custody of index child at interview, Alaska trial 249 mothers Adjusted mean = 9.20 Adjusted mean = 8.90 Mean difference = 0.30 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Sensitivity to cues (NCAST)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 2 Biological mothers with custody of index child at interview, Alaska trial 249 mothers Adjusted mean = 9.40 Adjusted mean = 9.20 Mean difference = 0.20 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Social-emotional growth fostering (NCAST)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 2 Biological mothers with custody of index child at interview, Alaska trial 249 mothers Adjusted mean = 9.00 Adjusted mean = 8.80 Mean difference = 0.20 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Use of mild physical strategies, frequency (CTS-PC)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 2 Biological mothers with custody of index child at interview, Alaska trial 249 mothers Adjusted mean = 4.00 Adjusted mean = 4.60 Mean difference = -0.50 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Use of nonviolent disciplinary strategies, frequency (CTS-PC)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 2 Biological mothers with custody of index child at interview, Alaska trial 249 mothers Adjusted mean = 50.40 Adjusted mean = 50.50 Mean difference = -0.05 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

KIDI

The KIDI measures the parent’s knowledge of childrearing practices and developmental processes. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary

NCAST:

  • Caregiver total score
  • Sensitivity to cues
  • Response to distress
  • Social-emotional growth fostering
  • Cognitive growth fostering
The NCAST assesses the quality of teaching interaction between caregivers and young children. The researchers used the composite caregiver score and caregiver subscales related to sensitivity to cues from the child, response to the child’s distress, and fostering of social-emotional and cognitive development. The caregiver subscales and total scores were analyzed as continuous. The researchers also used a binary measure where those with total scores less than or equal to 35 were defined as having poor interaction. Observation

Not reported by author

Primary

AAPI: Infant Caregiving Inventory

The AAPI assesses parenting and childrearing attitudes. In addition to the total score, the Infant Caregiving Inventory was used to examine caregiver beliefs and understanding of the influences of infant, caregiving practices on child and parental well-being. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Primary

AAPI: Parenting attitudes

The AAPI assesses parenting and childrearing attitudes. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Primary

CTS-PC: Use of nonviolent disciplinary strategies CTS-PC: Use of mild physical strategies

The CTS-PC assesses neglectful, psychologically aggressive, and abusive parenting behaviors and acts. The researchers analyzed the frequency with which nonviolent discipline strategies and mild physical strategies were used. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary

HOME: Total score

The HOME assesses parenting practices and aspects of the home environment. Parent/caregiver interview and observational assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

Recognition of child developmental delay

A measure comparing the child’s development with that of most other children. For children assessed as developmentally delayed, recognition of delay occurred if the parent responded that their child, was developing slower than other children. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary

Teti Maternal Self-efficacy Scale

The Teti Maternal Self-efficacy Scale assesses self-evaluated parenting competence and effectiveness. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary
Healthy Families America (HFA)®
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Attitudes toward corporal punishment (AAPI)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 2 Biological mothers with custody of index child at follow-up, Alaska trial 246 mothers Adjusted mean = 20.50 Adjusted mean = 10.10 Mean difference = 0.38 Not available Not Statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Poor caregiver interaction, (NCAST score = 35)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 2 Biological mothers with custody of index child at follow-up, Alaska trial 246 mothers % = 17.00 % = 21.00 OR = 0.79 HomeVEE calculated = -0.16 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Poor quality home environment (HOME score = 33)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 2 Biological mothers with custody of index child at follow-up, Alaska trial 246 mothers % = 20.00 % = 31.00 OR = 0.51 HomeVEE calculated = -0.36 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Primary
Total AAPI score
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 2 Biological mothers with custody of index child at follow-up, Alaska trial 246 mothers Adjusted mean = 130.00 Adjusted mean = 125.60 Mean difference = 4.47 Not available Not Statistically significant,
p >: 0.05
Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

NCAST: Poor caregiver interaction

The NCAST assesses the quality of teaching interaction between caregivers and young children. The researchers define poor caregiver interaction as a composite NCAST caregiver score below or equal to 35. Observation

Not reported by author

Primary

AAPI: Attitudes toward corporal punishment  AAPI: Total score

The AAPI assesses parenting and childrearing attitudes. The researchers examined both the AAPI total score and a subscale of the Discipline Questionnaire that measured attitudes about the effectiveness of physical punishment. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Primary

HOME: Poor-quality HOME environment (HOME score = 33)

The HOME assesses parenting practices and aspects of the home environment. The researchers defined poor-quality home environment as a HOME total score below or equal to 33. Parent/caregiver interview and observational assessment

Not reported by author

Primary
Healthy Families America (HFA)®
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Change in father’s engagement score
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Years 1-3 All families 600 families Not available Not available OR = 0.20 HomeVEE calculated = -0.97 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Change in father’s responsibility score
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Years 1-3 All families 600 families Not available Not available OR = 0.00 Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Father has daily contact with child
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Years 1-3 All families 600 families Not available Not available OR = 1.12 HomeVEE calculated = 0.07 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Change in father’s engagement score

A measure based on mother report of how often the father performed five tasks: (1) changing diapers/toilet training, (2) feeding the child, (3) comforting the child, (4) playing with the child, and (5) teaching the child new things. Scores for each item ranged from 0 to 4, with 4 representing the greatest engagement. Parent/caregiver report

Cronbach’s a = 0.86

Secondary

Change in father’s responsibility score

A measure of the share of responsibility that the father took for the child’s welfare. Mothers reported how the parents shared responsibility in assuring that (1) the child had an appropriate diet, (2) the child was learning and developing appropriately, (3) the child always had a trustworthy caregiver, and (4) the house was safe to prevent injury to the child. Scores for each item ranged from 0 to 4, with 4 representing the greatest level of father responsibility. Parent/caregiver report

Cronbach’s a = 0.89

Secondary

Father has daily contact with child

Percentage of fathers who had daily contact with the child, as reported by mothers. Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Healthy Families America (HFA)®
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
Adult Adolescent Parenting Inventory Corporal Punishment Subscale (AAPI-CP) Score - full sample
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Child's 1st birthday HF Oregon 2010-2012 763 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.89 Adjusted mean = 1.97 Mean difference = -0.08 HomeVEE calculated = -0.10 Not statistically significant, p>0.05 Primary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Number of times in last month parent read to child - full sample
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Child's 1st birthday HF Oregon 2010-2012 764 mothers Adjusted mean = 4.74 Adjusted mean = 4.43 Mean difference = 0.31 HomeVEE calculated = 0.26 Statistically significant, p = 0.00 Secondary
Parent-Child Activities Scale (PCAS) score - full sample
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Child's 1st birthday HF Oregon 2010-2012 764 mothers Adjusted mean = 4.84 Adjusted mean = 4.73 Mean difference = 0.11 HomeVEE calculated = 0.15 Statistically significant, p = 0.02 Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Adult Adolescent Parenting Inventory Corporal Punishment Subscale (AAPI-CP) Score - full sample

The Adult Adolescent Parenting Inventory-Corporal Punishment Subscale assesses parenting and childrearing attitudes on discipline. Parent/caregiver report

Crohnbach's alpha = .77

Primary

Number of times in last month parent read to child - full sample

This survey item asks for the number of times in the last month that the parent read to child. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary

Parent-Child Activities Scale (PCAS) score - full sample

The Parent-Child Activities Scale assesses the frequency with which the parent engaged in several activities with the child that can stimulate cognitive and language development, including reading or telling stories, dancing, singing, and playing outside together. Parent/caregiver report

Crohnbach's alpha = .678

Primary
Healthy Families America (HFA)®
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Attitudes: Empathy (AAPI-2)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, NY trial 1060 mothers Adjusted mean = 37.12 Adjusted mean = 36.64 Mean difference = 0.48 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Attitudes: Inappropriate expectations (AAPI-2)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, NY trial 1060 mothers Adjusted mean = 19.11 Adjusted mean = 18.83 Mean difference = 0.28 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Attitudes: Physical punishment (AAPI-2)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, NY trial 1060 mothers Adjusted mean = 38.43 Adjusted mean = 38.01 Mean difference = 0.42 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Attitudes: Power/independence (AAPI-2)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, NY trial 1060 mothers Adjusted mean = 19.39 Adjusted mean = 19.40 Mean difference = -0.01 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Attitudes: Role reversal (AAPI-2)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, NY trial 1060 mothers Adjusted mean = 23.59 Adjusted mean = 23.24 Mean difference = 0.35 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Child safety checklist
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, NY trial 1060 mothers % = 86.10 % = 85.90 Not reported Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

AAPI-2: Physical punishment, Inappropriate expectations, Empathy, Role reversal, Power and independence

The AAPI-2 assesses parenting and childrearing attitudes. The researchers examined five subscales: inappropriate expectations, empathy, corporal punishment, role reversal, power, and independence Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Primary

Child Safety Checklist (CSC)

The CSC assesses parental safety practices. Parents were asked how regularly they engaged in 23 child safety behaviors in the past year. Response choices included some of the time, none of the time, or all of the time. The authors analyzed the percentage of practices that parents reported doing all of the time. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary
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